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%lank BooW Manulaclurers. 

Vol. X.— No. 2. 

Entered according 

Waehinolon, D. C. 

Writing Lesson. 

By D. H. Faiiley. State Normal and 

Model Schools, Trenton, N. J. 

CormiouTED, 188*5, bt D, H. Fablbt. 


Let me say at the outset that it is not my 
purpose, in this talk, to discuss the utility 
of writing to mankind in their business or 
social relations, or the great blessings and 
happiness derived from penmanship, which 
seem to me apparent to all. Neither is it 
my intention to weary you with a history of 
the origin of the subject itself, or to try to 
settle the respective claims of different 
authors. I leave that for wiser heads and 
to those who have more "philosophy," 
time and words, than I, for discussing them. 
There is one impression, however, which 
some are trying to convey, which should be 
corrected, and that is, that the muscular 
and combined movements arc of recent 
origin. One goes to one extreme in con- 
demning the teacher who uses or teaches 
the wholearm movement at all, and another 
rushes to the other extreme with his con- 
demnation (sometimes abuse) of the teacher 
who teaches or uses the finger movement. 
But more remarkable than those are the 
teachers who put forward the idea that the 
mu-scular and combined movements are 
something new, and are the only movements 
which should be used or taught at all. 
Right here, let me correct the impression 
that it is new. by saying this discovery was 
made by Joseph Carstaire. of England, as far 
back as 18 1 4, and it has always been one of the 
distinguishing features of the Spencerian 
system. It is my opinion that all of the best 
penmen of America use a^of the above move- 
ments, and that those succeed best in teaching 
who know when and how to use them. All 
must admit that the union of the muscular, 
sliding and finger movements is the best 
adapted for correspondence and ordinary 
business purposes, but there are times and 
places when the other movements can be 
used to advantage. If you are teaching 
young children detinile form, it is only 
reasonable in you to give them the privilege 
of using any movement they like if they 
will produce the form, but insist upon cor- 
rect penholding and position at the desk. 
Say little about finger movement, and talk 
more of freedom of movement, which pro- 
duces pleasing lines. As a matter of fact, 
tlu' linger movement is the only one which 
it is possible for a child to control with 
precision. If we e-xpect children to begin and 
finish at definite points and to make correct 
forms, we should be willing to let them iwe 
that movement which it is possible for them 
to govern with accuracy. Do not expect a 
child to do a grown person's work. At the 
same time the other movements can be 
profitably employed by children in the prac- 
tice of the movement exercises, where they 
are not expected to make definite form. 
Either the muscular or the combined move- 
ment, especially the latter, is the movement 
of all movements for more advanced pupils 
to practice, and it should receive a large 
share of the teacher's attention. 

The wholearm movement is the movement 
for large capitals and combinations of cap- 
ihils and ornamental work, but the young 
should practice this movement only as a 
stepping-stone, as it were, to develop 
that free action of the arm which will 
sometimes lead the pupil to make a 

beautiful line which before seemed to him 
an impossibility ; this will encourage him 
to renewed zeal and action. In other words, 
it should be used as a means and not as an 
end. Its excessive use is apt to inflate the 
pupil with the idea that, because he is 
able to dash off a few graceful lines with 
this movement, he has nothing more to 
learn ; but this is a mistake ; it is only the 
beginning of skill in writing. This move- 
ment should be taught, but with a great 
deal of discretion. 

Again, if there is one thing of more im- 
portance to the teacher than another it is 
confidence in his own ability to guide those 
under his instruction. Therefore, it is ne- 
cessary for him to be well qualified for the 
work, in being able to give definite word 
pictures of everything which is to be done 
by the pupil. The theory of standard pen- 
manship is so limited that there is no excuse 
for a teacher not being theoretically perfect 
(if there is such a thing). Right here, to 
make it practical, let me ask you to stop 
and think for a moment. How many could 
step before a large class and give a well de- 
fined ideal of how a pupil should sit at the 
desk, or how he should hold the pen, and 
define the different movements, and analyze 
the forms of all the small and capital 
letters, etc. ? How many could point 
out, or sift out, the essentials from the 
non-essentials ? The ability to select the 
former is of as much importance as the 
capacity to detect the latter. A teacher 
should also possess a fair degree of skill in 
executing well upon paper and blackboard, 
as there is nothing which will more quickly 
awaken in a pupil's mind a desire to excel, 
than to sec a letter or exercise skillfully 

The theory of writing and how it should 
be taught, can be acquired by study, but 
skill can only be gained by properly directed 
practice, or by repetition of the act. 

The power to hold the attention of a class, 
as a unit, upon any given topic a full lesson, 
however simple the topic may be, is one of 
the best tests of a good teacher. 

Teachers, as a rule, talk too much. Do 
not tell your pupils what they themselves 
can find out, if you do, you will be obliged 
to do it again with no better results, lead 
them to make rules, teach them to compare 
theirs' with yours, if theirs'are the better of 
the two. admit it, if not, use tact to convince 
them that yours are the better. It is pre- 
ferable, a.s a rule, not to set yourself up as 
authority ; use some recognized authority 
as you would in the pronunciation of a 

Be in earnest, hut be patient with those 
who say " Can't" at every failure ; impress 
upon their minds that they must expect 
many failures, and that persistant effort is 
the price of success. Show them by ex- 
ample bow to practice, and tell them of 
your many failures when you commenced. 
Compliment your pupils upon something 
and criticise them upon essential errors, but 
do notcriticise too much upon non-essentials. 

Teach one thing at a time, and that one 
thing thoroughly; if it is form expect to 

pect to sacrifice form at first. When you 
have taught your pupils to combine the two 
you have done all that can be reasonably 
expected of any teacher. 

It requires a good teacher to teach a poor 
pupil, a good pupil will improve with a 

poor teacher. Your aim should be to bring 
your class up to a high average as a whole, 
and in order to accomplish this it is neces- 
sary to work hardest at the poor end of the 
class; in other words, help those who need 
it most with personal attention if possible, 
and use the blackboard liberally in illustrat- 
ing correct forms and prevailing errors. 
Implant in their minds " I will " instead of 
"I can't." If you succeed in doing this 
you have accomplished more than one-half 
of what you have set out to do. 

While I believe in copy-books in public 
schools, in the hands of competent teachers, 
I also believe they are abused as much as 
used by the average teacher. One of the 
great difliculties which beset many of our 
teachers, especially in our public schools, 
is, that they are not willing to pay the price 
of success, that is, they do not think it of 
enough importance to warrant that amount 
of study, care and practice which the sub- 
ject demands. In order to teach another 
what he should do and how he should do it, 
it is necessary first to be able to give a 
definite word picture of the form to be 
made ; and second, to have the ability or 
skill to execute it well ourselves, especially 
upon the blackboard. Skill is the expres- 
sion of thought and feeling, and is acquired 
by (hing. Work of the head, and skill of 
the hand should be joined together. 

Any teacher who puts forward the claim 
that he can teach a pupil in a few short 
lessons what it has taken himself many 
years to acquire, or can teach the whole 
alphabet while another is teaching one let- 
letter, is, to say the least, a very poor stu- 
dent of the human mind. The most com- 
plicated standard small letter by the Spen- 
cerian system can be definitely explained in 
thirty seconds, but that is too short a time 
for the average pupil to comprehend it. 
If that is a fact, how could twenty-six 
letters be taught in less time ? Knowledge 
which is forced into the mind at that rate 
will not be retained much longer than the 
time in which it was gained. Teachers, be 
reasonable with your pupils, and do not 
claim to accomplish impossibilities, as it is 
sure to result in lasting injury to them. We 
are too apt to assume that pupils can think 
as fast as we can talk, remember we have 
become familiar with the subject by repe- 
tition, but our beginning was comparatively 
slow. Get down on a level with the pupil, 
and adapt yourself and your instruction to 
the mind you are to lead. The best teach- 
ing is that which produces the best results, 
and the best results are obtained from that 
definite instmction which makes it so plain 
to the pupil's mind that the thought seems 
his own, and the teacher skillfully execut- 
ing the thought upon the blackboard, in- 
spires the pupil with the desire to try to do 

Be definite in your instruction. Indefinite 
instruction produces indefinite results ; in 
other words, do not expect your pupils to 
make something out of nothing. If they 
aim at nothing, they will hit nothing. 

It is a good plan, in review or examina- 
tion, to require the pupil to write, from 
dictation, one letter or word, as the case 
may be, after which the teacher will write 
the same thing upon the blackboard, pupil 
to compare his with leacher'a and to try 
again with the understanding that he is to 
underline the better one of the two, which 
he has written. Teacher to dichite another 

and write upon the blackboard, as before, 
until the ground which the pupil has been 
over is covered. Review often. 

It is also a very good plan to have the 
pupil writ* some definite copy with instruc- 
tion to exchange it with his next neighbor, 
to mark with a small cross all the essential 
errors, to write a better specimen under it 
and return it to its owner that he may try 
again. Do not forget that the movement 
which produced the specimen should be 
complimented or criticised just as much as 
the form. 

Tench pupils to criticise their own writ- 
ing, and there is no quicker way of leading 
them to see their own work as others see it, 
than by requesting them to exchange work 
as above. And it is also a very interesting 
exercise, especially to the pupils to call upon 
one or more to criticise teacher's work upon 
the blackboard. Says Paige, "It is not 
respectable for the teacher of the young to 
be a bad writer ; nor can it ever become so." 

"Confidence is the companion of suc- 
cess." The mere fact of your placing your- 
self under the instruction of a teacher is an 
acknowledgment that your have confidence 
in his ability to guide you in whatever you 
are about to undertake. " Do not think too 
highly of vourself," but be in earnest and 
willing to be directed in whatever you do 
that you may do the right thing in the 
right way. ' Be systematic ; if you are in- 
structed to do what to you seems a very 
simple thing, do it cheerfully and as well 
as it is possible, and if you do not at first 
succeed, remember there is but one way by 
which it is possible for you to accomplish 
it. and that can be summed up in three 
words— well directed i-epetition. Some will 
accomplish more in repeating an act ten 
times than others will in a iiuiidrcd, Imt the 
one who has the "siick-to-it-iveness" to 
repeat the act a hundred times, is, as a rule, 
the one who succeeds best. It is not an 
uncommon thing to see the very poorest 
writer at the beginning become the very 
best at the end. 

Some rely too much upon teachers, and 
by so doing fail in accomplishing the good 
handwriting which they set out to attaha. 
Do not be so unwise. Be self-reliant and 
independent. Constant and thoughtful 
repetition should be your motto. 

Put yourself in harmony with your teach- 
er's wishes by giving undivided attention to 
every word of his instruction, and putting 
it into execution with unremitting care and 

There is nothing more gratifying to a 
teacher than to know, by your actions, that 
you are in harmony with his thoughts, and 
are receiving bis instruction in the spirit in 
which it is given. 

When you set out on the right road to 
gain any objective thing, and you are in- 
dustriously working to accomplish it you 
are sure of success, but, on the other hand, 
if you are found idle or waiting to be told 
what to do, or where to go, you thereby 
furnish the strongest evidence that you are 
not in harmony with your work or with 
your teacher. Remember your teacher can- 
not think, see, or act for you, if he can 
cause vou to do those things he has done 
his share of the work. Let it be your con- 
stant aim to acquire a skillful handwriting, 
remembering there must be many failures 
at first, but by repetition it is possible for 



you to accomplish the same degree of skill 
which many others have gained with no 
more talent or hetter arm and hand than 

Dismiss from your minds the though* 
that there is such a thing as a genius in 
writing. Says one writer, "Genius is a 
faculty for hard work. Men of the most 
distinguished genius have invnriahly been 
the most indefatigable workers. BuflFon 
said of genius, "It is patience," Garfield 
said, " If the power to do hard work is not 
talent, it is the best possible substitute for 
it." Says Frank Beard, " I conscientiously 
believe that there is more really accomplish 
ed in this chaotic world of ours by sound 
common sense and perseverance than by 
genius. Genius is not necessary to success." 

There is nothing in writing which is so 
little understood by the beginner as correct 
penholding, finger and arm rests, and the 
different movements, and it is my purpose 
in this progressive drawing lesson to de- 
velop a plan which, if properly used, will 
show definite and lasting results. I do not 
pretend to say that every one who follows 
this lesson will be able to draw a picture 
worthy of a frame, or always to hold the 
pen correctly, or to place the arm in that 
position which will give the greatest power 
to the muscles in writing. Forming new 
habits or breaking up old ones is another 
thing ; either is a matter of will power and 
perseverance. But I do claim that if the 
pupil will give his undivided attention (every 
teacher should demand that), and do what 
is required of him in this lesson, that 
is. muke tM hand work in unison with On 
(Aowf/Ai, he will -have a definite ideal — tlif 
mind's eye can see it — of the position of the 
penholder, forefinger, thumb, second, third 
and fourth fingers, also of finger and arm 
rests, muscular, and union of the muscular, 
sliding and finger movements. 

This exercise is not only a very profitable 
one, but it is exceedingly interesting, both 
to pupil and teacher. "Chalk and talk," 
in my opinion is the way of leaching this 
subject to large classes of any grade. The 
teacher who cannot, at first, draw this very 
simple outline lesson upon the blackboard 
in a creditable manner should practice it 
until he can, as there is nothing he can do 
which will show greater returns for lime 
and patience spent than that gain which will 
enable him to illustrate well and with con- 
fidence upon the board. The live chalk lines 
are much better than the cold printed ones 
to draw from, especially if the teacher will 
stand in that position which will enable the 
pupil to aee the chalk Una as they arc mnde, 
and I think that any reasonable person will 
be convinced, when seeing a class exercise 
of this kind of work placed upon the board, 
that the correct position for the teacher is 
with the right side toward the blackboard ; 
thus giving the class a full view of the 
execulion— and I also belic\e this is the best 
position when the form of a small or capital 
letter, word or short sentence is being 
taught and written upon the blackboard 
But for ^vntmg a long sentence etc the 
standard position facing the blackboaid I 
am also convinced is tht better \^ ay of the 

Lcl all pupils uho follow this lesson 
assume that they know nothing about the 
subject, then there is a chance for them to 
learn something. 

The teacher will now step to the black- 
board and draw a large square, which he 
will divide into small ones with dotted lines, 
as seen in illustration below, and i he pupil 
will do the same thing upon paper. 

I . Draw penholder from corner to corner, 
leaving a space at bottom, as indicated in 
small squares, for the end of forefinger and 

0. Make more dotted siiuuies as seen 
at right of center. Draw forefinger, be- 
ginning at top. being governed by the 
dotted lines, and then draw the thumb, 
beginning at the nail. 

3 Draw second tinger at riiiht of 
penholder so it will pass the holder at 
root of the finger nail. 

4. Draw third and fourth fingers 
as shown in single small square, and 
separate them from the others at Jirst 
joint of second finger instead of second 


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;>. Add two large squares 
to the right and draw cuff, 
sleeve, and arm show- 
ing the muscular i 
TT- the last with dotted li 

the two large 

0. T(i illustrate the dif- 
ferent movements, draw 
the curved lines which 
— -T show the natural 

. of the arm, and the line 
which shows the sliding 
of the hand upon the end 

To gain and 
tention and to i 
thusiasm, which, by the 
way, is one of the secrets 
writing should be taught 
by topics, and trying too 
many at a time is one 
of the causes of so many 
failures with inexperi- 
enced teachers. 

There is no one thing 
vhich adds 

clean. lively appearance 
of a written page than 
that sensitive touch of 
the pen which 
shaded strokes, especially 
in /, rf audp ; and, on the 
other hand, there is noth- 
ing which detracts 
from this appearance than 
poor shading. 

Some claim that the 
contraction of the muscles 
of the fingers in making 
shaded lines retards the 
and exhausts the 
power. But this is against my experience 
and observation. I claim that the i 
following the shaded stroke is made with a 
greater degree of freedom and power than 
the stroke preceding it, and that the \ 
has a more perfect command of the hand 
and arm ; this transition gives a change and 
rest from that monotonous touch of the pen; 
it develops that something called individual- 
ity, and the power gained by that quick, 
firm touch is much greater than the loss 
from the stop or 

beginning and ending of a shaded stroke. 
I believe in educating, 
hand and forefinger to tiiat motion and 
touch which seem to convey to the mind 
more than language could do. It should 


I2th. 1, Movement exercises ; 2, Business 
forms— note, draft, receipt and due bill. 

13th. 1, Movement exercises ; 3, A busi- 
ness or social letter ; 8, Superscription of 
an envelope. 

be made a frequent exercise with all grades, 
and should be used at such times as good 
judgment would seem to suggest. Remem- 
ber it can be abused, but if used wiih dis- 
cretion it will be found to create enthusiasm 
(which lightens labor), and to concenlrate 
thought and action; it will also result in 
great benefit to the pupil. Hence the im- 
portance of this topic- Good shading is 
firm, smooth, uniform in slant, height and 
strength, and not too heavy. 

For class drill, or home practice, the fol- 
lowing shaded exercises (those upon top 
line by count, thus: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and repeat), 
with muscular or combined movements are 

It is a good plan to consider every learner 
an investigator, that is, be is first to find 
out, with his eyes, what to make, and with 
arm and fingers ?iow to make it, and also to 
discover which of these shaded strokes are 
the most difficult to make, and to raise his 
hand, if in class, as soon as the discovery is 
made. The pupil should not assume that 
he knows before he commences, or form an 
opinion until every exercise has bad a fair 
amount of earnest practice. Make the ex- 
ercises by looking off the paper, being 
governed wholly at one time by the sense of 
touch or feeling, at another through the 
medium of sight and feeling. 

Finally, it is not a question in my mind 
of whether the pupil can improve his move- 
ment and touch of the pen by following 
this lesson, but it is a question of whether 
he w411. 

Every teacher should have some well 
graded programme as a basis upon which 
to work. Do not begin where you should 
end. Begin at the bottom i 
ward and onward. There is no good build- 
ing without a good foundation. 

The following outline order of topics, if 
properly followed and well illustrated upon 
paper and blackboard, is sure of the very 
best results in the improvement of the 
pupil's handwriting and satisfaction to the 

1st. Position at the desk. 

2d. Penholdiog. finger and arm rests. 

3d. Movements — muscular, sliding, finger, 
combined and wbolearm. 

4th. Theory — slanis, principles, base, 
bead and top lines, spaces, turns, angles and 
spacing between letters and words. 

5th. Different shaded strokes in writing. 

6th. 1, Movement exercises ; 2, Analysis 
and classification of small letters ; 3. Write 
short and long words. 

7th. 1, Movement exercises ; 2, Sentence 
containing the whole alphabet of small let- 


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A Penman's Home. 

A friend of mine, who is a penraan, has a 
cbarminj^ little home. It is just such a 
home as I wish every member of the craft 
might own— for then how happy wc all 
should he ! 

" Ah," hut you will say, "your fortunate 
friend has money, undoubtedly. His 
•charmiug little home' is some Queen Anne 
cottage, furnished with the little luxuries 
which look so simple and unexpeusive. per- 
haps, but which costs so amazingly ! He 
has hardwood finish, and rugs, and old- 
fashioned fireplace, and brass andirons, and 
bric-a-brac on the mantel, and — " 

Not at all. My friend is not rich, he is 
not even well off — indeed, he is very poor, 
poor as a church mouse I lie earns just 
twenty dollars a week— thinit of that for 
a salary to support a family on. " Ridicul- 
ous," you say; "he can't do it." Aye, but 
he can, and does ; and out of that twenty 
dollars he not only provides a beautiful little 
home for his loved ones, but lays by some- 
thing every week for a rainy day. 

How does he do it ? Well, I will tell you. 
I u the first place, he owns his little borne. 
There is no month's rent to be laid by ; no 
landlady to cajole and toady to ; no appre- 
hensions of what might happen if the rent 
sA<*«W run over a moDth or two. A year 

before he was married my friend expended 
his little nest egg in a cottage. It was wise; 
the money was there ; it could not runaway 
to Canada, nor altogether burn up, for he 
had it well covered with insurance. Then 
he worked another year to get money 
enough to start housekeeping on. And then, 
like tlic brave, loyal fellow that be is, be 
went to the modest, loving girl who was 
waiting for him, and asked her if she would 
be willing to try and make a little home 
with him out of twenty dollars a week. 
And, of course, she said yes. 

They have been married two years to-day; 
and now I will tell you bow they have suc- 
ceeded and how they have managed. 

The house has six little rooms — three 
down stairs, three up stairs. Kitchen, 
dining-room, sitting-room, down stairs- 
no parlor, that's the beauty of it ; up stairs, 
three bedrooms and a bath-room. Every 
room has a separate chamcter of its own ; 
no two are alike. This gives the interior of 
the cottage an aspect of being much larger 
and more pretentious than it really is. Every 
room has a color. The kitchen is the gray 
room ; gray is cool, and besides there is the 
utilitarian considenition that it will bear 
smoke. The dioing-room is the brown 
room ; everything has' a dark, rich effect, 
from the sideboard down to the baby's high 
chair. The sitting-room is the red room — 
aol exactly red ; you know, la the glaring 

acceptance of the term, but that beautiful 
terra-cotta red that lights up so richly, and 
makes a room look so cosey. Then the 
three bedrooms are white, pink and blue, 
and the bath-room is a sort of chrom-ycUow. 
Every bit of this artistic atmosphere was 
produced by the unaided hands of my gifted 
friend with his own little paint brush. All 
it cost him was the expense of the paint — 
and the work is very well done, too. 

The furniture in every room corresponds 
to its color — perhaps I ought rather to say, 
harmonizes with it, as, of course, everything 
is not of the same prevailing hue. *rhe 
general effect only remains the same. You 
would be surprised to see what tasteful fur- 
niture my friend has bought for only a very 
few dollars a set. He has selected in every 
instance the beautifu modern Eastlake pat- 
terns, so that however cheap the material is 
the effect is beautiful and stylish. The 
sitting-room is a perfect little paradise of 
comfort and loveliness within four walls. 

There is a fireplace in the room— not a fire- 
place for show, but for use. It has a grate 
of polished steel, some polished brass fur- 
niture, and— the one little bit of extrava- 
gance of which my friend has been guilty — 
a solid brass hod. There is always a fire 
burning in the fireplace, except in the 
warmest summer weather. Sometimes it is 
a wood fire, sometimes a coal fire, but al- 
ways clean, bright, cheerful, romaotic. One 

help seeing pictu 

its ruddy 

On the floor— not a hard wood one, by 
the way, but neatly painted in bands of two 
colors around the edge — is a brussels nig, 
bought at a bargain on account of a slight 
stain, which, fortunately, came just where 
the centre table leg ought to, and does 
stand. The centre-table is round, and cov- 
ered with a pretty spread. In the centre 
there is a knitted lamp-rest, and in it, buried 
deep in the zephyr, is one of the prettiest, 
brightest, mellowest lamps that ever lighted 
family gathering. It is a work of art, a 
lamp with a modern design— and yet it was 
bought at a ninety-nine cent store \ There 
are no chairs in the room but easy chairs; 
and yet my friend bought them in the 
rough, and they were cushioned and trimmed 
by his handy little wife. Everything in the 
room is cozy, home-like, restful, artistic. 
Both mind and body are gratified. The 
table is always just enough covered with 
papers and books not to be in disorder. 
Culture and refinement look out every- 
where ; and all on twenty dollars a week. 

How ?— well, let us see. Three dollars a 
week for the girl of all work. That is good 
pay. as domestics' wages go; but the girl 
earns it ; she is verily a multum in parvo. 
Eight dollars a week for butcher, baker and 
candlestick maker ; enough, and no short 
rations la my friend's family. Three dol- 

lars a week for incidentals — quite sufficient 
in an economical family, especially a small 
one. A dollar for pin money all around. 
Five dollars to put in the bank every week 
—the bank account occasionally drawn 
upon, of course, to meet unexpected emer- 
geucies. To be sure, my friend's family 
consists of but three, but it is not to be 
taken for granted tliat it has stopped grow- 
ing, and I have full confidence in my friend's 
ability to care for half-a-dozen more little 
mouths ou his salary. 

I know of nothing that pleases me better, 
makes me more in love With the world* my- 
self, everybody, everything, than to visit 
my friend in his happy little home, and 
spend a cosey evening with him in the 
bosom of his family. " Why d'tu'i you go 
and do likewise ?" do you ask V Well, now. 
how do you know that I haven't V 

The Varieties and Processes of 

Now these successive steps which we 
have been supposing, were precisely those 
which the early history of printing pre- 
sented. Shortly after the commcDcemeut 
of the fifteenth century, there was a custom 
practiced— though it is still a disputed point 
whether the invention of it was due to 
Europe or* to Asia — of engraving a rude 
kind of pictures on blocks of wood, and 
taking impressions of them on some coarse 
kind of paper. This led to the art of type- 
printing, though the inventor most probably 
did not anticipate such a result. It is a 
curious circumstance that these pictures 
related to two remotely opposite classes of 
subjects, viz., " Keligious Works and Play- 
ing Cards." The misshapen knaves, queens 
and kings of modern playing caixJs have 
worked a more important service than card- 
players usually imagine ; they are slightly 
altered copies of the devices printed on the 
playing cards which are known to have beco 
in use four centuries ago ; and those rude 
devices were among the elements out of 
which the art of printing arose. 

The religious works consisted of portraits 
of saints. Scriptural events, and monkish 
legends : all of the rudest possible style of 
execution. The collection of Earl Spencer 
contains a print representing St. Christopher 
carrying the infant Saviour ; this print has 
the date 1423. and it is the earliest authentic 
one known to have been produced from a 
wood block. If these rudely carved blocks 
had only contained pictures, the relation 
which they bear to type-printing would not 
be obvious; but the scriptural pictures were 
often accompanied by a few sentences from 
the Bible, which sentences were cut in the 
block in the same way as the picture. 
Hence, if it were possible to cut a few sen- 
tences as an auxiliary to a picture, it would 
be e(!ually possible to carve the whole of the , 
block in this way, and have no picture at 
all. Such was done by degrees. A selec- 
tion of texts from the Scriptures was cut 
upon blocks, and a work published under 
the title of ' ' Biblia Pauperum, " or the Bible 
of the Poor. This was followed by another 
work, the "Speculum Salutis." or Mirror 
of Salvation. 

Sevenil manuals of grammar and other 
works were engraved and printed in a simi- 
lar way. It is hopeless to expect that the 
name of the inventor of the above method 
should ever be discovered ; for, from its 
nature, it is susceptible of such imperceptible 
gradations, Ihut it is scarcely possible to say 
where the wood-block picture merged into 
the wood-block type. 

The inventor of the next important im- 
provement however, is generally allowed to 
have been John Gutenberg of Mayence. 
At one time there was a great deal of dis. 
cussiou as to whether Gutenberg, Faust. 
Costar or SchoefFer. was the inventor of 
movable types for printing ; but the inves- 
ligatious of the last few years have led to a 
pretty general opinion, that all had a hand 
in the matter, and are all therefore wortliy 
of our respect and gratitude, but that Gut- 
enberg seems to be the man worthy of the 
desiguatiou of "inventor of printing by 
movable types." Schocffer appears to have 
improved upon this idea by substituting cast 
metal types for carved wooden ones ; while 

Faust encouraged and assisted both of them 
with his capital and support. Prom tliat 
time the art of printing was to all intent 
and purposes established ; for, let the cast 
types have been as rude as they might, they 
possessed practically all the chief excellences 
of those of the present day. In the month 
of August. 1837, honor was done to the 
memory of Gutenberg by the erection at 
Meyence of a beautiful statue by Thorwald- 
sen, the Danish sculptor. The statue was 
the result of a subscription, to which all the 
principal States of Europe were invited to 
contribute, but to which (strange as it may 
seem) England contributed little or nothing. 
Mr. Knight in his life of Carton, speaking 
of the memorable 14th of August in that 
year, says:— "The fine statue of Guten- 
berg (Gutenberg. Guttenberg. Gutenberger, 
Guttenberger,— all these modes of spelling 
Ihe name are occasionally adopted) was 
opened amidst a universal burst of enthu- 

' ' Never were the shouts of a vast multitude 
raised on a more elevating occasion, never 
were the triumphs of intellect celebrated 
with greater fervor. The statue of Guten- 
berg, who had won for his city the gratitude 
of the world, was opened with demonstra- 
tions of popular feeling, such as have been 
wont only to greet the ear of the conqueror. " 
The poor printer of Mentz, indeed, achieved 
a conquest ; the fruits of his bloodless vic- 
tory are imperishable ; but it is honorable 
beyond comparison to the present genera- 
tion of the citizens of Mentz to have felt 
that this victory of mind, which has made 
all future victuries of the same nature per- 
manent, was deserving of a trophy as en- 
dearing ahnost as the invention which it 

{To be continusd.) 

Drawing Lesson. 

(Copyrighted by GeorKe E. Little.) 

" It has often been said, "Any one who 
can learn to write, can learn to draw." This 
is doubted by some who cannot draw, but 
never by those that can ; from the fact that 
those who have accomplished anything in 
that line, know that what skill they possess 
has been acquired largely by thoughtful 

We get our impressions of form in three 
different ways : first, by seeing ; second, by 
handling; third, by making. Take for 
illustration the letter. 

We have all practiced on this form many 
times. Take also the outline of an apple, 
commencing with the stem. 

Now which of these forma is the most diffi- 
cult to draw, the E or the apple ? The 
apple is much the easier. First the apple 
is an irregular form. You scarcely ever see 
two apples alike. Second, you can handle 
the apple, but you cannot handle the letter 
E. But I hear some one say, you are not 
beginning right with your lesson. You 
should first teach us how to hold the pencil, 
and warn us not to turn our books or paper. 
Teach the names of the lines and their posi- 
tion, and keep us on straight and curved 
lines for several months before we are al- 
lowed to draw from objects. The art mas- 
ters used to say, "give the pupils a 
knowledge of the subject first, then allow 
them to draw." 

I have reversed this plan, and get better 
results. Have pupils draw from the start. 
Do not hamper them with rules and defini- 
tions. Oet ihem to work, let the knowledge 
of the subject follow. They will learn the 
names of the lines and angles quicker while 
drawing complete forms than in any other 

Now, in regard to drawing lines vertical, 
horizontal, oblique, curved, etc., that repre- 
sent nothing; do you think of an object as 
so many vertical lines, and so many hori- 
zontal, and so many curved ? I suspect not. 
You think of it as a whole. I, would no 
more commence teaching drawing with ab- 
stract lines, than I would reading by the old 
alphabet methods. 

A pupil will learn sixteen sentences sooner 
than sixteen abstract letters. The one 
method is associated with ideas, the other is 
not. I have no objection to a reasonable 
amount of systematic drill on conventional 
forms, designs, etc., to train the hand and 
eye; but we should use such drill as a 
means, and not as an end. Let us no longer 
tench the false idea that if we can make de 
signers of our pupils, they can secure lucra- 
tive positions in that line of work. See 
what an army of designers we would have, 
if this absurd idea was carried out! Phila- 
delphia alone would furnish enough for the 
whole United States. It is important, bow- 
ever, that the pupils in all our schools 
should be taught to represent what they .'see 
in nature and mechanics, and to do it 
rapidly. In my opinion we should have 
more of nature, and less of the conventional 
in school work. The drawing from nature 
will lay the foundation for higher art studies 
that can be pursued later in special schools. 
One of the things we have to do in training 
the children is to direct their attention to the 
study of nature. We cannot accomplish 
this in any better way than to have them 
draw from nature. It cultivates the habit 
of observation, and as they observe nature 
more, they will love nature more, and this 
will lead them to love the author of nature. 
We are gradually conforming our teaching 
to what is termed the "Natural methods." 
Thus in the development of the mind we do 
not commence with memory and reason, 
but with perception, and then memory, 
imagination, reason and generalization- 
developing the faculties as nature intended. 
I think I have recently discovered an im- 
portant lesson in relation to illustration 
work. The first forms we find in nature 
are the crystals— about one hundred differ- 
ent varieties, some of them beautiful geo- 
metric designs No life however, no growth, 
cold dead forms. The next higher are the 
vegetable forms. A great variety, hundreds 
of thousands. In these we find life and 
growth, with color. Next come the animal 
forms, an endless variety ; here we find life, 
growth, color and action, also voice in the 
higher forme. Observe how the interest 
increases. I stand before a class of children 
illustrating from the blackboard. I repre- 
sent one of the crystal forms. 

I then draw a stem and one cherry, 

The children are pleased with the com- 
bination of lines. I then draw a bunch of 

, as I add the color to the fruit and leaves, 
their eyes fairly sparkle with delight. I 
next place a caterpillar on the stem. 

They are still more pleased ; but wait I I 
place several cherries in a row. 

and add a few Hues giving a different . 
pression to each, and the children fairly r 

to their feet, laughing and clapping their 
hands with joy. Four steps in form— Crys- 
tal. Vegetable, Animal and Human. 

Agent for Canada. 
We have commissioned A. J. Small, 13 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, Canada (P.O. 
Box 634), to act as agent for the Journal 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

Surety by Mail. 
Parties ordering books or merchandise, 
from this office, to be sent by mail, would 
do well to add the small sum of 10 cents, to 
the designated price of articles desired, for 
registering same, thereby Insuring their safe 

s of disoipliue lo the hand, al; 
the eye. 4s respects form, flourisbing is 
valuable practice. Also as an altainmen 
it is useful in the way of 
the teacher and artist in the way of at 

1 to the less conspicuous merits 
of plain writing. 

Like writing it should be practiced 
thoughtfully and corefuUy, to the end that 
it may become a discipline, if rudely and 
carelessly practiced, it becomes like scrib- 
bling to the learner of writing, au im- 
pediment to any desirable or acceptable at- 
We give the following exercises for prac- 
uted with the wholearm 
holding the pen reversed as 
shown in the arrompanying cut ; 

A Detective's Map, 


Chief Inspector Sbnipe, the head of the 
detective service in the postoffice department, 
resigned his office several weeks ago to engage 
in private business. His resignnlion was ac- 
cepted, to take effect Sept. 1. His record is 
that of a capable officer. He is au east Ten- 
nessee mau, tall and .spare in stature, and in 
appearance and manner the typical detective. 
During the war he was a Union man, and 
did good service. As a department officer 
he has been a terror to rascals, and has hunt- 
ed many of them out of the service, even 
when sheltered by strong political intlueuce. 

One of the most important duties of the 
chief inspector is to detect railway pohtal 
clerks who steal letters eoutjiining money. 
To accomplish this Col. Sbarpe follows a 
simple but ingenious system, which he ex- 
plained the other day to the writer. 

" To catch these thieves," lie said, " I had 
coiistruct'd a large railroad map of the 
United Slates, which hangs in my office. 
Now, supposing a mau mails a letter in Bos- 
ton for Kansas City containing ^50— a very 
bad practice, but people will do it. The let- 
ter never reaches its destination, and pretty 
soon we get a complaining letter stating the 

" Now, if the supposed case were an iso- 
lated one, we probably could do nothing. 
The letter, in going from Boston to Kansas 
City, would pass through thirty or forty 
hands, aud it would be useless to try and fix 
the blame. But the Boston man's case is 
not isolated. Every day we get from one to 
fifty similar complaints from all over the 
country, and this fact, us you will see, en- 
ables us to locate the mischief. 

"First we ascertain exactly when and 
where the missing letter was mailed and its 
address. Then we are ready for the map I 
spoke of. I take the Boston man's letter 
and a bunch of similar complaints, and then 
I begin to stick pins into my map. I know 
just the route which a letter would take to 
go from Boston to Kansas City, and I stick 
pins along lo sketch out this course. Then 
I take the next complaint. Perhaps this is 
from a man who lost money transmitting it 
from Mobile to Chicago. Very well. I 
trace out the line such a letter would take. 
The third, perhaps, was sent from New 
York to San Francisco, the forth form New 
Orleans to Buffalo, the fifth from Saginaw' 
City to Philadelphia, and so on. Now, he- 
fore very long the map begins to look quite 
interesting. The pinsare .strewn all over the 
country, but we notice one track— say, for 
instance, between Chicago and Cleveland— 
wherw all the lines uuite. That's where the 
thief is. 

" Knowing n6w where the stealing is go- 
ing on, we advise our most trusted man in 
that division— we have to trust somebody, 
you know- that there is trouble in this sec- 
tion, and tell him lo keep a .sharp look out. 
We inquire into the habits and associations 
of the clerks, and we are, perhaps, able to 
spot the man at once. At other limes it is 
more difficult. But we always fetch him. 
Detection is certain." 

" But don't the clerks know of this sys- 

'■ Perfectly well," replied Col. Sharpe. 

'■ Then why do they steal?" was asked. 

"Ah, there you ask me loo hard a ques- 
tion," said the inspector. "I'm sure I can't 
tell. I only know they do, and the history 
of almost all cases is the same. A postal 
clerk will be tempted and will steal a letter 
that he feels has money in it. For tlie next 
few days he is scared to death. He thinks 
everybody reads his guilt in his face, and 

he is certain he will lie caught and put in 
prison. He resolves never to steal another 
letter, and pos.sibIy he does not. But gen- 
erally in about a month or two months his 
feav and remorse have worn off. Evidently 
he has not been caught and is not suspected. 
A good chance comes and he steals another 
letter. This time he does not wait a month 
before he tries it again. And before long he 
is stealing all the lelters he gets hold of 
which contain money. About that time I 
am sticking pins into my map. It is sure 
death. Sometimes we get more than one, 
as fishers will now and then land two or 
three fish at once when the biting is very 
lively. We caught three in two weeks once 
in different parts of the country when we 
supposed we were after only one." 

" But why do men keep on stealing when 
they see others caught, and understand that 
the machinery of detection is so perfect?" 
again asked the reporter. 

" As I said before," replied the inspeolor, 
"tliat I can't answer, except in this way: 
Every rogue thinks himself a little smarter 
than auybody cIkc. He sees that others are 
caught, but he thinks that he is too cunning 
and can cover his lracks."—Washi7^ton Cot- 
Te.spondent, Kew York Stin. 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few cojiies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20c. each, or by the dozen $1.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
offered for any other than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmiuisbip, and, as such, 
are richly worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 

A Wonderful Legislator. 

O. F. Brown, Representative from Ham- 
ilton to the Massachusetts Legislature, has 
a wonderful memory and is a beautiful pen- 
man. Judging from appearances, Mr. Brown 
is one of the last persons who would be se- 
lected from a crowd as possessing these 
particular abilities. He is a farmer, and 
yesterday he had milked twelve cows before 
he left his home in Hamilton to sit under 
the gilded dome to help make laws for the 
State. Although the House has been in ses- 
sion but a few days, and the members num- 
ber nearly 250. he knows every one by name 
and the city or town which each represents. 
He is just as familiar with the names of the 
men who represent the smallest cape or hill 
towns as he is with those from the cities. 

His penmanship is fine and would do credit 
to a professor of art. The most remarkable 
feature of his skill in the of the pen is 
the fact that he can write with equal facility 
in the natural way, and also by writing the 
words upside down. Taking a given name 
he can write it beginning with the hist letter 
of the name and continuing to the first, and 
writing each letter upside down. When 
writing in this peculiar manner, he preserves 
the same graceful flourishes that he uses 
when writing in the ordinary way. He takes 
some pardonable pride in showing a book 
containing a perfect list of the members of 
the executive aiul legislative branches of the 
State Government written entirely from 
memory, without reference to any other 
list. Not only are the names written but 
every town and city residence is correctly 
recorded. Every word was written back- 
ward from right to left and bottom side up 
and beginning always with the last letter of 
each word. The title page is a beautiful 
specimen of arlistic penmanship in colors 

'as written in the s 
f the book,— rriftH, 

i the 

Can ^You Make a Better Invest- 
than to pay $1 for the JorRNAL one year, and 
the "Guide to Self-Instniction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper covers), and |1, hand- 
somely bound. 

Ltfe ! tliat t^raod word, reaching downward 

thro 11 ell all time's eternal &way ; 
Life ! that mighty upper current that is Bowing on 

Far beueatb that upper current lies the ages— ages 

of that day the 

Lives have passed In quick succession— millions, 

millions, since the day 
That the land from water parted, and tlied 

Kliii;s have lu their thrones ascended, warriors 

tthook tlie earth with power. 
But tbelr lives have faded, faded, like the dying 

autumn flower. 

Soon beyond the present ages and the trials of 

Life will roll Its burdens onwards In its own 
diverted way ; 

Then the present will the past be and the future 
will be now, 

Wltti life's vessel sailing onward— future Just be- 
yond her prow. 

Life ! the past, tlie present— fiituie, I)righte8t yo( 

of all the three. 
But there is one— 'lis God only— kDows our fatuie 

Life! too short to trifle— ioiift enough for sin aud 

Dow not thuu for things eo earthly, call upon a 

That Springfield, 0.. bookkeeper who 
disappeared lefl his books straight, so they 
think he's insane. 

Back Numbers. 
Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers for 1670, ex- 
cept January, May and November; all 
numbers for 1880, except July, Sep- 
tember and No^mber ; all numbers for 
1881, except December; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883. but January; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, back 
of 1888, will be mailed for |6, or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 



An attempt to conduct the business in- 
terests of this or any other couotry without 
one of the present means employed would 
prove not only utterly futile, but an im- 
possible impossibility. 

From the earliest period down to the 
present time this method of communication 
has been regarded not only as invaluable, 
but part and parcel of a necessity that im- 
pels the world to action. 

Admitting then that writing is a necessity 
and that its use is the vehicle through which 
thousands and tens of thousands earn their 
daily bread, it should be regarded with no 
little concern of how well and how 
(^DiCKLY the results can be obtained. ''Rome 
was not built in a day." 

" 'Uttiu' " cannot be acquired in so short a 
space of time. The former has always 
been regarded as a self evident truth, The 
latter is equally no, even though would-be 
sages have advised to the contrary. 

Oar public school system provides for 
this necessary part of an English education 
in the eyes of the law, but renders it a dead 
letter (as a rule) in its fulfiltment. 

Complaint after complaint has gone out, 
yet the improvement is so slow as to cause 
renewed dissatisfaction, aud the story has 
become old aud threadbare. 

A few itinerant professors have gone to 
the rescue and redeemed somewhat this 
branch of the art of pedagogy, yet is there 
not hope for speedy reform, when the 

may be as well taught, all over this broad 
land, as any other department of study 
prescribed in the curriculum '/ 1 am frank 
to Bay that many who control this present 
farce will not consent to any change, how- 
ever apparent it may seem. 

Reform in this case is parallel to that of 
. some of the intemperate ; nothing but death 
will stay their well-beaten track. So I can 
hope to win those only who are guided by 
reason with an innate desire to better their 
day and generation. 

To effect the greatest progress in arith- 
metic, the pupils are provided with the best 
text-books and superior instructors. So 
with reading, so with spelling, so with ge- 
ography, so with language, so with all else 
EXCEPT writing, which for some unaccount- 
able reason has been considered less than 
aecoMary, by providing poor text-books and 
instructors who make no pretensions and 
less effort to carry out the ideal of the author. 

When and where shall reform begin V 
Is reform possible when viewed in the light 
of old methods ? Is there no way by which 
the youlh of our land can secure equal ad- 
vantages and similar results to that gained 
in other parts of a graded course of study ? 
Is it true that writing is not supported by 
authors of equal repute to that accorded to 


There is a weakness somewhere, and who 
is to be blamed ? Is there not substantial 
proof ihat reform has begun, and that in 
our larger cities, where special teachers have 
held sway a sufficient length of time, that 
the writing is upon an equal footing with 
all else ? 

Reform cannot come when viewed from 
the light of old methods. Teachers, no 
more than any one else, will do beyond the 
requirements ; besides the itoxTEN excuse 
of inability to learn to write on the part of 
some, applies to teachers as well as pupils. 
A belief that one cannot do a thin" is 
equivalent to no effort, and where there is 
none, especially of the most insipid nature, 
there can be no fruitful results. 

As long as boards of education and boards 
of examiners act upon the basis that any 
teacher, properly qualified in other branches, 
can assume the duties without regard to 
any preparation in this art of writing, so 
long will penmanship be regarded as a 
specialty and treated as such. 

I am positively positive that the regular 
teachers of our public schools can and 
would do more in this direction if requested 
and required. 

I would not have the line drawn too taut 
at first, and it would not be long before a 
marked change would occur, without de- 
manding more than reason and justice. 

This is especially applicable to districts 
and small towns where a special teacher 

cannot be employed. In our larger cities, 
for a multiplicity of reasons, the special 
teacher can do that which in no other way 
can be accomplished. 

I am a firm advocate of the special teacher 
in this "department, but he must be made of 
BETTER STUFF than many who claim to do 
us honor. I would exact of him a knowl- 
edge of at least the fundamental rules of 
arithmetic ; he should be able to spell a few 
words correctly, and for the benefit of his 
auditors, construct the ordinary English 
sentences, so that he would not merit the 
many charges that the profession are called 
upon to defend. 

The best specialists of to-day in writing 
are doing superior work, with their methods 
differing, similar to those- employed by 
specialists in arithmetic, language, etc. 

The record of capable specialists is in 
every way comparable to that of any other 
calling, and we are not one of those who 
believe that there is nothing new or valuable 
in the experence of the best products of 

There are systems of penmanship and 
methods of instruction which are property 
presented and yield very satisfactory results. 

We are of the belief that individual in- 
struction must supplant class instruction as a 
basis of advancement and progress, and that 
class instruction is only one of the means 
by which a general knowledge is made to 
serve the first efforts in execution. 

In passing through an art gallery we 
usually find some picture which we consider 
superior to all others. One which impresses 
us as being more beautiful or natural than 
those surrounding it. We can scarcely tell 
why, but there is something about it that 
causes us to linger before it, and, after we 
have seen all others, we return to look again 
at our favorite, to drink in its beauty and 
comment on its loveliness. 

If it be a landscape, we notice how the 
sunlight shines through the trees, or reflects 
from the side of the mountain, or glistens 
on the dew drops on the blades of grass. 

If it is a portrait, we notice the truthful- 
ness to nature, the pensive face, or happy 
expression, and can tell at a glance the idea 
which the artist intends to convey to our 

The investigating student of art will not 
thus be satisfied. He will not only see the 
beauties which others see as well as they, 
but he will go still further. He will not be 
satisfied with knowing that this picture is 
superior to that, but he will inquire into the 
causes which produce this superiority. 

He will compare their different parts, en- 
deavoring to discover what gives one the 
advantage over the other. He will ask 
himself — What produces this beautiful 
effect '/ What causes this figure to be start- 
ing from the canvass ? What blending of 
colors, or what light and shade gives to the 
face that roundness ? How is this pleasing 
or that sad expression produced ? These 
aud many other questions will be asked 
and answered by the investigating student 
of art when an opportunity is offered him to 
examine the works of others. 

By comparing the work of one artist wiih 
that of others, he will cultivate both his 
perceptive and reasoning faculties, which 
will greatly aid him in his work. Cannot 
the same be applied to penmanship ? We 
often hear such expressions as these: "I 
think a page of plain writing by Prof. 
Goodmovcment the most beautiful I ever 
saw ;■' or, " Mr, Slingemoff's capitals are 
better than those of any one else in the 
United State-s ;" or, ■■The magniflcient 
flourish by young Wholearm is superior to 
that of many other penmen." 

A great many who thus express them- 
selves, though they may be correct, if asked 
wherein the work was better- than that of 
others, would be unable to point out the 
difference. They could not substantiate 
their opinions by any definite reason. 

Now, if Prof. Slingemoff's capitals are so 
much better than those of young Whole- 
arm, and if young Wholearm's flourishing 
is superior to that of Pro' Goodmovement, 
there must be some very perceptible differ- 
ence. What is it ? Are his shades more 
uniform and better distributed ? Are his 

ovals larger, or turns more graceful t Is it 
the simplicity and accuracy of the letters 
or any or all of these combined, that pro- 
duces this effect 't 

This going into the reason of things, this 
asking why, and the investigation and study 
that will naturally follow, combined with 
an endeavor to imitate the good, will greatly 
aid the student of penmanship or art. 

^ [Co! 

Educational Notes. 

unfcatfons for this Depani 

to B. F, Kellet. Office o 

iRNAL, No. 20."> Broadway, New Yi 

dressed to B. F, Kellet. Office of th( 
Brief educational items solicited. 

'■Know something of everything, and 
everything of something. — John StuartMiU. 

Ohio's public schools cost $10,093,931 
last year. 
There are thirty colored students in the 

Freshman chu 

t Yale. 

A Pittsburgh Dispatch correspondent, in- 
dulging in reminiscenses, says : The first 
woman who ever made a speech at a teach- 
ers' convention was Susan B. Anthony. 

The estimated population of China is 
405,213, t52, or 263 souls per square mile 
throughout China proper. 

The schools of Austria have been forbid- 
den using paper ruled in square or diagonal 
Hues, as such paper has been found to injure 
the eyesight of pupils. In future only 
paper plam or ruled straight across is to be 

The public school superintendent of 
Wj'oming reports 4,506 pupils, 73 school 
houses, 147 teachers, and the total amount 
paid for salaries as $88,000. 

The total number of teachers employed in 
the United States, Georgia and Idaho ex- 
cepted, is 249,283. 

Native Japanese who can converse fluently 
in English are quite common in Tokio and 
other Japanese cities. There is one street 
in Tokio which is filled with English book- 
stores Lectures in universities and colleges 
are given in either English or German, and 
some common schools have adopted English 
as a part of their study. 

Educational P. 
lOBtauce where the 
department la knov _. _ 
b Riven. A like courtesj' from others will be appre- 

used iQ this department is known, 

b Riven. ■ ■" 


Vassar girls are said to be so modest that 
they will not work on improper fractions. — 
University Quarterly. 

of his life V" Student — "* He died." 

" The wisdom teeth," said an unmarried 
lady teacher to her pupils, "are late in 
coming, sometimes not appearing until the 
person is thirty years old." 

" You've got all of yourn, haint you 'i" 
squeaked the small kid of the class. — Dam- 
ville Breeze. 

A South Yonkers Sunday-school teacher 
was trying to explain to her class what the 
conscience was. but had some difficulty in 
making the scholars understand. 

" What is that small voice that comes to 
you after you have retired at nighty" she 
said at length. 

"Oh, please, ma'm, I know,"quickly said 
one of the bright little girls. 

"Well, what is it. Dolly?" said the 
teacher, proud that her explanation had been 
so quickly comprehended. 

• Cats, : 

" — Timkers Statesman. 

If an S and an i and an o aud a u, with an 
X at the end, spell ** Su," 
And an e and a y and an e spell "I," pray 

what is a speller to do 'i' 
Then if also an s and an i and a g aud an 

h-e-d spell "cide," 

There's nothing much left for a speller to do 

but to go and commit Siouxeyesighed. 

" Professor, would a man be an alien if 

he were born in this country when his 

parents were abroad ? ' 

Professor R— "Mr. C, will you please 
tell us about the Missouri Compromise ?" 
Mr. C— "The Missouri Compromise pro 
hibited slavery beyond thirty-seven degrees 
Professor R.— Now, Mr. S., suppose you 

five us an example of absolute monarchy." 
Ir. S.— ■■Marriage." — VniDersity Quarterly. 

Just for Fun. 
It seera.'i a little singular that a man's face 
generally the longest when he himself is 

I met the girl of the . 

And gently took her ly 
I thought la pop the ? 

But 1 didn't have the S&. 

St. Joseph Oazette. 

Bromley — "It is very irreverent (o stamp 
' In God we trust 'upon the silver dollars. ' 
Darringer— " I don't think so. We've got 
to trust in somebody for the other twenty 

An Englishman has discovered that kiss- 
ing, to be Scriptural, must be between those 
of the same sex. It is evident that the Bible 
needs to be revised just once more. 

When the farmer dn 

She kicked off his ear. 
And now the old farmer's much dephyr, 
—QoodalVa Sun. 
The Chicago girl found in her stocking a 
derrick ; the St. Louis girl a canal boat ; the 
Boston girl a Sanscrit dictionary ; the New 
York girl papa's check ; the Baltimore girl 
a pot of rouge, and the Philadelphia girl 
great grandpapa's silver shoe buckles. — 
Philadelphia Call. 

tleman who asked her if she hailed from 
Buffalo, she said : "Yes, we hail from 
Buffalo, and we reign here," 

Some eccentric genius has discovered that 
there are forty-two Johns in the Nalional 
House of Representatives. He attempted 
to estimate the demi-johns, but got full in 
an early stage of his investigation. 

Willie kissed Susie beneath the rose ; 

The rose was in bud and the corn in the ear, 
And the tint of rouge on the tip of his nose 

Remained with Willie as a Sue veneer. 

Complimentary to the Journal. 

The Penman's Art Jouunal of this city, 
edited by D. T, Ames, editor and proprietor 
at 205 Broadway, is the best publication of 
the kind in the world, for all who are study- 
ing or interested in the art of penmanship. 
Mr. Ames has produced the handsomest 
memorial of Grant yet published in the 
form of a large pen picture, representing 
the General, with appropriate scenes and 
flourishes, all done with a pen and repro- 
duced by the Photo. Litho. process, so 
that it appears like a choice engraving. They 
are very desirable for framing. — Pomeroy's 
Democrat, iVew York, Jan. 21, 1886. 

The Pensian's Aht Journal came duly 
to hand. It contains as usual the best of 
everything in the writing art. The best of 
talent is represented in this paper, and how- 
ever much other publishers of penmen's 
papers may strive to excel, they will learn 
that Bro. D. T. Ames has the inside track 
and he is bound to keep it.— Holmes' Ledger. 

J. W. Swank, U. S. Treasury, Washing- 
ton, D. C, says: "Your editorial on 
renewals in December number, expresses 
my sentiments exactly. Here is my dollar 
for renewal. If by any due calamity or 
mishap I should be deprived of my Jour- 
nal for even a month, it would make a hole 
in my happiness that no dollar would cover, 
not even were it as big as a cart wheel. I 
stood by the .Iodrnal when it was a baby 
in cradle, and I don't expect to desert it un- 
til one or the other of us kicks the bucket. 
Send as a premium your Grant Memorial 
which I regard as one of the most beautiful 
pieces of pen work it has ever been my 

Mr. Swank also incloses a photo of a 
superior piece of pen work lately executed 
by himself, which consists of a fine portrait, 
in an artistic border, of the Hon. Daniel 
Manning, Secretary of the Tseasury. 

I regard the JopKNAL as the best of all 
the penmen's papers. I was particularly 
pleased with your showing up of the com- 
pendium nuisance. — H. D. Allisan, Dublin, 
N. II. 

The second number of the Journal is re- 
ceived, and I must say that it is within 
itself worth its price for a year. I consider 
ray subscription the best investment I could 
have made. — J. M. Caldwell. Pleasant Hill, 

I am delighted with the Journal. It ie 
the best penmen's paper in the world.— 7'. 
//. R. C'firi«iie. TmculumiTenn.) College. 

It is certainly invaluable to all who take 
an interest in penmanship. — W. Ferris, 
I'l-incipal of Industrial School, Big liapids, 

I have taken many penmen's papers and 
find tlie Journal superior to all others. — 
John J. Oraham, Lernington, Ontario. 

I have received more solid information 
pertaining to penmanship from the Jouh- 
NAL than from all other sources. — A. B. 
Kathamisr, Farmington. N. T. 

I take all the penmen's papers, the Joun 
nal is ahead.—/. F. Hammer "* ' 
port, Ky. 

The Journal is certainly a rare geni^to 



Publiiihed Monthly at «1 per Y 

81ii«l« ooplM of tho JODRW*!. sent on receipt 
BpeclmeD copies turnlBhed to Agent* 1 


^^ ■ itoou" IiSm" »!». 



jQpe toivnderthc JouRXU, wifflcleolly IntereitliiB 
tnwO»o to Kcuro notonly thepatrouogeof rU those 


New Yohk, Fbbruaby, : 

To English Teachers of Pen- 
manship and Drawing. 

t>\viugto the large uud rapidly growing 
patronage of the Journal by our English 
fritods, we have taken the liberty ot ad- 
dressing specimen copies to such schools, as 
we are informed sustain commercial or art 
departments, and also to invite the special 
attention of teachers in these departments to 
the course of lessons now appearing iu the 
Journal upon writing and drawing. 

No pains will be spared to render the 
Journal in the highest degree helpful alike 
to teachers and pupils in these important 
branches of education ; and as there is, to 
the extent of our information, no similar 
publication in Efi--'l;ind, we b:ivc bten led to 
take this nif;iu- fi> iniiiLj \\\r Journal to 
the kuowlcd.LT •>\ it-irhn-. m Mie hope that 
they may be pliM-i.-il in iH'cnu.' patrons. 

Subscriptions will be received at $1 each, 
plus twenty-four cents for the foreign post- 
ago, Hemittanees can be safely and con- 
veniently made direct to the office of publi- 
ciition by English money orders. Address 
Daniel T. Ames. 

205 liroadwny. 
New YorkCitv.V. S. A. 

Drawing and Writing as Kindred 

That between the arts of writing and 
drawing there exists a moat intimate re- 
lationship is so obvious as to scarcely require 
afbrmatiou, and this is alike true of their 
ac(tuisitiou and practice. And this analogy 
begins with the very faculties that 
therein called into exercise, the ability for 
estimating form, distance, size, proportion, 
etc., as well as patient and persevering ap- 
plication all are alike exercised and necessary 
to success in each, as is also' manual dex- 
terity ; it follows, therefore, that proficiency 
in either is of necessity largely tributary to 
proficiency in the other. This fact is made 

.■ery apparent in Prof. Little's admirable 
drawing lesson on another page, and will 
be also fully developed and in a manner 
highly instructive and interesting to all 
learners or teachers of either writing or 
drawing by Prof. Barlow, whose first 
lesson in drawing will appear in the nest 

Prof. Little's Drawing Lesson 

for this month will be of extraordinary in- 
terest and value to every reader of the 
Journal, and especially so to those who 
have given attention to drawing as a study. 
Few artists possess the happy faculty of 
Prof. Little of depicting so faithfully with 
a minimum of lines any real or fancied ob- 
ject. He certainly wields the wand of a 

His work during the past year has been 
chiefly educational, giving instruction and 
exhibitions in drawing before teachers' in- 
stitutes and associations over a large por- 
tion of the Union, In addition to this he 
has delivered several addresses explanatory 
and illustrative of the best plan for the il- 
lustration ot the various grades of school 
books, histories, etc. During the year he 
has met and addressed over 6,000 teachers 
and superintendents. On the 4th iust. he 
addressed a large body of school superin- 
tendents in Uie House of Delegates at Rich- 
mond, Va., from whom he elicited the 
warmest commendation. 

Pen Drawings for Photo- 
There is probably no department of pen- 
manship about which there is more un- 
certainty, on the part of the average 
penman, than the proper execution of pen 
designs for photo- engraving and photo- 
lithography. The general impression seems 
to prevail that any pen-and-ink work can 
he used for that purpose, which is an error 
that has cost many a penman loss and dis- 
appointment. Of all the multitude of pen 
designs that are sent to this office not one in 
twenty possess the Mcesmry qualities for 

WHAT IS necessary. 

First, All lines must be black— ]ei black. 
Good India ink should he used. Lines that 
are pale black, red. blue or brown will not 
reproduce so as to give a good, smooth 

Second, All drawings should be twice as 
long and wide as the desired cut, so as to 
allow for reduction. If engravings are 
made the same size of the copy, the hair 
lines reproduce enlarged and are too course, 
giving to the work a heavy somber effect. 

Third, Smooth hard paper or Bristol 
board should be used for all such work. 

Fourth, All pencil guide-lines should be 
as light as possible, and, when the work is 
finished, be carefully removed with soft 

Fifth, Use a smooth clear-pointed pen, 
one that will give a uniform and unbroken 
line — no matter how fine a line if it w post- 
ticdy black. Pens of the grade of GiUott's 
303, Spencerian No. 1, and our Penman's 
Favorite, are all good. 

Sixth, It is unnecessary that the entire 
work should be upon one piece of paper — 
any number of pieces may be pasted togeth- 
er or upon each other — hence, if any word 
or part of the work is not satisfactory, it 
may be covered by a new piece of paper and 
the precise part that is unsatisfactory be 

ScEcnth, Cuts may be made so as to print 
either white lines on black, or black lines 
on white, from the same drawing. 

In the preparation of India ink use a 
porcelain or slate tray, inclined, with a small 
well at the end. On this inclined surface 
grind the ink, in water enough to give suf- 
ficient depth of ink to admit of dipping the 
pen without striking sediment. Great caie 
should be exercised in procuring a good 
quality of black India ink, India ink, thus 
prepared, will flow as readily from the pen 
as any of the so-called black inks. Prepared 
liquid India ink as sold, is good for many 
purposes when used with a medium coarse 
pen, but it is not so good for fine script 
work as that freshly prepared from the stick. 

From good drawings cuts are made at from 
15 to 20 cents per square inch ; but no 
single cut will be made for less than jri.50. 

The King Club 

for the past month numbers one hxindred 
aridjifty-six, and was sent by P. F. Judd, 
penman at Souders' Chicago Business Col- 
lege. Mr. Judd says : " Our school is very 
prosperous." And certainly in his club of 
166 names he furnishes a very good voucher 
not only of its success, but that the success 
is deserved, for only good instruction begets 
a liking for his studies on the part of a 
pupil, that leads him to appreciate and seek 
the aid and companionship of such ad- 
ditional instnictors as the Journal. 

The Queen Club numbers eigJity-mne, and 
was sent by Messrs. H. T. Loorais, W. E. 
Hall, A. R. Merriam and J. R. Searight, 
penmen in the several departments of the 
Detroit (Mich.) Business University. The 
third club in size comes from Carpenter's B. 
& S. Business College, St, Louis, Mo., and 
numbers fifty-iico. It was sent by R. S. 
Bonsall. the accomplished penman of that 

A club numbering forty-Jive was sent 
from the Spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland, Ohio, by J. H. Bryant the 
well-known penman of the college. A 
club numbering forty was sent by E. E. 
Childs, Springfield, Mass. One numbering 
thirty-eight was forwarded by George Soule 
from Soule Business College, New Orleans, 
La. Clubs of thirty-four each came from C. 
C. Maring, of the Portland (Oregon) Busi- 
ness College, and C. S. Free, of the Easton 
(Pa.) Business College ; twenty four from 
R. C. Spencer, Spencerian Business College, 
Milwaukee, Wis., and nineteen from D. W. 
Hoff of the Des Moines (Iowa) Institute of 
Penmanship. Smaller clubs have been 
legion. No other month since the publica- 
tion of the JouiiNAL has brought anything 
like as many subscriptions as the month 
past, while the prospects, as indicated by 
the applications for specimen copies to aid 
in inducing new subscriptions are encour- 
aging quite beyond precedent. To all who 
have thus earnestly and etficiently con- 
tributed to enlarge the sphere of the Jotm- 
NAL. as welt as to the hosts that have be- 
stowed upon it their flattering commenda- 
tions, we extend our most earnest thanks, 
with the assurance of our best endeavor to 
repay through the future excellence of the 

Prof. Farley's Lesson 

in this number is of itself a complete 
treatise on the subject of writing, both as 
relates to its teaching and practice. There 
is not a live teacher aspiring to secure the 
best results in their classes who would not 
find a dollar paid for this single number of 
the JotntNAL a good investment. 

Valuable Books for Business 

The attention of teachers and proprietors of 
business colleges is called to a series of books 
with questions and answers noticed under 
"Book Notices " iu another column. From 
our long experience as a conductor and ob- 
server of business colleges we believe these 
books to be peculiarly adapted to the needs 
of a very large number of the pupils of these 
institutions, as they present a brief, con- 
cise yet comprehensive course for a review 
of the branches named. Arrangements 
have been made with the publisher by 
which the books will be mailed from this 
office at the publisher's price, 50 cents each 
and the proper discount for large orders will 
be made to teachers. 

Glossy Ink. 
Inquiries are frequently made of lis re- 
specting glossy ink. Any common writing 
ink can be made glossy by adding to it a 
little gum arable or white sugar. If the 
latter is used care must be had not to use 
too much sugar, else the mixture will be 
sticky when dry, and if too much of either 
gimi or sugar is used the ink will become 
too thick to flow well. 

Clits Omitted. 

Owing to large amounts of space occupied 
by the writing and drawing lessons in this 
number, several attractive cuts purposed 
for this issue have been omitted. 

Art Lessons Appreciated. 

Editors Penman's Art Jouhnal : 

I am very much pleased to know that you 
propose to give us a series of art lessons 
through the Journal. We need it, and 
need it badly. There is a sad lack of art 
knowledge, not only among penmen, but 
among all classes. We have not been edu- 
cated properly. Art education has not as 
yet been incorporated into our educational 
system. Ignorance must be fought through 
tbe public schools, and if the art ignorance 
of the present generation is to be supplanted 
by a proper art culture in the next, the 
youth of the land must be tunght art. The 
present indifference to art education is no 
doubt owing largely to the fact that there is a 
general misunderstanding as to what art 
education is, or should consist in. I venture 
tbe assertion that to ninety-nine out of every 
one hundred people the term art suggests 
nothing but magnificent pictures and long- 
haired, dissipated, secluded human beings 
called artists. As long as we can associate 
with the term art naught but fine pictures, 
luxury and genius, we cannot hope that 
practical art education will receive the at- 
tention which its importance merits. 

Tbe Journal will be able to contribute 
much toward awakening an interest in this 
branch of education. It is true, the Jour- 
nal is a penman's paper, and devoted spe- 
cially to penmanship ; but penmanship and 
art have much in common. This I think 
will be admitted even by our utilitarian 
brethren, whose chirographic horizon con- 
sists of the multiplication table, and whose 
' ' Point of Sight " is fixed on the ledger page. 
Those of us who are dabbling in the so- 
called ornamental in penmanship, can easily 
persuade ourselves that our stags and eagles 
have something in common with art, and a 
few of us, strange as it may seem, have al- 
ready become reconciled to the idea that we 
are "artist penmen." When I say that 
penmanship — even business penmanship — 
and art have some things in common, I 
mean, of course, art in its elementary stages. 
Art education must begin with the study of 
form, " that inseparable characteristic of all 
that goes to make up the visible world." 
The next step is to represent the form of 
objects by means of lines ; this is drawing. 
To represent the form of an object by draw- 
ing we must learn to see. What writing 
teacher does not often wish that bis pupils 
could see a Htlle better I In learning to 
write, form must be seen, then made. This 
training of the eye to see, and of the hand 
to execute, is certainly common to both 
penmanship and drawing. 

As to ornamental penmanship, it is. or 
ought to be, art. It is to be regretted, how- 
ever, that there is so much " artistic " pen- 
manship among us with the art left out. 
There are a multitude of young and aspiring 
penmen in this country who have developed 
considerable skill in the manipulation of tbe 
pen, but whose lack of art knowledge ren- 
ders their socjilled ornamental or artistic 
designs simply ridiculous. And right here 
I apprehend the art lessons of tbe Journal 
will do a great amount of good. More anon. 
Fraternally yours. 

E. K. Isaacs. 

VALrARAiso, Ind.. Feb. 6, '86. 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 
and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as its title implies, is a com- 
plete exemplification of the peuman's art. 
In every department. It consists of seventy, 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It has forty-two different 
standard and ornat« alphabets, and a large 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, 
certificates, diplomas, headings, title pages, 
etc.. etc. We are confident that this work 
presents to the penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
any other work upon penmanship ever 
before published. Price by mail lately re 
duced from $5.00 to $3.50, at which price 
it is the cheapest book of its size and 
chanicter published. 

Any person who orders it from us, and 
does not find it all that we claim, is at 
liberty to at once return it to us and have 
his money refunded 

Answer to Above Letter. 

The above Icttc-r and the (lueslion therein 
asked are of a kind tliat fretiuently coof ront 
us, and to which, the answer we would give, 
is ot such general interest to learners of 
writini^, that we have seen fit to reproduce 
the letter in connection with our answer 
and other comments thereon. 

As a rule, we cannot possibly answer such 
correspondents, as are above represented, for 
want of t ime . To answer such a letter proper 
ly recjuires from a half to an hour's time, 
and when there are but eight, or at most tea 
working hours a day, our readers will at 
once see how utterly impossible it would be 
for us to answer from ten to twenty such 
inquiries daily as we are often asked to do. 
liut it is our purpose to shun no labor that 
is necessary to help the aggregate readers 
of the Journal to all the information and 
assistance respecting their writing in our 

In the above letter are several faults that 
arc very prevalent in writing, and, hence, 
our answer to the questions, and other ad- 
vice to the writer may be of interest to a 
large number of our readers. 

Question 1— Would my writing pass for a 
business hand ? 

We answer, no ; it is wanting in several 
respects : 

First, It is vacillating in its slant, as will 
be seen by the slant lines that we have 
ruled down the page. Most of the loop 
letters are too slanting, while others, 
notably the capital Is, are many of them 
too upright. Compare the / in line 13 
with the k following and see the wide vari- 
ation in slant, and so throughout the letter. 

Second, There is great want of uniformity 
as respects the following of the base line. 
(We have ruled two of the liaee In India 

ink that they might reprodi 
original faint blue line would not so repro- 
duce,) Referring to one of these, line 7, 
we take as an example the word " Jomt- 
NAL." while the last stroke of the n, the first 
of the a and the I are close to the line, the 
remainder of the word is more or less away 

Third, The shaded lines vary widely in 
their strength, as in line 1, the /and M 
have heavy shades, while the C has none, 
and the F has comparatively little. Again, 
in line 6. compare the three fs, and in line 
9, compare the two p's and these with the 
one directly under, both as respects shade 
and length of the letter. See also /, lines 16 
and 18. and W. lines 20 and 21. 

Fourth, The broken and uneven move- 
ment of the pen, as manifest in the frequent 
lifting of the pen and varying pressure 
in the midst of a letter or word. Examples 
in letters, see t and d in lines 1, 6, 7, 9, 
to. 11, 12, etc., etc., also Vs. lines 10, 11, 12. 
30 ; in words, lines 7, 13 and 21. 

Fifth, The disproportion of letters as in 
word "Broadway." line 4, as compared with 
word "premium," linel3, the word "Jouii- 
NAL," line 7, and same, lines 3 and 15 ; the 
same as respects letters in the same word — 
see a and p in the word " paper," line 11, 
Hu in "subscription," line 14, with the b 
and other letters, same word ; am, line 8. 
with "think," line 9. 

Sixth, Disproportion in size of capitals as 
between the P, lines 3 and 10, and the B, 
lines 4 and 22 ; the /, line 6, and same, 
lines IB, 13 and 16. 

Seventh, The varying turns and angles in 
letters, for example, the turns in the m, in 
" Imlay," line 1, are sharp angles, slightly 
closed from the base, also in m, in "am, ' 
line 8, while the same are open round turns 

in the first m in "premium," line 13; the 
n, three times, in line 3. is joined by a left 
curve, and at the base has a sharp closed 
angle, while the same letter, three times, in 
line 9 is joined by a line nearly straight and 
has an open turn at the base. 

Eighth, The general want of precision, 
grace and rapidity of movement requisite 
for a good business hand, 

Ques. 2.— In the aggregate the writing is 
not overshaded, but in many instances the 
shades are too heavy. 


First, Discipline the hand and acquire 
accuracy and rapidity of movement, by a 
careful drill upon movement exercises, us- 
ing the combined forearm and finger move- 
ment. This drill should be thoughtful and 
earnest ; much so-called drill is not drill at 
all, any more than chasing butterflies is 
martial drill. In order to serve as a disci- 
pline to the hand , each stroke must be earnest 
and sharply directed to a specific purpose. 

Second, Copy over and over some extend- 
ed composition, noting each time your most 
conspicuous faults. 

Third — and perhaps first — If you are 
within the reach of a really skilled teacher 
of writing, place yourself under his tuition 
for such a time as you may find necessary to 
assist you to overcome your principal faults 
and acquire the proper position of band and 
uniformity of style for a good hand. 

Many young writers, and especially those 
who are self-taught, fail utterly in the move- 
ment, not even having a true comprehension 
of what it is, to such a single lesson from a 
skilled teacher would he worth many times 
the cost of a course. 

For copies and further advice we refer 
the reader to Prof. Farley's leaeon beginning 
on the firat pa{;e of this Issue. 

The Convention 

Attention is invited t< 
in another column from Mr. Packard, as 
Chairman of the Executive Committee, 
respecting the next Convention of B. E. A. 
of A., to be held in New York the second 
and third week of July. Mr. Packard has 
therein stated all the information that can 
now be given, but it is perhaps proper for 
us as Chairman of the Committee on Pen- 
manship, to state that there is the most 
promising indication of the most largely 
attended and interesting convention yet 
held. So far as penmen are concerned, the 
facilities for work in connection with the 
regular sessions and special meetings will 
be as abundant as can possibly be desired, 
and as it is in the programme of nearly 
every penman and business college man to 
take in the metropolis at least once a year, 
why not do that next year in July ? and so 
take in the Convention ; many we know 
will, and we believe most will do so. 

No pains will be spared on the part of the 
officers or the fraternity of the East to give 
their " Occidental " fraters a right brotherly 
reception, such, we trust, as will cause them 
to return to their western homes, repining 
that the days of the Convention were so few, 
and were not always in New York. There 
oan be no doubt that those who come will 
be made glad, and those who do not, when 
they get the tidings, will be disconsolate. 
Decide early, and come sure, not omitting 
the wives, daughters, and sweethearts. 

Prof. Barlow's Lesson In Drawing 

Deferred till the March Number. 

So much space was occupied with the 

writing lesson, as well as on account of 

Prof. Little's extended article on Drawing 

in this number, we have deemed it advisable 

to defer Prof. Barlow's initial lesson until 

r March issue. 

Troubles of a Letter Carrier. 

" It would be a happy thing for us," said 
a tired letter carrier on his way to the post 
office after delivering his budget — " it would 
be a happy thing for us if people did not 
start in as correspondents until they knew 
how to write. I cannot, for the life of me, 
make out why men and women will keep 
putting lelters in the mails addressed in a 
hand that a Sandwich Islander would be 
ashamed to own. Some of the directions 
might as well be written with a bale stick so 
far as their legibility goes. Time and again 
I have to sbiud and puzzle over a scrawl that 
meant as little to me as the figures on the 
Obelisk, and then I've had to go to no end 
of worrimcnt and trouble to get a clew to 
the tangle of figure-s. It is a pity that they 
have not regular public letter writers here as 
in Eastern countries. Then a man or woman 
who did not know how to write might have 
his or her correspondence done up in a way 
that would spare us a heap of worrimcnt. 
Though, I suppose, thai wouldn't do either, 
for the pi'raoii who thinks he can write is 
persisU-nt in .sen<ling letters just iu propor- 
tion to his ignorance of chirography. I have 
known people who wrote an execrable hand, 
and who if any objection was made to it, 
would get as mad as hornets and swear their 
writing was sis clear as the sun in heaven. 
You can do nothing with such people. They 
will shove their hieroglyphics under your 
nose and chiim that it is out of sheer ill will 
that you refuse to recognize their meaning " 
—N. T. Herald. 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it is 
a rule that the Jouhnai. will be discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the terra for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

Remember that now is the time to sub- 
scribe for the Jochnal, while you can get 
all the back numbers and bigin with the 
year aud the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 
Guide to each subscriber. Also remember 
that theOoiDB alone Is worth all the money, 

And School Items. 

The handsome letter that appeared on page 6 of 
the December number, and was credited to George 
Spencer, Albany (N. T.) Busluesa CoUege should 
have beeo credited to B. H. Spencer. While not 
one of the "original" Spencen, he Is, neverthe- 
less, "a brlKht and shinlnff tight" In the realm of 

G. W, Allison, lately with the Columbus (Ohio) 
Buslnesi CoUeRe, has purchased the Newark (O)ilo) 
Business College. 

The Romeo (Mich.) Obterv f r saya, "Prof. Arthur 
D. Skeels has laid the Observer man under obllga. 
tlons for the handsomest and most artistically 
executed specimen of pen work ever ihown In 
Romeo. It Is a photo-ilthoirraph of a pen wurlc 
memorial to Gen. Grant. The work was done by 
D. T. Ames, of New York. It is on exhibition at 
the Observer offloe. 

n. C, Clark. Proprietor of Clark's Erie tPa.) 
Business College, and Editor of the Amfrican Pen- 
man, has lately opened a Business College at Buf- 
falo, N. T., assisted by C. U. Johnson, formerly 
business manager of the " Erie Dally and Weekly 
Dispatch Printing Co." Bro. Clark evidently Is not 
going to want for where- wlth-all to bnsy himself. 

The New Jersey Business College, Newark, N 
J., held it^ twelfth Graduating exercises at As 
Bootatlon Hall, on February 12. The programme 
was aa interesting one. We return thanks for an 
invitation and regrets at not being able to be 

Prof. W. P. Cooper, of Klngsvllle. Ohio, an- 
nounces. In another aolumn, that he will prepare 
specimen autographs for any who may desire, for 
the small sum of 15 cents. There is much in a good 
autograph, and we have no doubt that those who 
Invest the small sum named with Prof. Cooper 
wilt feel well paid. 

The annual reunion of the Alumni Association 
of; Packard's Business College will take place at 
the University Club Theatie, Madison avenue and 
aeth street, on Friday evening, February 20, at 8 
o'clock. The entertainment will coDslht of 
musical und literary exerclsea, followed by 

I for notice In this 

large proporni 
paid, for 
which, of 

:, of course, we are obli(ted to pay. This Is 
ily a desirable consideration for a gratuitous 

C. V- Wliltmar^h. North Attleboro, Mass. 

0. W. Srmvely, Urbana, Ohio. 

Arthur Arcand. Montreal, Canada. 

Harry Spencer. Stillwater. Minn. 

C. A. Freni 
club of subscribers to the Joornal. 

J. A. Schilling, Albany, N. Y. 

E. L. Kimbatl, of the Lowell (Uoas.) Business 
College, and club of ten names. 

A. N. Palmer, of the Wtttem Penman, Chicago. 

J. H. Barnes. Pi'alrle (ity. Oregon, and a club. 

G. A. Uough, Fort Soott, Kansas, 

P. C. Shattuok, Burdett Business College, Bos- 
ton. Mass., und a club of fourteen names. 

Elmer E. Lacy. Jones' Commercial College St 
Louht. Mo. 

W, S. Hart, Huddenfield, N. J. 

U. J. WilllamBon, Pen Art Hall. Richmond, Va. 
and a club of nine names. 

W. W. Burnett, Forest City Busloess College. 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

C. Lludmono. stenographer, New York. 

J. C. Dlefenbaoh, Walnut Creek, Ohio. 
I- 0. Coonrod, Atkinson CKan.) Business College, 


Chas. Wandless, Pittsburgh. Pa. 

Edmnnd Adams, copyist. New York, In round 
shaded hand, which is a good specimen for legal 

J. 11. Wethers. Raleigh. N. C. 

J L. Mason, Madlsonville, Ky. He says. "The 
JoDnNAL Is worth to me more than $10. 1 take 
several pnpera, and I would not give the Jodrnal 
for them all. It b the right thing In the right 

.1. D. Uolcomb. Cleveland. Ohio. Mr. Holoomb 
will be remembered as the able fldltor of the 
Ttaehtrr Outdf. He says, "The Journal is an 
honor to the profession, and ita management gives 
abundant evidence of the sklU and enterprise of 
its edltuns." 

W. K. Beach, Howell, Mich, 

KuKeneJ, Elmer. B. & s. Business College, SI. 
Louis, Mo, 

Prod Hopkins, Wlllimautio, Conn. 

F. I. Temple, W. Fishbury. Maaa. 

C. J. Lysing, Osakia, Mlun. 

Waller L. Slmms, New York, a lad of thirteen, 
writes a good letter, except that he uses too many 
flourishes. Walter Is one among many In thai 

J. C. Sheats, teacher of writing, Bedford, Mass. 

K. C. Davis, Providence, R. I. 

J. B. Qaylor. Stanton, Iowa, 

J. M. Lantz, teacher of writing, Emmlttsburg, 
Md., says : "The Jourmal improves every month, 
whore will It stop ? " 

H. C. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 

J. E. Rlckotts, teacher of writing, Saoo, Me. 

W. W. Blair, Providence, R. I., and a club of 

. Hawkins, 

s Commercial College, St. 

Q. W. Noyes. Cambrldgeport, Mass. 

Adam Fleeman, Jr., Harrlsburgli (Pa.) 
Company. He says : " I can cheerfully recommend 
the Journal to business men, in fact, to the com- 
mercial fraternity generally." 

W. H. Covert, of Fairfield Seminary, N. Y , and 
a club of seven names. 

J. H. Schoonover, Colo. Xowa. 

Geo. H. Bell. Carson City, Nevada. 

L, D. Hoback. Karlon, Ohio. He says: "It 
would be folly to compare any other penman's 
paper with the JoonrtAL," 

C. E. Webber, East Portland, Oregon. 

Frank O. Parkhurst, Rutland, Vt. 

W. R. Glen, College of Commerce. Pa., and 
adds sixteen names to his and Prof. Fllcklnger's 
king club of last month. 

G. W. Allison, Newark (Ohio) Business College. 

E. E. Oiilds. Holyoke (Mass.) Business College, 
and a olub of forty subscribers. 

James A. Kelly, Newark, N. J. 

A. E, Hall, Hall's Business College. Logansport, 

B. H, Spencer, Albany (N. Y.) Business College. 
A. C. Jones, Nelson Buaiuess College, Cincinnati. 

Geo. P. Farley, teaoher of writing, Ashaway. 
R. I., and a club of eight names. 

R. S. Bonaall, Carpenter's B. & S. Business Col- 
lege, St. Louis, Mo, 

I. C. Walk. Chambersburg, Pa, 

W. A. Schell, Alton. 111. 

Thomas Powers, Watertown, N. Y. 

A. B. Humphrey, Educational Institute, Patter- 

J. L, Trone, penman at Albia (Iowa) Academy. 

J. F. Tyrrell, N. W. M. Life Insurance Co., Mil- 
waukee. Wis. He says: "I never omit an oppor- 
tunity to recommend the Jourxal," 

A. D. Hines, Trundle's Cross Roads, Tenn. 

G. P. Sturges. Evanston, 111. 

M. M. Aust. Lawrence, Mass.. and a club of 

Mill Sanderson, teacher of writing, Shoshone, 

C. H. Stadelman.Iron City Commercial College. 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 
W. A. Moulder, Clyde, Ohio, 

A. B. Clapp, Beald's Business College. San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. lie says: "Every month adds to the 
most excellent Penman's Abt Juurnai., the best 
publication of the kind in the world, truly Amer- 
ican, and of which every American should feel 
proud and be able to truthfully assert I am a suh- 

G. V. Eggleston. Carthage, N. Y. 

M. A. Grant, B. & M. R. R. Freight Office, Omaha. 

C. W. Slocum, Chlllicothc, Ohio, and a chib of 

P. B. Sbinn, Padueah (Ky.) Business College, and 
a olub of eleven names, 

B. R. Jones, Racine. Wis. 

L. W. Hatlett, Milterton, Pa. 

C. G. White, National Association of Commercial 
Travelers, Syracuse, N. Y. 

Misses Phelps and Hooper, teachers of writing. 
SumnerviUe, Mich., and a club of names. They 
»ay, "wefind the JooKNALa great help, and we 
shall try and get up a club In every class here- 

M. E. Diefenderfer. Phlladelphlu. Pa., and re- 
news for two years. 

T. C. Strickland, Randolph. N. Y. 

Uriah McKee, Commercial Department, Oberlin 
(Ohio) College. 

S. A. D. Hahn, Helena. Mont. 

A. H. Hlnman, Uinman's Business College, Wor- 

J. E. Depue.-Tohnson'siComuierclal College St 
I>3uis, Mo. 

U. S. Brewer, Valparaiso. Ind. He says. " I have 
six volumes of theJomtNAL bound, and I regard 
them as the moat valuable and Interesting refer- 
ence pertaining to penmanship extant." 

M. V. Casey. Treasury Department, Woahhigton, 
D. C. 

H. 3. Kneeland, Cadillac. Mioli.. and a club of 

H.T. Loomis. Detroit (Mich.) Business University. 

C. E. Simpson, Saco, Me., and a club. 

H. E. Hull, consulting accountant and penman, 
Lima (Ohio) Writing Academy. 

Lizzie R. Forgens. River Sioux, Iowa. 

J. H. Bryant, Spencerian Business College, 
Cleveland. Ohio, and a club of forty-five names. 

G, R. Demary, Medina. N. Y. 

L. D. Blundln, Hulmeville, Pa. 

W. H. Behrens, St. Louis, Mo., and a club of four 

W. N. Ferris, Big lipids (Mich.) Business College. 
C. L. York, Wlnnepeg, Man, 
W. W. McClelland, Curry Institute, Plttsburgi 
Jas. A. Banzer, Wlnoppeg, Mass., and a olub of 

J. II. Klieudlnst, Card Writer, New Orleans. La. 

Frank M. Weir, Weir Plow Co.. Monmouth. 111. 

C, C. Maring. Portland (Oregon) Business College, 
and a club of thirty-four names. 

L H. Newman. BethanyNormal Institute, LInds 
borg, Kan., and a club of Ave names. 

J. 3. Johnson, Brandon, Ohio, and three sub- 

H. C. Davis. Instructor In Penmanship in Harry 
Hillniau Academy, Wilksbarre, Pa. He says, " 1 
thank you for the elegant "Grant Memorial." It 
will be treasured as chief d'oeuvre. The Jodbnai. 
is of great value to me n my class-room." 

L. Madarasz, of New York, a letter and several 
superbly written cards. 

J. H. Topping. Newburgh, N, Y., a slip of WTltlng 
and a Nourished Ird. 

Mrs, J. A. Hud »n, St. Ix)uis. Mo , and a olub of 

D, H. Snoke. South Bend (Ind.) Business College, 
and a club of six subscribers. 
L. A, Nyatt, Capital 

O. Perry Hoover. Daj-ton, Ohio. 

C. M. Robinson, Union Business College, La 
Fayette, Ind. 

John B, Moore, N. W. Business College, Stanbury, 
Mo., and a club of seven names. 

Alexander Veitch, Maynard. Mass. 

F. P. Lhit. teacher of Plain and Ornamental Pen- 
nmnship, Stella, Nev.,and a club of twelve names, 

Chas. A, Faust, Chicago. 111. 

J, W. Swank, Treasury Department. Washing- 
ton, D. 0. 

F. 0, Kittredge, Coleman Business College, 
Newark, N. J., andaolubofelglit subscribers. 

W. L, Kennedy. Cocoa, Fla., a letter and set'of 

H. J. wmiamson of the Pen-Art-Hall, Richmond. 
Va., several well executed specimens of liourlsiiing. 

W, H. McEweu. Brimfield. Ind., a letter and 

O. A. Pelger. teacher of wilting, Geneseo, III., a 
letter and cards. He says, " I have made excellont 
improvement in my wilting through the aid of the 

clutton, Chicago, 111., a letter and flourished bird, 
C. H. Klansmao, Minneapolis, Minn., a letter and 

plain and ornamental cards. 
P, A. Westrope.Grant, lowa,aletter,aflourished 

bird, and several well written copy slips He says, 

"The JocBNAL is the best penman's paper out, and 

H, C. Evans, Pierce, Ohio, a letter, card, and set 
of capitals. 

C. R. Bales, Evergreen Business College. Bloom- 
ington. 111., alotterund a Ilnety executed flourished 

B. P. Pickens, penman, Moopsvllle, Tenn., a letter 
and several specimens of writing and flourishing. 

G. G. Brown, Mt Pleasant MlUs, Penn.. a letter 
and a Mjicclmen of drawing and flourishing. 

R, F. Moore, Terrell. Texas, a letter, a flourished 
specimen, and a club of five names. 

J. W. Gibson, West Fork. Ind., a letter anjl a 
flourished bird. 

C. H. Klmraig. Pen Artist. Phlliidelphla. Pa., a 
letter, cards and flourishing, ail in .superior slyle. 

G. Bixler. Pen Art Institute. Sniithvllle. Ohio.a 
letter, cards, a fiuurisLed bird, and u cnpy of an 
Interesting little pamphlet entitled "Blxlcr's Phy- 
sical Training In Penmausliip." He snys, "I con- 
gratulate you on your good management of the 

E. Clayton, Ogdeu City, Utah, a letter and cards. 

U. W. Moses. Arkansas Valley Business College, 
Hut<'hlnson, Eos., a letter and cards. 

J. B. Andrews, Kyle, Texas, a letter and flour- 
ished bird. 

J. n. Cottle, Fort T.)tteu, Dak., a letter and 

E. Clayton. Ogden. Utah, a letter and cards. 

C. H. Klausman, Minneapolis, Minn., a letter and 


"Outlines of Psychology," with special 
reference to the theory of E(Jucalion. By 
James Sully. Heading Club Editioo. 
abridged and edited, with appendices, sug- 
gestive Questions, and references to ped- 
agogical works, by J. A. Reiuhnrt. Ph. D.. 
principal of the High and Normal Training 
School. Paterson, N. J. ICmo. pp. 375. 
Syracuse, N. Y., C. W. Bardeen. $1.50. 

We have rarely examined a book that has 
afforded us greater satisfaction than has this. 
No thoughtful or inquiring person can read 
it without satisfaction and profit. It has 
been adopted for the New York State 
Teachers' Reading Circle for the present six 
months, and is likely to prove one of the 
most interesting, as it is certainly one of 
the most important of the course, Its 
popularity may be inferred from the fact 
that eleven normal schools adopted it before 
publication, from inspection of advance 

"(Question Books with Answers." This 
is a series of four small books comprising 
U. 9. History, Geography. Grammar and 
Arithmetic, by B. A. Hathaway— each book 
containing 1001 practical questions and 

These are positively the only question 
books published that are complete enough 
on a single branch to be any help to 
teachers or others in preparing for examin- 
ations, or for reviewing pupils in schools. 

The ' ' 1001 Questions with Answers on U. 
S. History," Including the Federal Consti- 
tution and Amendments. This book divides 
the History of the United States into five 
periods, and questions are asked on each 
period separately and in the order in which 
the events occurred, so that any point in 
history can easily and readily be found. It 
is a most excellent book either for reference 
or to read consecutively. It contains 1,035 
questions with answers — 34 more than the 
title indicates. Bound in cloth. Price 50 
cents. Postpaid. 

" 1001 Questions with Answers on Geo- 
graphy," embracing Descriptive. Physical 
and Mathematical Geography. The de- 
scriptive questions are asked on each grand 
division separately, thus enabling the 
student to refresh his mind on any particular 
country without reading over the entire 
work. Besides the very elaborate descrip- 
tive part, the book contains 105 of the most 
important questions on Physical Geography, 
106 questions on Mathematical Geography, 
and 15'1 miscellaneous iiuestions. This 
volume contains in all over 1,200 questions 
with answers. Bound in cloth. Price 50 
Cents. Postpaid. 

" 1001 Questions with Answers on Gram- 
mar," with copious illustrations, parsing 
and analysis. The numerous illustrations, 
false syntax with corrections, and the pars- 
ing of difficult words, are alone worth twice 
the price of the book. No one who does 
not understand English Grammar thor- 
oughly can afford to be without this inval- 
uable little work. It contains 1.048 ques- 
tions with answers, besides the appendix. 
Bound in cloth. Price 50 cents. Postpaid 

•• 1001 Questions with Answers on Arith- 
metic," including nearly 800 test examples 
with answers and solutions. Besides treat- 
ing thoroughly the entire scope of Arith- 
metic, this book contains from 10 to 30 test 
examples with answers and solutions under 
each subject — the solutions being placed in 
the appendix. In ihis book there are over 
1.100 questions with answers. Bound in 
cloth. Price 5U cents. Postpaid. 

Either of the above-named books will be 
sent postpaid on receipt of the publiaher's 
price, viz., 50 cents, at the office of the 
Journal. These books would be of great 
value in business colleges, for students who 

" Household Receipts," by Joseph Burnett 
&Co. , Boston. Mass., is a small pamphlet 
of 67 pages. Price by mail. 25 cenu. 

The '■ Pocket Atlas of the Worid," pub- 
lished by Rand, McNally & Co., 323 Broad- 
way. New York, is a little book that every 
sensible man carries with him. It contains 
128 pages ; 05 are full page colored maps, 
setting forth the geographical features of 
the whole wnrjd ; 5? pages are filled with 
rr.i'hd^ tiiiHrr r midenscd into a graphic 
I II 1 lie fads in the social, r 

ivill fail to find it 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

The lesson for March will be given by 
P. J. Tohind. Canton. 111. Mr. Toland 
has long been known iis one of the skilled 
imd popular teachers of the West, and will 
undoubtedly render his lesson highly inter- 
estiog and instructive. 

The lesson for April by E. L. Burnett of 
the Providence, R. I. Business College. 

The lesson for May will be given by 
A. J. Scarborough of the Cedar Rapids', 
Iowa, Business College. 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable ; 

H. W. Flickinger, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. J. Stewart. Trenton, N. J.; W. R. 
Glen, Phila. ,Pa. ; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
R.J. Magee. New York; L,L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N.J.; C. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
H. Patrick, Baltimore, Md.; E. Burnett, Bal- 
timore, Md, : H. T. Loomis, Spenceriim 
Business College, Detroit, Mich. ; Uriah 
McKee, Oberlin (Ohio) College ; A. W. 
Lowe, Providence. R. I.; W. A. Moulder. 
Clyde, Ohio; G. A. Uougb. Fort Scott, 
Kan., a lesson on combination capitals. 

"We are very sure that the practical infor- 
mation that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to be given by such representa- 
tive teachers as are named above will be 
of solid advantage to all teachers and pupils 
of writing. 

Note. — All who have consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate the 
time at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig 
nified his purpose to give a lesson, and 
who contemplates doing so, 
hereby extended. 

Editors Penman's Aut Journal ; 

I note that in the Jodrnal of January, 
Mr. Gillespie says : " A teacher should put 
before his students the various styles of 
practical letters and let them choose there- 
from the ones they fancy. " 

I do not agree with him for this reason ; 
You can obtain no good results. I will en- 
deavor to explain. 

If you let the students practice on any 
letter which may suit their fancy, you will 
of course have a class practicing in a kiod 
of "go-as you please " manner. Again, 
students once given the privilege of choos- 
ing their letters for practice will be in- 
clined to take advantage and choose letters 
that instead of advancing will have a ten- 
dency to retard their progress. 

If the students be allowed to do this, the 
teacher may as well go to the board and 
write a number of letters and say, " There 
are different styles of letters, and you may 
practice from any letter you choose." It 
will make more work for the teacher, be- 
cause be cannot explain the various, copies 
to the satisfaction of all the pupils present. 
Some will listen, but the majority will not. 
for all will not choose the same copy. The 
teacher cannot give various copies, and 
while explaining one keep the attention of 
the whole class, and what is more annoying 
than to have part of the class pay no atten- 
tion while you are talking ? 

The teacher is supposed to know what is 
best for the scholar's good, aod to give only 
that which Is practical. Is tt to be sup- 
posed that the scholars will choose copies 
more practical than one which the teacher 
might give to the class as a whole ¥ I think 

There will be no systematic practice by 
the class, and without such practice can a 
scholar attain beauty, legibility and rapidity. 
I believe in giving practical copies, system- 
atically arranged. 

At the close of Mr. Gillespie's article he 
says: "What is the idea of others upon 
this subject ? " The comments above are 
what I think of that part of his article 
which I have mentioned. 

I think others will agree with me, and 
should like to know if possible through the 
columns of the JornsAL the opinions of 
others." A. W. Lowe, 

Providence, R. I. 

Remember, you can get tiie Joornal one 
year, and a 7.'>-cent book free, for $1 ; or a 
|1 book and the Journal for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

To the Members of the Bus! 
ness Educators' Association. 

At a meeting of the Executive Committee 
of the Business Educators' Association, held 
in New York, Saturday, January 23* it was 
decided to call the Convention for Wednes- 
day, July 7. The preliminary exercises, 
consisting of organization, the delivery of 
the President's address, etc.. will be held at 
the rooms of Packard's College, 805 Broad- 
way, at 1 P. M. Public exercises, including 
a welcome from eminent citizens, will be 
held in the evening at a public hall, to be 
named hereafter. 

It is the wish of the Committee to make 
the Convention, in all respects, edifying and 
profitable to the members, as well as satit 
factory to the community. They recogniz 
that the time has come in our work whe 
we should assume and maintain our place i 
the great educational movement that is going 
forward ; and that while we are able to do 
this to a gratifying extent in our respective 
schools and respective communities, the 
great public can best be reached through 

in the Convention of last year, when, it will 
not be forgotten, we were able, from the 
first day, to interest and hold the sympathy 
and CO operation of educationists and promi- 
nent citizens. 

It cannot, of course, be expected that our 
forthcoming Convention will be so promi- 
nent a feature among the competing inter- 
ests of New York as our last was in .lack- 
souville — not that it will be less worthy of 
the greater city, but that so many other 
things will be occurring at the same t' 
It is believed, however, that a genuine in- 
terest can be awakened here, and that there 
will be no occasion for the Business Educa- 
tors' Association of America to take the back 
seat among the many attractions of the 

The Committee were aided in their dis- 
cussions by such members of the Associa- 
tion as were accessible, and a very general 
expression was had that the indications were 
favorable for an unusually interesting time. 

It is yet too early to perfect a programme 
of exercises, but the Committee desire to 
receive suggestions from members that will 
aid them in their work. Especially is it de- 
sirable that those who have access to teach- 
ers through their college exponents and 
otherwise, should lend their valuable efforts 
toward promoting a wholesome zeal for the 
forthcoming Convention. 

If there was one thing more pronounced 
than another at the recent meeting, it was 
that the Business Educators' Association 
was and should be a body of teacJuiTs, rather 
than of proprietors of schools, and that 
while all steps which lead to progress in 
business education, necessarily benefit the 
schools, they equally benefited, financially 
and otherwise, every teacher. 

Another fact recognized is that this Asso- 
ciation is national — or rather international — 
and not local, and that the mere incident of 
its Conventions being held in one part of 
the country or another has, and should have, 
nothing whatever to do with their character 
or constituency. The member from Texas 
should have as warm an interest in the out- 
come of a New York Convention, as if it 
were held in his own State ; and so of all 
other points far (tr near. 

The Committee hope to be able within a 
few weeks to present in a more or less de- 
tailed form, the plans for the Convention. 
Meanwhile, any communications addressed 
to the Chairman will receive respectful at- 

Our T Square. 

We have seen a very convenient instru- 
ment for shading or ruling. It is a square 
provided with a double head, and can be set 
from the width of a hair to something like 
seven-eights of an inch. The operation of 
ruling is rapid, and can be performed at any 
angle, A Hue is drawn and the blade is 
slipped by a guage. another line drawn and 
so on until the work is finished. The tool 
can be used as a plain ruler when desired, as 
it has beveled edges, one of which is brass 
lined. Mr. D. T. Ames, of 20.') Broadway. 
N. Y. , uses this ruler in bis elaborate pen 
drawings, and be will supply the instru- 
ments when wanted.— 7'Af Trade Jtevitw. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 
Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," "or the "Guide to Self- 
Instniction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

Steel Pens— We are in receipt of sam- 
ples of several grades of the Pay son. Dun- 
ton & Scribner steel pens manufactured and 
sold by Messrs. Potter, Ainswortb i&Co., 
107 Chambers street. New York. These 
pens are of several grades and well adapted 
for all general purposes. See card in our 
advertising columns. 

The Truth About Shorthand. 

The following article from the New York 
Tribuiu, so thoroughly meets our views and 
observations respecting the whole subject of 
shorthand, and so well answers the many 
questions that are constantly being addressed 
to the .JoDiiNAL, that we have thought best 
to here reproduce it ; 

"The Tribune receives many inquiries 
like the following : 

Can you tell me what is the best system 

of shorthand necessary to obtain a situation 
as a reporter on a newspaper ? How are 
stenographers paid ? By answering these 
questions you will greatly oblige,' etc. 

" These questions have been submitted to 
a highly successful stenographer, who re- 
turns these answers to them ; 

' ' The systems most widely practiced here 
are ' Ben.'^ Pitman's, Munson's, Isaac Pit- 
man's and Graham's. They are all much 
alike ; practically they all make use of the 
same material. There are not a few people, 
however, who seem to spend most of their 
time in trying to demonstrate that any one 
of the above systems is vastly superior to all 
the rest ; but that sort of talk is in the main 
!, and the student will do well to 
himself little about it. Each of 
these systems has turned out first-class 
stenographers, and there are equally good 
stenographers who write other systems less 
generally known. More depends on the 
man than on the system. Generally the 
practiced stenographer does not adhere 
closely to any one system, but appropriates 
suggestions from all. 

" Shorthand can be learned by the aid of 
text-books without a teacher, though, of 
course, a pupil is likely to make better pro- 
gress with competent instruction. If this 
cannot be obtained, the student should en- 
deavor to make the acquaintance of some 
practical stenographer, who will give him 
occasional hints and see that he keeps on 
the right track. Most of the text-books 
abound in too many refinements and con- 
tractions, whereby a few scratches may be 

practical objection to this sort of shorthand 
is that such ' notes' are found to have half 
a dozen different meanings when 'cold,' and 
perhaps none of them the correct one. 
Shorthand is a compromise between speed 
and legibiHly. The beginner is apt to pay 
too exclusive attention to the former, and 
should therefore be warned not to bother 
with too many contractions. 

" The length of time it will take a lad to 
teach himself shorthand depends, first, on 
the sort of lad he is, and second, on the 
amount of time he can give to it. To 
master shorthand requires above all things 
patience and perseverance. A lad studying 
alone will generally have to stick to it hard 
for a couple of years before he can make it 
pay. A few may be able to master it in 
half the time. 

"People who advertise that they can 
teach shorthand thoroughly in three months 

for general newspaper work than a reporter 
who cannot. As a matter of fact, there are 
not more than a dozen shorthand writers 
regularly employed on all the great New 
York dailies together. In England a re- 
porter must know shorthand. Most of this 
work consists of verbatim reporting. Here 
strictly verbatim work is not often required 
except for great meetings. The most suc- 
cessful reporter is he who can best present 
the interesting points of a ."icene or speech 
in a readable, attractive shape. The Amer- 
ican public does not care much for mere 

■' Expert stenographers who can take 
testimoiiy in court often earn handsome 
sums. But such expertness is attained only 
by years of practice and great natural apti- 
tude for the work. 'Half-way ' stenog- 
raphers are abundant in New York who are 
glad to work for $15 a week, often less. 
A stenographer who is competent to attend 
to the correspondence of a railroad official 
or some man of large afflairs usually gets 
from $30 to |130 a week. Of course, if the 
stenographer is something more than a mere 
machme man and can do other things well 
besides writing shorthand, so much the bet- 
ter are his chances of making good wages. 

"There is no mystery about shorthand. 
It does not require any unusual amount of 
brains or any extraordinary powers of mem- 
ory to acquire it. But it does require to be 
stuck to persistently. There Is no recreation 
in learning it. If only half known it is 
treacherous and worse tl'ian useless. Nobody 
should take it up unless prepared to make 
great sacrifices of time and patience. 

A young literary man in Portland recently 
had the finger of bis right hand cut off at 
the first joint. lie will now write bis 
stories in short-hand. — Puck. 

The Grant Memorial, 
which is now offered as a premium, free, to 
every subscriber or renewer of a subscrip- 
tion to the Journal, is eliciting the warm- 
est commendation from both the press and 
patrons. It is printed upon flue heavy plate 
paper. 22 s 28, and is a picture that would 
be an ornament to any home in the land, 
while as an office or school-room picture 
none could be more appropriate or beautiful. 
Subscribers may still have a choice of any 
of the premiums heretofore offered. 

We append a few of the many favorable 
mentions received of the Grant Memorial ; 

" It l3 an exquisite work of art Hnd alone worth 
the price ot suDscrtptioD to the Jodrnal; the t>eHt 
pubfifatinii of Its kind in 

of being eleirantly I 
preniium with each budsci 

chelftaiQ a 

appropriate and graceful tribute to the memory of 
the dead c\i\itia.\ar—TdephOM, PhUadfljihia. Pa. 
"It la a beautiful Epecimen of the highest pen 
art. and is alone worth the price ($1) of a year'^ 
subscription to the JoiiRSAi.."-T/te Teo'-fier, PhUa- 

" It is a superb reproduction of a fine work of 
pen art, and Is given as a premium with the Jour- 
nal. This paper is invaiuablo to every penman 
or to those who desire to tjetler their hand- 
writ inK."—.ffiwi. Ira Matjhtiv, Ddroit. Mirh. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's " Guide to Self -Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, fiour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return it, 
and we will refund the cash by return mail. 

The Writing-liuler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
JouKNAL on receipt of 80 cents. 

What Can be Made by Invest- 
ing $2.50. 

Wn,MiNGTON, Feb. 6. 1886. 
New England Gaud Co.: 

Of n/8 — Enclosed find $1. Send me 
Wortbington's Ink to that amount. The 
1.800 cards you sent me for $2..50 are all 
gone. I made about $40 clear. It was the 
best bargain I ever made. Will try i " ' 

order next t 


J. H. Cb 

I mall, from the i 

e finest trade In this olty, their name 

Jtten on I doz. cards, either plain 

flourished, a fao-simile of that renowned 

superbly written < 

penman, H. W. FlicklORer. of \i 
Ctroular and samples ot m" ~" " 
Address, C. H. KIMMIG. 

nts only. 
3t, Phila- 


ANTED.— By an experienced Teacher of Pen- 
nnship, a position to teai.'h the art in some 
1 State ; is qualified to teach Bookkeeping 
Satisfactory reference given. Address, 

ALBERT W. CLAPK, S06 Federal 


.26 WORTH FOR ffil.OO. 

Birds (fresli from the peul SU-SO 

1 Flourished Eattle (fresh from the pen) ... M 
A Beautiful set of Off Uand Capital lA'ttcrs . . .2f> 
J» dozen Cards with your name eU-gautiy 

written In various combinations '& 

3 dozen Written Copies and Exercises, worth 

AddrL-ys Total , $2.25 

and durable hinder for the .Iournal. 

It Is conBlmi-ted to serve both as a file and hinder. 
Sent post-paid, on receipt of $1,50. 

0-tf 905 Broadway, Sew York. 


' pholo'engraved from original pen-and-ink cojiy. cj-eoikd at t/w Offiir of the .Iotiiinal. and arc given as spcrimaui of pen irork prucUmlly appli^'d fo. 
displaying the printer's art. Orders for mnilar work promptly executed at the Officf- of the Journal, and at a moderate cost. 




By the ImiKlred 25.00 

Reralt by Draft tin (liicago or New Ynrk, by 
■stfti or Lxpress Order, or Currency by Express 
Itflgiaterea I,etter. 



1 Stato Street, Clilcago, 


*A School Tliorouclily Equipped for Office Train'mR.'^ 

Book-Keeping by Actual Business Practice. 





llBbed, It t9 called " Vew Practical," and la eent 
br maU on receipt of |1, by 

_, ^ . H. A. SPENCER. 8-18 

•p«noerI&n BnslDeas College, II lut Ittt St., M, T. 



The most complete and comprehensive work 

on the subject ever published. 


Author of Nelson's Mercantile Arithmetic and 

Nelson's Bonkkeeplne ; and I^esident of the 

J College Company of Cln- 


making sixteen columns and over one thousand 
references, enabling the book-keeper to find 




Business, Coal, Flour, 
nd Stationery. Furniture, 
ring. ImportinK. Export- 
IB Ing, Individual Partner- 
ping for Building Assocta- 
, and an entirely new 
nlring only a minlmnm 

Tnal Balance— Iltveru Posting^ 

Boo -t with Complex Entrita. 
pOT e CompaniM. 

orpornle Companits. 
or. Confusion in Corporate 

nd oj/t, wlC/i Difficult Caloila- 

1 City, with particulars 

g*o/a Ne-o Set of Book*. 

The Private Ledger^ Directions for Its tTse. 

Account of Aisigneeit, Executonand Adminittratort. 

Busineni and Banking Caicidations. 

The Author^a Method </ Computing iX^cown^ pub- 
lished in 1859, and now In use In the larger 

Calculaliona In Marklna Goods— Foreign Exchange— 

book paper, bound In the latest style, and bo 
subscription, or mailed to any address for I 
per copy. Schools and Colleges being fiim 



au excellent iuvestnieut tu iticln^e three lettei 
stamps In a tetter—containing all necessary faots- 
for a Jouniat of '10 jiages. a circular of 8. and ai 
elegant specimen of PENMAMSHlp. Address 



Ha« been put In Desirable Form and now Retail: 


REMEMBER, It is the only book of Its kind eve 
published 1 containing seven hundred (TOO) ques 
tioiis and answers, together with 

Articles, Lectures, Criticisms, and 

Alt pertaining to Penmanship, .ind coverli 
pages of superior paper. Stamps Takes. Ad 


Keokuk, Iowa. 

President Pelroe'i Bulneu CoUegv, io-i9 


give a thorough course of !2 lessons in plain 
lanahip. by mail, for $3.00 cash. In advance, I 
thoroughly convinced that results are obtained 
_,, . . — . .__ penmanship by mail as by 

make just as rapid improvement at vour 
homes as at an Institute of Penmanship or Business 
College. Tou will save railroad fare. 

tqually a 

tersonat instruction. 

n expensive t 

• homes. 

rtlege of 

[ tuition 

} thorough and complete a 

ilse in the United States for three t 

charge. By taking this c 
Ime. by home practice, be _ _ 
Qan, and with very small c . 

secuted with care. The student's ■ 
ully examined and a handsomely v 
ent. pointing out his principle faults 
ust now to avoid making tliem. 

t, be obtained anywhei 

Each lesson Is 

i for practice. After practicing for a 

le sudent sends r 

3 and at the s 

efforts, which : 
1 another lesson. 

j step by step until he reaches 

the top round. Those who have loeen trying to be- 

for it will certainly 
tory to them. 
The following were sent ___ , __ _. 
completing a 

by Mr. L. H. Richard. 

graph, one of which was written before taking your 
course and the remainder to-day. It Is with pro- 
found admiration of your skill to execute and ability 


t handwriting. Wishing y 

L. H, 1 

Mr. Richard now wiltes a beautiful hand i 

him only S3.00 and a little hard study and 
^ I shall present from time time the auto- 
graphs of those taking the course who have made 
' 'le greatest improvement, and request all who send 
ir the course to send their autograph as they vnite 
hen commencing it. A course of 10 lessons in Card 
'riting and Off-hand Fiourial^lng will be given for 

My experience with Prof. Dakln baa been of 
--• satisfactory 

J him by mall, and the progress 

I lessons 

Had I been told pi 
I etiounr certainly have i^ald it was impo'sslbli 

could gain this knowledge of penmanship so rapidly 

■ ■ certainly have said it was im "' ' 

heartily thank him for tlie 

he bestowed upon n 

London, Ontario, Canada. 

Card Writing. 

I have had a very large experience In th 
ork and cnu, I believe, please all who 
leir orders In my hands. Written cards v, 
ore popular than now and no doubt the t 

Instruction by Mail, 

B. F. KELLKY, Petvmar.. 

Office of the PbniUiN's Abt Jouhnal,, 

No. 20G BROAI>WAY, New York, 

A Course of Five Lessons in Penmanship, 
by mail, for $5. 

A Criticism of Letter or Specimen of Writing 
with snggeatlonB for Improvement, tl- 



lately added several new and popular styles t 

and to fill aU 


Grade A— Plain Bristol, best quality $0.40 $0.76 

" " " " Ing Bristol 46 .S2 

QoldEdge 50 

B— Wedding Bristol . . 

C— Bevel Gold Edge., 

D— Bevel Gold Edge, turned comer .60 tl-M* 

^ r,_^^_. ..:_._. ----'-13 fresh 

E— Pen flourished, ISdeaigns,! 

n of pen work,' 

P— Gilt Edge, best quality. . 

I—Bevel Bristol, 8 ply. 

L — Uankin's Latest 

P— Book Cards 75 

3— Mourning C 
P— Book Cards _ 

Address Lines . __ 

Parties sending me (LOO may order cards 
.mount of SL80. Handsome New Year Card 
or 40 cents per dozen. Samples of my skill i 

Agent's Book of Sample Cards. It contains one each 
of the 1(1 different grades named in the above list, 
and all are executed In my very best style. Bovs 
you can make money taking orders for written 
CBi'ds. My reduced rates will surprise you. 
The cards you sent me are magnificent and equal 
o any ave ever receive ^rom ^nyj>^ie^ ^ 

SIGNATURES.— Your signature written on 13 
cards In assorted styles and combinations for 35 cts. 
I believe lean write any name in a greater variety 
of unique and artistic styles than any other penman 

I consider Prof. Daklu one of the finest penman in 
this country. Uia card work is very beautiful. 

G. A. Gaskell. 
CAPITALS.-For 26 cents I will send a set of 

them fresh from the pen and always my very best, 
" ' 1 Flourish received. Every letter 
Itself. Th^r are equal if not su- 
,, and I have work 

Your Capitals and Flourish n 

in, Milwaukee, Wis. 

■ finest penmen In America. 
_ A. lioFFMAN, Penman. M" 

■ ' " ' ■"" n business ietier, answei 

peamauship, or where t 

md a handsomely v 

The Exercises 

That the advertiser has practiced for the past five 
years, and have L-alned for lilm wonderful skill with 
the pen, should be In the hands of all who wish tu 
become expert penmen. Sent to any address for 
35 cents. A set of Capitals sent with the Exercises 

Steel Pens. 

Why use a poor pcu when you can get the very beat 
for the same amount. Send me Jl.oO for one gross, 
or 45 oenta for H giosa, and I will send you the kind 
I use. They are jnade expressly for line writing. 

Card Ink. 

The finest writing is produced by using Dakin'a 
Card Ink, which is now uned by nearly all first-clasa 
penmen. Sent by express for $1.40 per quart. Re- 
cipe for making the best glossy black Ink for fiourisb- 

ey Orders or Postage 

Txillr. N. Y. 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

A TJ-rtil«mn monthly, with Lfssons In Ornamental 
Pcnmaiiahlp, by Prof. E. K. ISiVACS, and Plain 
Penmiinshlp, by 8. D. FORBES. Bookkeeping 
illustrated. Business Law articles by Leading 
Lawyers, etc. 60c. per Year, with a choice 
of the following Premiums— r06-page Dictionary, 
or a ^ gross of best Pens and Patent Oblique 
Holder. Subscribe now, and receive back numbers. 

Patent Oblique 
ve back numi 



. -^ytftl;^-^^™ 


LAPIUNUM (Stom-Clom. 

e Blackboard 
Teachers, Sondar Schools, et«. 

Itolls tiKhtly. like n. map. without Injury. Unequal- 
ed murkliit; surface. Superior eroslWe qualities, 

36 in. wide, 1 marking surface, per linear yd, $1 50 

rut up Id rollH ot la yds, ea. Sold In any quantity. 

Black Diamond Slating. 

The Bini hi(iiiu} ^laiing {wWiout exception) far 
Witlit tiTul W'ouden Blackboards. 
Mukes tbf finest and most durable surface, 
Easily applkd with a common brush to any sur- 
face. Tut up in tit) cand of various sizes, witu full 
directions how to use. 

PiDt5i.$l.aR; Quarts, S'2; Half-Gallon, $3,50; Gallon 

$ti.M) Flat Brush (-4 in.) 50 cent.s. 

One quart easily covers 50 square feet with three 

coats, the number usually applied. 

XJscd and git( It Perfect Sudsfaction in 

Columbia Cn)li*i,'tMSrliiu.lnr MiiicM. New York city 

Columbia UniiLiiM;ir ^(.1 1. '• 

College of I'llJMl■l,■lll^ uiiil siiik'i<in=, " 

University of tin- i iiv uf Ntw "inrk, " " 

College of the VWy uf New Yuik, 

College of Pharmacy, 

College of St. Francis Xavler, " " 

Lafayette College, — Eastern, Pa. 

Madison University Hamilton, N. Y. 

St. John's College Ford ham, N. Y. 

Stevens Institute of Technology.. .Uoboken, N.J. 

Stevens High Scliool 

UniversKy of Mis.sissippi Oxford. Miss. 

State Normal School .. Oshkosh, Wlc. 

Bingham Sthnoi Mehaneville. N. C. 

L. 1. Hiispital Me ioiil CMlleiie... Brooklyn, N. Y. 
New Y'ork Rlo.'k FxchaiiL-i-. New York Cotton Ex- 
change, New ^iTk I'lorime Exchange, New York 
Coffee Exchiini:'', Niw ^■•v\^ Imn and Metal Ex- 
change, 5quil:itiU' (.mm ;iLnl I'mtiiice Exohangt.-. 

In the J'uhhr Schmh of 

Washington, DC , (exclusively*. Palerson, N. J. 

New York Citv. Flushing, N. Y, 

San Francisco, Cal. Mt. Vernon, N. T. 

Newark, N. J. Poughkeepsie.N.Y. 

Moutclmr. N. J. Waverly, N. Y. 

Uloomfield, N. J. nartford. Conn. 

Jersey Oily, N. J, Naugatuck, Conn. 

Bereen Point. N. J. Eastnampton.Mass 

Siiuth Orange. N. J. Knoxville, Tenn. 

llobuken, N. J. lialeigh. N. C. 



No. 1. . . Size.'.; x^ f.'.t $1 V, 

No, 2 ■• L'l,.\:)U. ■■ 1 Tj 

No. 3 ■' 3 'x4 ' ■• 'Z-i^ 


Plain. Witlioiit Shelf. 

No. 1. -..,16124 iocbea Si 25 

No, a »x33 " 2 25 

No. 3 Ituled for musio, 24x36 inches S 75 

This M universally admitted to be the best 
material for blackboard in (/at. 



li^tf 205 Broadway N«w Vork. 

Something Entirely New 




J. C. BRYANT, M. D., 

President of tlie Bryant &, Stratton Buffalo Business 
College (Copyrighted 18S6.) ; 

Elementary, 104 pages, Price, $ .80 
Commercial, 160 1.50 

Counting-House,3l2 2.50 

An entirdy mrw work, .mil fr..iii press, embracing 
all the nuxtcrn if'ij,rvi:r,i:'ii'. and tevt busintia/orms 
now in UMe. ('cuiriiiTinit: n'-w iiiid advanced ideas 
In relation to ihi' luc^L-ntanun of ilic principles and 

A Complete Key for Teachers Now Ready. 

The Business Kan's Commercial Law and 
BusineGa Forms Com'biQecl. $2, 

The best textbook for Colleges and SohoolB ever 



J. C. BRYANT, Publisher, 
S-13 BUFPAXO. N. Y. 

Spencerian Compendium 

Recognized Authority for 
Tne Learner, The Card-Writer, 

The Adept, The Slgn-Writer, 

The Teacher, The Pen-Artist, 

The Engrosser, The Book-keeper, 

The Engraver, The Connoisseur 

Engraved on Steel, from Actual Pen-Work, 

The aim of Una publication is to present a Cyclopedia of Pen-Art in its widest 
range, most varied adaptation, and most perfect execution. 

THE COMPENDIUM Oomprises Eight Parte. 

I.— Elegant Script Forms, particularly adapted for Book-keepers and Com- 
mercial Colleges. 

II.— Devoted to Off-hand Flourishing. 

III. — Bold and Striking Forms for Sign-writers. 

IV. — Off-hand Spencerian Capitals, mostly new forms. 

v.— Great variety of Lettering, from the Simplest Marking Alphabets to the most 
Elaborate Initials. 

VI. — A Complete Course of Sixteen Lessons in Plain, Practical Writing, with 
Special Scries of Business Forms. 

Vn. — Varieties of Writing, including Spencer Brothers' Abbreviated Hand, 
Italian Script and Intricate Caps, and Celebrated Back-hands. 

Vin. — Of special interest to Business Men, Professional Designers and Penmen, 
containing^ double-page Graduated Scale for Construction of Roman 
Capitals, Etc. 

Price of the Parts, Together or Separatelv, 
Post-paid, 60 Cents Each. 




Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. s- 



It is upon- a thoroughly systematic ami 

educational basis. 

It ts adapted to the actual and practical 

needs of schools. 

It is in accordance with the most rational 

and approved methods of teach- 

It has stood the test "/ school-room 

use where all others hanc failed. 

N" other series of iej-t-bofk-s is so com- 
prehensive in its scope and so 
practical in its results 'm KRU- 

Draicing is now regarded as one of the 
essential and organic elements of pub- 
tic-school education. 

No systnn of Drawing should he adopted with- 
out art exainination of KRUSI'S. 

r. APPLETON & CO., Publishers. 

' Vork, I 

n, Cliicagu, San Franotaoo. 

SHORTHAND SiT S?." p^'eSii?^ 

giiod sitiifttioiLS procured ail pupils when competeot 
IMiimocraphytliorouKlily learned. openB the beat 
fiplil fnr young peonle, eapeclaUy for educated 
vounE ladies. Send for ctr'lar. W.G.CHAFFEE, 



all thG multitude of treatises 
e science and practical worth c 
e one under review is by far tt 
It la almnle, direct, practical, i 
y free from ruts. The 

itirely fr 
i to alio- 

Evidently startinc < 

furnish information i 

'XI>erleneed they a 

iif works that t 

f elaborate Koth- 
i really valuable addition 

value."— Burlirujton (lowai flaiokeye. 
Price, S2.00. 


Send me yoni 
u.d I w •' 



n in full, and 25 ce 

will send 

_ . . and I win 
hand, price list descriptive of Lessons by Mail, 
Extended Moveme ~ * " . ~ .. . 
Cards, Flourishing, 

1, Tracing Exercises, Capitals, 

A. E. 



? friends who 

J humor, 

nagazine published. Subscription 

>f Our Quarterly Magazine. 10 cents. Addresa 

5 and 27 North High St., Colcmbus, Ohio. 




AKe The Best 



27, 28, 29 and 30, 

are well adapted for bulJ buslm^*s writing. 
Samples for trial on applk-atlou. 


V.'ia and 756 Broadway, N. Y. 

The Automatic Shadine Pen 

Makes a Shaded Mark of Two Colors at a 
Slnffle Stroke. Sample Set of three sizes, 
by mall, tl Circular and sample writing 
free. B-12 J. W. STOAKES, Milan, O. 


eant flourished S 
1-3 H. ■■■ ^ 

I, SI- Illustrated Circulars f 

123 Pine S 

, Maine. 

Send for a Sample Copy of our Journal, and 
learn of our plan of " InglrucHng any ptrson in any 
Study" by CORRESPONDENCE and Reading 
Circles. Over 60 College Professors engaged, con- 
ferring DEQitESB, Sample Copy mailed for postage. 
CairAoo, III, 

f urn Is hod \a 


Pens are of English manufacture, 
and are unequaled for elegant penmanship of all 
kinds. They are suitable for students' praotl< 
home and in school ; and are unexc"'^ '"~ 
writing, flourishing, specimen makini 
are ]ust what they are labpled— ' 
These pens are line, smooth pointed, double eiasti 


1.800 gros 

are the best pens 1 have ever used." 

One-fourth Gross, by mail, postage p 

'erdict from every o 


Gem City Business College, Quinoy, 1 

The following coi 

s of study can be pursued 


Commercial C 

" isinessP_ 

Teachers' Com 

31 MofTit Buildini 



U gives 

1 Dlffc-i 



rf ul command 
any each bo<.k. Positively the 
ever published. Ten dollars 
le person making the best Im- 
. P. T. till March. Price, post 

Prof. G. BIXLBR, Prla. 


paid, tl. Address 

r Institdtb, 

Rrinter and Stationer, 

e SPRUCE sx., 
Opp. Tribune Building. N»w York. 



Aihiptf'd for iisf with or witbout Text-Book, 

and tbL- only set ret'ommeuded to 



Bryant & Stratton 
Count! ng-House-BookkeepIng." 

SM,\1.1- SKT, L.UtGE BOOK. 



Fiivorable arranccraenta made with Bushiosa 
Collet'es and Public aod Private Schools for lutro- 
diioiloD and use. Descriptive List dow ready. 
Correspondence Invited. 

Tlic bent Pen in the U.S. , and best penniGn use them. 


This Pen. known by the above title, is mannrac- 
tured of the best steel, and carefully selected. They 
are parlicvilarly adapted for Public and Private 
Schools and Bookkeeper's use. Put up in Boxes 
containing 86 Pens. Sent Post-paid, on receipt of 

"""Idaniel SLOTE & CO., 

"-i;i 119 4 121 William St., N.Y. 

Penmen's and Artists' Supplies. 

irieea annexed. 

upon rooetvinf; a superior article, but upon doing 
80 promptly 

Ames New Compendium of Om 1 Penmanship $3 oO 
Vmes Guide to Self initrnction m Practical 

Ames ^ook of Alphabet!) 1 50 

Bryant s Bookkeeping CouDting House Ed 2 50 

Ames Copy slips for mbtru(.tlon and practice 

m writing per sheet containing 40 exerolses 10 

Hfty shetts ( * full aeU of copies) 3 00 

One hundred sheeisUODfuIlsetB of copies) 5 00 

Bn tol lioird a^htct thick ■i2\iS persheet 50 

T>( r heet b> express 30 

Blank Bristol Board Cards per li 

\\ mior & Newton s Sup r Sup India Ink Stick 
Ornamental Caids 12 designs per pack of 25 

500 cards 



Prepared India Ink per bottle by express Ci 

Oiliott s 30d Steel Pens per gross I 2.i 

Ames Penmen a Fa\orite No 1 per gross 1 00 

M gross bis. dO 

Speucerian No. 1, extra for flouriBhlnE 1 ^ 

Tne New Spencerian Compendium, Part 1. S, 

3,4.6,0,eaoh 60 

Engrossing Pens for lettering, per doz 25 

CrowqiiUrpen, very fine, for drawing, doz. . 75 

Williams' and Packard's Gems 5 00 

Payson, Dunton & Sorlbner's Manual 1 25 

Sponge Rubber, 2x2 in., very superior 60 

Boll Blackboards, by express. 

No. 1. size 2 x3 feet 1 7B 

No, 2. " 2J^x3H feet 175 

No. 8. " 8 X4 " 250 

Stone Cloth, one yard wide, any length, per 

yard, slated on one side 125 

4(1 inches wide, per yard, slat«d both sides. 2 25 
Liquid Slating, the best lu use, for walls or 

wooden boards, per gallon 6 00 

^^ No goods sftnt by mail until cash baa been 
received. AH urdcrr, furwnrkaud engraving must 
heaccomiiarii.'il ]>\ r.,-li t.inDc-hulf of Itaestfmated 
cost. Nil i.i-.ii-r'< fiT lllr^illalllll^e or work. Upon 


Shorthand Writing 


Thorough instruction In the beat system ; terms 
low ; satisfaction guaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shorthand to 
make It a sure source of profit. Stenographers 
receive belter salaries than are paid In any other 
clerical posit l«n. 

Send stampforspei'imen of writing and circulars 

W. BS. HIILTON, BtenoKTKpher, 



SB Is liEhl, strong 1 


by it In the convenient form of a bi. 
be kept lying on the reading-table. _ 

and twelve issues a 


ea on either end for pressing the wires together 
.s holdlnii ibe papers logetlior by pressure with 
mutdatlug them. Wo wlU furnish the Biuden 
'en Cents apiece, postage prepaid. Address the 

Broadway, N 

ew York. 


' V *-"ii| 



The ■■Guide" is a book of sixty-four large pages, eltpantly printed ou the finest quality of fine plate-paper, and is devoted 
exclHsivdp to instruction and copies for Plain Writiag, Off-Hand Flourishing, and Lettering, "We are sure that no other work, of 
nearly equal cost, is now before the public that will render as efficient aid to either teacher or learner, in all the departments of 
the penman's art, as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pagrs to the 
principles and examples for flourishing. SLxteen pages to alphabets, package-marking, and monograms. Price, by mail, in paper 
covers 75 cents handsomely bound in still covers $1 Given free (in paper) as a premium with the Journal, one year, for $1 ; 
full bound (jn itiff covers) for $1 25 Live agents wanted in every town m America to whom liberal discounts will be given. 
Both the Journal and book are things that take ever\ where With them agents can make more money with less effort than with 
any other publication the> hdudk 

} teamed bo qmckly t 
_ , _ „ , tudant while at the course ami luii 

particulars sent free Specimens of Writing and Flourishing including the best set of Mus 
cular Capitals you ever saw all fresh from tlie pen 'lent for 80 cents 


has a world wide repatation for original : 

I designing : 

monlnls from oustomers to fill a good-sized paper. \\e give i 
"Engrossing received. Fop a neat piece of work^havi 

BUSH. Philadelphia 

every way. As 
J without an equal in this country."— JOHN LTNN, New York, N, Y. 


Given In Writing, Flourishing, Lettering nr Card Writing e 

1 excellence of execution and 
as low as SS fiO and 
inough voluntary testl 

I anything to surpass 

lesson. We will 

be fully and carefully treated 
be prominent, and especial care will be taken 
ecuted styles of Letterinp. It will be a 
felt it In vain. Plates will be published 
wiU be in slip form, and printed -- -^ - 

of pen art wui 

and Ormamental, will 

Beautiful and Rapidly Ks- 

least twelve in 

duplicate so that i 

the best heavy plate paper. The first twelve plates will 
' I preserved clean for binding. Subsroriptlons will 

We keep a choice 
of the best F" - ' ' 
Bristfil Board, 

best Pens in 

Dollar for twelve plates. Single plates, 


bottom prices. We wiU send ; 


for Card Writing and Flourishing for 7Sc 
"60. One pint of the best Japan Ink for Cam wni 


wledged to be the most haunsomely illustrated 
, and wiU send the nine numbers for 40o- 


desiena for Letter and Paper Iloads, Diplomas, Ac, and furnish Engravings 
IB. Th» outs In this advertisement are Photo "^ ' — — -"- ' 

py. The tinting la free hand work. We take 2 cent hi 

'liar. We respectfully solicit your orders, and guarantee 

ooure. Address, 



ngravlngs made 
mps for fr; ■' 

fractional parts of s 


Ladies' Business College, 


Cincinnati, Ooio. 
The only strictly ladles' Business College extant 

Shoz-tliand a specialty. 
Board secured for ft5 and <6 per week. 
For particulars, address, 

9-8 ELLA NELSON, Principal. 



Gives the best Instniction in all the Business 
Branches, and the finest course of 

actuaij business traxnino. 

Also. Ornamental P«mmaushlp. Telegraphy, Short- 

^ r^s Z/fTrsrjA//} ^eST 

It contains 112 beautifully printed p; 

eighty-pound book * " --'-■'- 

cloth; illustrating 

tantially bound ii 

Id real Business Writing, 

photo- en graved i 


Ing or Telegraphy. The latter preferred. 

Address, with reference, stating age. experi- 
ence, salary expected, 


3heB It. A short, simple, practical method by 
:;. ATKINSON, Principal of Sacramento Uusl- 
9 College, Sacramento, Cat. By mall, GO cents. 


In Every Town in America, 

to solicit subBCrlptlous to the Penw-^n-.-^-Art Jot; 
NAL, and to sell popular publicationsuponpraotic 
and artistic penmanship. 

The following la a list of the works which v 
iiffer for sale, with the publishen*' prices : 
Ames' Compondtuni of T'lnill'-nl find Orna- 

manshlp, 1 

Standard F 

Ames' Copy-allps, per sheet of -li 
Family Record, 18x33 . - 
Marriage Certllicate, 18x22 

Garfield Memorial, 19x24.. . 

Centennial Picture of Progress, 22x25 

Ornamental and Flourished Cards, l^deslnis. 
new, original and artlHtlc, per pack of BO. 

100, by inall 

1000, •' $450; by express 


Live agents can, and do, moke money, by taking 
mbsorlbers for the Joiiknai-. and ecllliig the above 
kvorks. Send for our Special Rates to Agents 
D. T. AMES, 

7-tf 2(» Broadway, New York, 

An I JOl K.XAlJ 


Shading T Square 



jliaiiiug. plioto-engravei 

1 of the hiade of 
mrect from work done tiy aid oC 
perfect Intervals, fitid'exf cuted as rnpidly ; 

eighths of nn inch, aud made liorizuulally 

y desired ]ei)({tn ' ' 

made free luii 

r material. 

the square, with tlie rapidity of free-hand li 

Sent seeiirely paclted by espress to n 
the United States or Canada. Address f 
giving prices and desi^ription, D T. j 

New YoiiK. Jwly 
perfection of our designs I linve liau occji 

J of 

Designer and Draftsman, , 

s has been ii 
s branches 
Designer and 

time past, and I have found i 
the various branches of 
applied it. Very truly j 

One of yuur patent 
extremely useful lu 



The only Instru- 
ment that will 

Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 

A Child !■> y.-ari *.f 

tng the printed Instriif 
tiouB. Rperlally adapt 
cd for Copyinff Music. 
The above-named in 
stniinentwiU he mail 
ed wllhfull directions 

for {1.25, from the of 
nee of the JouRNAt.. 

Iiml"'lV\r' ?.';"t'"'' '^^''' """C OutlniL-, 
li nil.- I ' ii-idui iljh broadei than the 

""'' V'ri^f '''^"^'"i''l"'ize lhembiKh{> 

B Broadway. New York. 

Address, Pbnuan' 

Keel pi 

'3 HAND-BOOK of 1 


For introduction. 35c. i 


■kuk, 1 


Department of Penmanship. 

This Is exoIuBtvely a School co 
1S75, and bOM, therefore, a staodlni 
favor, and la now extensively reoog 

ip. It was made a Department of Oberlin College In 
ra. It has constantly grown in patronage and publio 

The Graduates 

Of this School are among the best and leading Penmen of this country, and occupy the beat posi 
Hone, as teachers of penmanship. In our leading institutions of learning. It is largely the mission 
of this school to supply the educational Institutions of this country with superior penmen and 
teachers; also to train young men and women as superior business writers. 

Advanced Pen Art. 

It is the determination of the Principals of this School to maintain it as the FIRST SCHOOL 
OF PENMANSHIP IN AMERICA. To all amateur pfnmen who have acquired some skill, through 
the use of compendlums. cheap school short courses, etc.. we would say that your efforts are com 
mendable ; but you can afford no longer to dally with these very imperfect helps, but oome directly 
to the very FOUNTAIN HEAD OF AMERICAN PENMANSHIP, and secure a course of training 
that will eminently fit you for the best and most desirable positions. 

Send for our COMMERCIAL WORLD, giving full Information relative to Teachers' Course 
and goneral information regarding our School, Address, 

McKEB & HENDERSON, Oberlin, Ohio. 


Unlike the Penmanship Department, this la strlotly an independent training school, and has 
o connection whatever with Oberlin College. It la in charge of Prof, J. T. Henderson, formerly 
f Berea College. Mr. Henderson is a gentleman of most thorough scholarship and ripe experience 
3 an accountant and teacher. He Is also a practical and experienced book-keeper, which cannot 
e said of ulne-tenths of the teachers in our business colleges. 

Foist National Bank, Berea. 0., September 20, 1884. 
7b whom it may concern; 

This may certify that I know J. T. Henderson to be a man of good moral character, trustworthy, 
and one who understands his business, competent to teaob or practice book-keeping. He had charge 
of the books of this bank for anme time, and his work was well and thoroughly aone and to our entire 
satisfaction. We found him to be faithful, accurate and rapid in his work. We can cheerfully recom- 
mend him, A. n. PuMEROT, Cashier. First National Bank, Berea. O, 

The Course 

Is based upon the actual business plan and Is dlvidi 
Intermediate. Advanced, Business Practice, Office, 
gives ample practice to every student who desires t 

1 into six departments, as follows: Initiatory 
nd Banking. The Excelsior Literary Society 
become a member. 

Branches Taught. 

Businesa Arithmetic, Business Penmanship, Spelling, Letter Writing, Commercial Law. The 
most approved methods of Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry, Banking, Practical Grammar 
and Business Forms, including Piomlssory Notes, Receipts, all kinds of Bills, Mortgages, Deeds, 
Bonds, Contracts, Drafts, Checks, Certificates, and many others. We are confident that the ad- 
vantages here afforded are superior, and that In no other similar school, does every student receive 
the kindly interest and personal help of the Principals and Assistants that he here receives. Send 
for the COMMERCIAL WORLD. Bi\-ing full Information. Address. 


McKEE & HENDERSON, Oberlin, O. 






For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 


Writing and IVieasuring Ruler. 

For students, schools, and accountants. It gives 
the most practical forms for the capital and small 
script alphabet^! ; also the figures; thus keeping 

e seeking to Improve 


i Broadway, New Vork. 




the most practical book of the age, will t 
to any address on receipt of $2. 

For oiroulars, address 

THOS. A. RICE. A.M., L.L.D., 

6-ia 8^ Chestnut St.. St. Lou 


Through a period of a couple of months, I will 
send a sample AUTOGRAPH, for practice, to any 
person sending, per mall. FIFTEEN CENTS and 
stamp; or, If desired, In their place, TWO SETS 
OF C.^U'ITALS or three samples of Rapid Busl- 
ness Writing, 


3-tf. KlngsvUle. Ohio. 


2 r St Annual Session begrns 
September 1, 


Ne-w Masonic Building. 

Course of Study, 



other t 


Send for Catalogue with fuU particulars to 
A. J. RIDER. Principal, 

8-12 Masonic Temple, Trenton, N. J. 



Published monthly, by H. C, CLARK, Principal 
of Clark's Business Colle^fl. Erifl Pa 
The first number will 

Penman will be a "large 8 ^.„ 
ad with everything pertaining 1 
omanahip. Subtcrwe now. 

JJ@^ SO "^« 

Lessons by Mail 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons 

The SO-lesson Course in 
tltude of elegantly ^t/riUfn copies, embracing «■• 
kmda of Exercisks, the standard smttl! and capital 
Alphabet}, Word copies. Sentence Copies, Business 
Forms, Page Writingt Letter Writing, variety of 
Business Capitals, vanety of Fancy Capitals. ( ' 

g consists of a mul- 

-~ -..- Exercises, serlea of 

Wholearm Combination Exercises, Business Initial 

together with the na 

0^A1I of these copie; 
pen, not engraved. 

fancy writing, are . 

T10N8. with cuts showing the e 
arm, hand and pen and posltlo 
explicit directions with rpi-nrrt .» 
a chart showing t 

ty of artistfo combinations. 

□ Course in plain and 


i, slant, spacing, • 


portfolio package, 

0-Lesson Course in Flourishing consists of 
rclses or Principles, and a superb coilectlou 
of the most elegant Quill, Scroll ana Bird Designs 
ever seen from any one peTiTYi,ir t?^ All fn-jih 
from thtptn. AlsoprlntJ Instn.iti,^. ^ 

The entire SO-Lesson M;r;ii, ,,^- Km, isk,« axd 

Designs, with instruL-tii'n., vim k T„,rifo"lio 

package, post-paid, on riTMi.t nf Si r.i). 

The arraggement of thus.' cnm-ifs is ii.ised on a 
long experience In teaching ponnmnsinri ^r,,! i* \^ 
confideutly believed that ia 
variety, and sparkling artlstii 
and specimens embraced in tl 
not equalkd by any other pt 

t^~On receipt (jf •8.80 Ii 
This will enable two persons ' 
club together If desirable. 

RErsRENcEs : A " ■" ' 
Elnman. Henry C. 

beauty, the copies 

N, Palmer, D. T. . 

sing eithe 
iiiaj Bcuu lUD eueciinens of their 
afterwards and continue to receh 








Revised, Iinpn 

tenth edition now ready. Sample copies 
... receipt of 35 cents. By the dozen, 75 cents 


President Pc-irce's Flusinesa CoUege, 


■, transferred direct f ,.._ ^.„ ™.„- 

, printed on the finest (luality of^Mristol board 

i, Artist PeniDiQ ai Publiiher, 


"/ ivas perfectly charmed with the 
package of your pen-work The mar- 
lelous skill and exquisite touch dis- 
ilayed in your capitals and cards 
are not, inmy opinion, reached by any 
,^riter/'—H. W. FUCKINGEB, Phil- 
adelphia, Pa., Collepe of Commerce. 

"Your writing shows a most wonderful com 
miiod of the pen. The set o capitiils sent me 
are the perfection of pen-wor k."— tJ. E. SOULE, 
PhUadriphia. Pa.. Prfstdml qf Butinat CoUege. 

"Your letter with cards received. They are 
elegant, and only serve to confirm what is prow 
MK more apparent every day. vij:., that you stand 
among the very foremost of fine penmen io the 
country."— n. W, SIIAYLOR, PorUand. Me., Picsi- 
dento/Buxintt* OoUegt. 

" We have no penman In the Provinces who can 
equal you In card or plain writing."— CONNOR 
O'DEA, Toronto, Can., Principal qf ButUiest C^tgt- 

" Your penmanship is so far ahead of any on 
the Pacifio coast that comparisons are useless."— 
C", E. NEWMAN, Penman, 3an Francisco {Cat.) 
Biutnt^s Collfo«- 

" Among the many good writers la this country 
Mr. Madarasz. in my opinion, for artistic card- 
work, stands at the head."— C. RE'i'NOLDS. New 
Orleans, La., Stcretary of Soule'a Business College. 

"Your penmanship is admirable. No one cer. 
Ulnly can surpass It."— J. D. DAY, JVeio York 
City, Teacher of Pamvinshlp in Public SchooU. 

" The work yon sent me is magnificent^-equal to 
any 1 have ever seen, and I have seen the finest in 
the world."— A, P. ROOT. CUveiand, Ohio, Teacher 
qf Penmanship In Public SchooU. 

"No other penman has as elegant a style as 
yoii.'"- R. n. TENNY, M Woodward Avenue, De- 
troU. Mich. 

"I was more than pleased with the work you 
so promptly sent me."— GEO. H. SMITH, Pough- 
keejutU. If. N. 

•• L. Madarasx. of New York, who has a national 
reputation as a superior card writer, encloses a 
lew samples that are exoeedinttly fine. He cer- 
tainly stands at the head as a card writer. He 
ul»o sends an elegantly wrltlcu letter and flour- 
Ished eagle, that are seldom If ever esoellod."— 
U. C. CLARK, Erif, I'a., Butinett College. 

" L. Madarasz. ot Nc 

York. 1 


the < 

writers, and Judging from the specimens he sends 
us, lie Is not golug baok on his record Just yet. We 
have a number of maflterly written lettera from 
hhi ulmblo pen wbloh we prize very highly."— A. 
N. PALMER, £Ut(or WesUrn Penman, Chicago, Jit. 


The finest flourishing ever sent out by any penman will not equal the marvelous speci- 
mens I can send you, 5 for ttO cents. Executed by W. E. DENNIS, who in this line 
has no equal. To be had only by addressing L. MADAUASZ. Box 2116, New York City. 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal: 

T/ie. vndersiffned, who hm followed Vie profcmon of card leritinff for Ui^ past seven years, 
aiid km yet to team of the first imtanee wherein hiawork /la* failed to give entire satisfaction, 
takes pleaevre in caUing your attention to the complete Htw of mritten visiting cards, which are 
offered at rates ctmaiatent witJt the quality ofca/rds and penmamJiip. Orders promptly filled. 
All post-paid. 

f^ With every 4 packages ordered at one time an extra package of Gilt Bevel Edge 
Cards will be sent free, with any name written on. With a little effort you can easily 
induce several of your friends to order with you. 

Number r»f Cards in each package ; 18 36 

Style Q.-SUk and Satin Bevels B5 1.05 

" U.— Eight-ply Bevets, assorted 57 1.10 

" I.— £■«(*, the latest styles 60 1.15 


Number of Cards in each package : 1 8 36 

Style A.— Plain WhiU, good quality $0.38 $0.75 

" B.—ir«/di/ifif.flri*to/, very best 40 .77 

'• C.—GUt Edge, assorted *1 .84 

■' D.—Beivel OUt Edge, the finest 50 .98 

" ^..-BevOs of Cream and White ... .62 1,00 

If you order cards you should have a curd case to keep them clean and neat. 
OJ^'^ijlD 0-A.SES 

Ho. i— Jlussta Leather, i liockets $0.23 I No. 8— Co//, extra good 80 

Ko.S— " 4 " ■ .Xi No. 8— .^»fsra(or5Ain, very fine l.SO 

No. 4— 3/br£W«i, best quality 50 | No, 9— " very best 3.00 

x^Eisr :pi_iOTJE.isi3:ei:) g^^ir^ids. 

Assorted designs— birds, scrolls, quills, etc., executed wilh taste and sldtl. To students 
who wish good models of Flourishing to practice from, these will be found to be 
"the thing." Price, 85 cents per package of 13 


unsurpassed specimen of bold business wrlt- 
D the shape of a letter, and any question 
he finest quality of unruled paper, 
price 30 cents. 


If you wish your name written in assorted styles 
and combinations, send 51 cents, and the hand- 
somest cards I can possibly write will he sent you. 


Elegant speoimens of off-hand fiourisbing. such 
as birds, eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper, 
which are otnaeded ly all to be the moet spirited work 
tver sent mit by any penman. Price, 25 cents each ; 
S for 45 cents ; 82.10 per dozen. 


Executed in the highest style of the art. and 
■winning the honor of being superior to the work of 
ony o(A<T penman in the world. Each 25 cents ; 2 
sets (different). 45 cents ; 3 sets (different), 62ceiits. 
Ueution if you desire plain or ornamental styles. 


In response to numerous calls for very brilliant 
black Ink, arrangements have been completed for 
Bending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
of the country. Price perquart, 81.30. Bydlluting 
wilh some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is the best), 
more than three quarts of good Ink may be had 
from a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
In all my work. See samples. Recipe for its 


If you experience difficulty In securing a pen that 
will make a very fine air line combined with great 
elasticity without being scratchy, 1 can send you 
just what you want. 

The Favorite. - - - . ... -per box. 40 els., per gross, $1,10 
Card Writing, No.!-.. " 50 " " 150 


The best quality of linen envelopes furnished and 
addressed for BO cent* per dozen ; 00 oeuts for 
S5. The Quest off-band penmanship ever sent out 
by any peim an. 

Remember to write you 
remiltunces by Postal Note: 
seiilcd and attdressed plainly. 

Special Offer No. I. 

On receipt of $ 1 and ten 1-cent stamps 
the following specimens, etc., will be sent 
prepaid : 

Two sets of capitals, written. . .worth .50 
One brilliant black ink recipe.. " .30 
Two speciinena of Jhwrishing . . " .50 
Bevel-edge ca/rds, with name.. " .56 

Total worth $1.86 

Special Offer No. 2. 

Upon receipt of a Postal Note for $1.70, 
the following articles will be sent to your 

a sets of Capitals {different) wtw'/A .50 

Z Specimens of Flourishing " .50 

1 BnUiant Black Ink Recipe. . " .30 

16 Bevel-edged Cards, with name " .56 

1 Morocco Ca/rd Case, iVb. 4. . . " .50 

1 Obliqm PenJtolder " .21 

1 Pentnan's Paper " .10 

ToOit 'u 


Send in your order now and rely upon 
getting my very best work. 

orders for written cards. Elegant sample b< 
with reduced prices. 50 one-cent Btoinps. 

oe-ccnt stamps I can send you a Set of Capitals 
, you will acknowledge better than any one 
■s. L. MADARASZ, Box 2116. New York 

ill name and address in every Intter you send. Make your 
Registered Letter, and see that nil letters are carefully 
If you don't hear from me in due time, drop me a postal 

t what is the matter. 


By using what is called the Oblique Penholder, the object of which is to give the pen a 
better position for smooth shades, and to enable the penman to see every stroke as he makes 
it. This is the best penholder as yet produced, and it is fast beoomiug the one for general 
use. Tlix pen miiet be so adjusted in the lialder that Uie point will be on an exact line with the 
centre of the stick. Run the eye down the /wider, and exercise earein this matter; otherwise the 
pen-point is "off its base," writes rough and unenen. 

Sample mailed for 20 cents; 3 for 45 cents; $1.20 per dozen. 

** / consider L. Madarasz one of 
the most skillful card writers in the 
country. Specimen cards from his 
pen certainly surpass, in smoothness, 
grace, and artistic effect, any that I 
have ever seen." — A. H. HINMAN, 
Worcester, Mass., President of Busi' 
ness College. 

" For card writing, etc., L. Madarasz goes ahead 
of any professional I have every seen. For sym- 
metry, grace and perfection, his card-work is 
superior to the work of all. Every admirer of 
pennaanahlp should have a specimen of his mar- 
velous work."— W. E. DENNIS, Pen-Artist, Brook- 
lyn, E. D.. N. Y. 

"Mr. Madarasz Is justly considered to be the 
best card writer in the world. His execution Is 
something wonderful."— E. K. ISAACS. Valparaiso, 
Ind., Teacher of Penmanship, Xormal School. 

" No wonder you succeed ! I had no Idea that 
the hand could be trained to the perfection you 
have acquired."— H. A. AUMENT, Sterling, lit.. 
Principal of Business College. 

" I consider you the easiest and most jrraoefu 
penman In the United States."— G. A. KOCK- 
WOOD, Assistant Secretary, Eastman College, PougK- 

ket-psie, N. T. 

" I would like to see some one who does better 
ork."— I. S. PRESTON, Penman, 194 Flattmsh 
venue, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

" I admire your style very much."— THOMAS J, 
STEWART, PrimApal of Business College, Trenton, 


" If you want a card as nice 
send to Madarasz."- Pifnman'a 
York CUy. 

n'lter."— Cftiro- 

> profession."— r/i* I 

—MancheslfriN II.) Uir 

" Young Madarasz does more card-work than any other penman in the country, and I consider him the finest penman 
of his age in the world. His penmanship is artistically perfect."— G. A. GASKELL, Jersey City, N J., Late Principal of 
Jersey City Business College. 

A Lesson 'in' Practical Writi 

[Frwn T/ie Writltiff Teacher.] 


Knowing that be who presents liimself to 
the thousands of readers of the Jouhnal 
as a teacher, must Deeds be possessed of 
valuable information, not generally known, 
to he worthy of their consideration, and 
being aware of the large number of keys, 
theories, guides and compeudiums, which 
seemingly almost exhaust the subject, I 
should hesitate to appear in that capacity 
were it not for the fact, that while all prac- 
tical authors and teachers of writing agree 
as to the desired result, there is a marked 
diversity of opinion as to the easiest and 
best method by which that result can be 
secured. Surh heing the case, I feel no 
hesitancy in submitting my opinions and 
methods, and, while they differ from those 

of many < 
lieve they o 

promineut penmen, I be- 
t without some merit. 


Gold pens are the best for practical writ- 
ing. Select one that suits you and permit 
no one else to use it, as it is seldom that two 
persons (even though they be experts) hold 
the pen exactly alike, and changing a gold 
pen after it is ■' broken in" is very apt to 
spoil it. For line work I use steel pens. 
Esterbrook's or Gillott's, with the exception 
of one or two numbers I find Esterbrook's 
fully equal if not superior to the imported 
pens. Many of our penmen and copy book 
publishers advertise "special" and "made 
to order" pens, for which they charge from 
^{ to $1.75 per gross. So far as I have ex- 
amined, they are simply old and approved 
brands of American manufacture under a 
new name, and can be purchased under 
original name for fromTOe. to 90c. per gross. 

Wortbington's " artists' ink " is the best for 
card work and "scrap" flourishes. Always 
use weak tea to thin your ink. 

for the average adult, should be about 
eleven inches higher than the seat, for 
pupils aged sixteen, about ten inches ; from 
that age down take off one inch for each 
three years. Table or desk should be level. 
Where desk is too high, pupils invariably 
acquire the habit of raising the right 
shoulder, if persisted in, it becomes a de- 
formity. The hand is also cramped and 
rolled too far to the right, and is easily 
is shown by pupils rubbing the 


T consider it a waste of time to insist upon 
a certain position merely for sake of uni- 
formity. Teachers who insist that all 
pupils, regardless of shape or size of band, 
or general construction, shall hold the pen 
exactly alike and assume same position at 
the desk, will consider my instruction in- 
sufficient and permitting too great liberty. 
My experience is, that pupils are tied down 
by too many foolish and unreasonable rules, 
and that at best we can give but general in- 
struction. Infallible rules which will suit 
each individual case being an impossibility. 

The penholder should be held so that the 


The old-fashioned pine or cedar "accom- 
modation holder," with rubber sleeve, is the 
best that can be secured. The holders cost 
35c. per gross, the sleeves 35c. per dozen. 
Never use metal or bulb holders, they do 
not balance well, and are ditBcult to bold in 
position. The oblique bolder is a nuisance 
in every sense of the word. Those who use 
and recommend it are, with a few noted 
exceptions, either very inferior writers or 
interested in selling it. The arguments 
made in favor of its use, could be as intel- 
ligently applied to roof-shaped key-boards 
on pianos and organs, and the advantages 
(?) derived would be fully as great ; but the 
majority of musicians like the majority of 
penmen are opposed to unnecessary make- 

Commercial letter paper is the most suit- 
able size — for advanced pupils it should be 
unruled —it should be pure white, with ruled 
lines distinct and unbroken, and weigh at 
least ten pounds. By holding it to the light 
any imperfections in fibre or finish can be 

should be black and flow freely, never use 
" fluids," with a steel pen, as they are very 
corrosive and totally unfit for fine work. 
The following makes an ink which is dur- 
able and a fine ink for specimen work : 

Arnold's .lapan ink, 2 oz. ; a very pale 
preparation of India ink, 1 oz. ; best carmine 
ink, I oz. Let stand one week before using. 

• The Becond ninl revised edition of " The Writ- 
lug Teacher" will not be ready before the firet of 
May. Due uotlce of which will be Riven throngh 
thu Penmaw's Art Journal. First edition already 

hand and wrist after a few minutes' practice 
in school. In sbort. I consider high desks 
one of the most prolific sources of bad and 
unnatural positions, and penbolding and 
consequently of cramped, awkward writing. 

should be natural and easy, both feet rest- 
ing firmly upon the floor, body inclined 
slightly forward from hips, right arm rest- 
ing upon muscles of forearm and ends of 
third and fourth fingers, elbow projecting 
from two to four inches over edge of table, 
left band upon paper to hold it in position. 
Avoid leaning or resting on arms, or 
allowing body to come in contact with desk. 
I prefer front position, as 1 consider it more 
suitable for book work 
ing, but as ffie rr-htir, 
/ninth nntl body tire the 

' jxm'tion of paper, 
in radi poaiti- 

pen will strike Ibe paper at an angle of about 
45=*, the pen facing ihe paper so that both 
points spread equally when pressed. The 
band should rest upon nails of third and 
fourth fingers, wrist free from desk, arm 
resting upon muscli'S of forearm. "Where 
the desk is proper height, the common 
tendency to roll the hand too far to the 
right and permit the holder to roll or turn, 
can be corrected by drilling rapidly with 
wholearm upon large forms, by drilling 
upon letters slanting to left of vertical. 

• The quiillty of llne.s in the a< 
>mC5 far short of the origlOHl | 
r Prof. Toland. from the faol 

, The originah 

, - ii-t r-T.-- -" aecessitttted a 

e-traoing the hair-lines with black Ink whioh has 

b pale Ink, which necessitated a 

% whole or forearm d 

or'^by mechanical means, the most 8imi)le 
heing a round stick about one-third of 
an inch in diameter and about nine inches 
long, held in crotch of thumb and index 
finger, passing under the holder and pro- 
jecting from two to four iuches to right of 
hand, this acts as a rest and prevents the 
hand from "rolling" fully as well as the 
high priced band guides. One hour each 
day for a week will be sufficient to teach 
the most stupid pupil correct position and 
penbolding with either method, 


The movement known as wholearm, was 
formerly used almostly exclusively for flour- 
ishing. Many penmen denounce wholearm 
drills as "fancy flourishes," a "waste of 
time, and detrimental to the pupil." As a 
means of strengthening and gaining control 
of the muscles, teaching correct penbolding 
and consequently securing good writing, I 
do not think enough can be said in its favor, 
and am sure that the teacher or pupil, who 
will give it a fair practktil trial, will never 
regret the time they have devoted to secur- 
ing mastery over this king of movements. 

This movement derives its name from the 
fact, that V!hQn properly used the whole arm 
is exerrised in producing letters or forms. 
The pen should be held as already described, 
baud in same position as in piano playing, 
forearm as near level as possible, shoulder, 
elbow and wrist articulating freely. In 
forming large capitals, and in preparatory 
drills, the only rest used is the ends of third 
and fourth fingers which must move in uni- 
son with the pen ; when foi-ming small let- 
ters, the muscles of the forearm act as an 
intermediate rest. Elevating the elbow 
will cause the pen to catch, and the arm 
tires much sooner. Where the elbow, 
shoulder or wrist are stiff, or not working 
freely, the pupil can work neither rapidly 
nor gracefully, and the work has a stiff, 
constrained appearance. The pupil should 
also remember that this movement should 
be rapid from the start. The arm moving 
as in forming ovals, until sufficient speed is 
gained, and then — and not vntil then — per- 
mit the pen to come in contact with the 

Drill No. 1, plate A, should occupy six 
spaces.takingsmallw as unitof measurement, 
and should precede all practice upon direct 
oval letters, all small direct oval loops and 
all contracted letters with angle at top. 
Nos. 2, 8, 4 and 5, occupy same space, 
and should be practiced upon each lesson. 
No. C, same plate, should precede all in- 
verted loops, inverted oval letters and all 
contracted letters with angle at base. Nos. 
7 and 8, can be given when pupils can make 
No. 6 easily and rapidly. No. 9 is a good 
general drill, substituting for r such con- 
tracted letters as pupils find most ditfleult 
to form. Drill No. 1, plate B, should oc- 
cupy nine spaces. No. 2, six spaces, and 
should precede practice upon capilalsTT, X, 
Q. Z. I J. U, V. Y, Mnnd N. Nos. 8 and 4 
explain themselves. No. 5 is a good gen- 
eral drill, and although full stem letters are 
seldom used in practical writing, the drill 
is valuable in giving flexibility to the 

After ten minutes' practice upon drill 1, 
plate A, the pupil should gradually lower 
the arm until the fleshy part of the forearm 
rests upon the desk, this gives the second or 
intermediate rest, which acts as a pivot or 

brake, thereby circumscribing the limit of 
tbe stroke and emibling the writer to pro- 
duce small forms willi greater accuracy. 
As soon as the arm rests its natural weight 
upon muscles of forearm, the speed should 
be iDcrensed and size of drill decreased one 
half. Other drills should then be taken up 
and practiced in same manner. Care must 
be taken that the pen fates the paper and 
that the wrist does not touch the desk. The 
rolling or vibratory movement thus pro- 
duced is xDholearm movement and is wholly 
independent of the fingers— unless our 
"combined movement" friends see fit to 
call the slight contraction of the fingers 
sometimes used in shading, combined move- 
New beginners are frequently unable to 
write long words without condensing, de- 
creasing size of final letters, or lifting the 
pen. this is caused by leaning upon arm. 
permitting third and fourth fingers to re- 
main stationary, or rolling hand too far to 
right, it can he readily overcome by prac- 
ticing upon Nos. ], 2. 3, and 4. plate C. A 
very good practice is to repeat No. 2 three 
times without lifting the pen, if properly 
spaced it will fill one line across a page of 
letter paper. Where the arm is rolled to 
the right, drawn too far over edge of desk 
or not far enough over, the pupil will almost 
invariably curve and shorten the down 
stroke in looped letters. This can be over- 
come and correct position of arm ascertained 
by drilling upon hyhy and lj\i, increasing to 
twice and finally to three iinifs their proper 

cannot be too perfect; but where litho- 
graphed, copper or steel engraved copies 
lire used, pupils should be informed that 
the beautiful forms are simply specimens of 
the engraver's skill, and that the " whole- 
arm capitals " were originally executed with 
the fingers; that such forms cannot be- 
executed with any degree of certainty, even 
by professional penmen ; but that they are 
models, which, if closely studied, will give 
the pupil a clear conception of the correct 
and beautiful and a permanent foundation 
for legihility. Pupils can also be informed 
that character in writing is desirable, but 
that mongrel and illegible forms are char- 
acteristic of all bad writers, and that no 
matter how well a person writes there is 
always sufficient characteristics to determine 
the writer. That studying the form of a 
letter does not mean drawing it mecham'caUy 
or tracing it. That a thorough knowledge 
of form must precede its execution, and 
that having a thorough knowledge of form 
copies are unncc«smry. 

Analysis is the only practical method by 
which the teacher cau convey to the minds 
of the pupils the desired forms of letters 
and enable them to intelligently criticise 
and correct their own work. By analysis, 
I do not mean butchering the alphabet, as 
in the following analysis and descriptions 
taken froma "standard" copy-book system: 

" Analyze and describe capital G. Ans.— 
Principles: 2, 3,2,7. Main height, three 
spaces; width of loop, two spaces ; distance 
from right side of loop to top of stem, 
three-fourths space ; height of stem, one and 
one-half spaces ; distance between end of 
oval and end of beginning curve, one space; 
length of oval, two ana one-half spaces; 
beiglit of oval, one and one-half spaces. To 
form, ascend with right curve, as in S and 
I. then turn short iWth left curve, crossing 
riirhl mil- sp:irr tiHnvp base; then with len 
{■urvf lirvrriKlinL-- niie-fiftb space, and then 
iist.iiil uiili :i riL-hr (urveto half height of 
Itiiri ;mii{ iliiir ([iinrter space to right of 
lt)(-]. , iiiiiic .■mgularly and tinish with cap- 
ital stem <»val ; this oval touches base line 
two spaces to right of beginning point of 
letter, crosses first curve one space from ita 
beginmng. rises to half height of letter, and 
ends midway between loop and stem." 
Which might be mistaken by the uniniti- 
ated as a legal description of a western 
mining claim. Nor do I mean teachlngand 
insisting upon exact form, space, size and 
slant to he secured by tracing, or mutilating 
and then boxing the remains. 

Analysis of the above character instead of 
imparting knowledge, misleads, confuses, 
tires and finally disgusts the pupil, and is 
the poorest method yet advocated, making, 
at best, but mere mechanical imitators, who 
are as helpless without their spaces and 
copies as some of our mechanical penmen, 
who advocate those systems, would be were 


they deprived of their pantagraphs, transfer 
paper, oblique holders and copies. 

Analysis'to be practical must simplify the 
work, by showing similarity of component 
parts of letters, common faults, methods 
by which they can be corrected, and simple 
general rules by which legibility, rapidity 
and uniformity can be secured, and does not 
require a set of drafting tools, nor a knowl- 
edge of higher mathematics. 

The similarity of letters can be readily 
explained by first grouping and then mono- 
graming them. The resemblance in many 
letters being so great that, in forming one. 

we have the key to the entire group. It 
requires but little skill to do this, and in- 
variably receives close attention from the 
pupils, and gives them new ideas and a 
clearer insight into what appears to them, 
at first sight, a multitude of forms. Piute C 
shows correct form of capitals D and TT, 
ten of the most common faults and my 
method of correcting in class work. The 
D and W are sufficient to illustrate my 
method, which can be applied to every let- 
ter and figure with good results— far better 
than to simply point out their mistakes and 
tell them "more curve," or "less space," 



or "larger oval," etc., etc. , for in many cases 
the pupils have already located the faults and 
their causes, but do not know how, or have 
not sufHcient control of the muscles, to 
overcome them. The general rules referred 
to are as follows, and should be frequently 
repeated : Pen should always face the paper. 
Never grasp or squeeze the holder unless 
you wish to shade. Keep back of hand 
toward ceiling, and wrist free from desk. 
Feet upon floor ; body must not lean upon 
desk. Do not rest or lean upon arms. 
Practice without theory is blind. Having 
a clear conception of form, work rapidly. 
In group work, uniform height, uniform 
space, uniform slant. Instruction which 
cannot give the " why " shows an ignorant 
teacher or worthless instruction. 

Never scribble, always have a definite ob- 
ject in view. To overcome faults, run to 
opposite extreme. To increase space between 
letters, increase slant of upstrokes. Avoid 
superfluous lines. Brains control the muscles, 
the eyes criticise the forms. ^ 

Down strokes in small letters straight. 
0, a. rf. g, g, s and z excepted. Up strokes 
in contracted letters on connection slant, 
final up stroke in o. w, v and round t ex- 
cepted, All up strokes curved. Many 
other practical rules could be given, but 
this article has already been carried beyond 
my original intention. 

To the students of writing who may read 
this lesson, I will say that it is not an un- 
tried theory, but has stood the test of fifteen 
years. The instrvictiou being materially the 
same as given to my pupils, many of whom 
are now occupying lucrative positions, 
which they owe mainly to having followed 
the instruction herein given. 


The World's Changes. 
The world is growing old and growing 
cold; and as it waxes older and colder it 
shrinks and shrinks and shakes and quivers, 
so that its coat is perpetually getting a little 
too big for it, and has to be taken in at the 
seams from time to time. The taking in is 
done by the simple and primitive method of 
making a bulging tuck. The Alps are situ- 
ated just above a seam, and are themselves 
one of the huge bulging tucks in question. 
According to Professor Heim. the folding of 
the crust has been so enormous, that points 
originally far apart have been brought 74 
miles nearer one another than they were at 
the beginning of the movement of pressure. 
In fact Switzeriand must have been origi- 
nally (piite a large country, with some natur- 
al pretensions to be regarded in the light of a 
first rate European power; but its outside 
has been folded over and over so often that 
there is now very little of it left upon the 
surface. What it once possessed in area it 
has now-a-days to take out in elevation 
only. Professor Judd has well shown how 
great is the amount of wear and tear to 
which mountains are thus subjected, and 
how enormous is the loss of material they 
undergo, in the case of the extinct volcano 
of Mull, which rose during the not very re- 
mote Miocene period to a height of some ten 
or twelve thousand feet above the si-& level. 
It had a diameter of some 30 miles at its 
base, and its great cone rose gigantic like 
that of iEtna, or of Fusi on a Japanese fan, 
far into the sky, unseen by any eye save 
that of the half human ape-like creatures 
whose rude fire-marked flint the Abbe 
Bourgeois has disentombed from contemp- 
orary strata in the north of France, Since 
the Miocene days, rain and frost and wind 
and weather have wreaked their will un- 
checked upon the poor old broken down 
ruined volcano, till now, in its feeble old 
age, its youthful fires long since exting\iish- 
cd, it stands a mere worn stump, consisting 
of a few scattered hills, none of which ex- 
ceeds 3,000 feet in height above sea level. 
All the rest — coneand ashes, lava and debris 
has been washed away by the pitiless rain, 
or split and destroyed by the powerful ice 
wedges, leaving only the central core of 
harder matter, with a few outlying weather- 
beaten patches of solid basalt and volcanic 
conglomerate.— CoraAiW Magasine. 

Remember, you can get the Joctinal one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for i|l ; or a 
$1 book and the Jodbmal for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

Object Teaching in Penmanship. 

The value of object teaching as a metliod 
of instruction is recogaized in all branches 
of education. This method is applied with 
success even to those branches which have 
in themselves little that applies directly to 
the senses ; as for instance, the languages. 
But in penmanship, and indeed all the arts, 
fine as well as practical, object teaching is 
absolutely necessary to the attainment of 
anything but the merest theoretical knowl- 

Object teaching is esseulially teaching by 
examples. That is its fundamental idea. 
But it comes also in the idea of elementary 
instruction In appealing to the senses of 
the pupil, this method makes use of primaiy 
forms, in order that perception may not 
become conception, of the objects presented. 
Thus, in teaching a class to draw a horse, the 
instructor begins with the simplest elements 
involved in the contour of the animal. 
These elements go to make the outline of 
the head ; these, the body ; these, the limbs. 
The elements are all the same, all primary, 
all elementary. The entire animal is not 
sketched -at once and continuously. The 
elements must be learned first, then com- 
bined. The idea, then, which should be 
carried in miud in all object teaching is that 
successful instruction by this method must 
comhiuti Ji(Miti/ and simplicity. 

This idea needs to he borne in mind par- 
ticularly in teaching penmanship by object 
lessons, because the tendency is so strong 
here to blend the elements into the finished 
product at the outset ; to secure harmony 
before melody of form — if we may 
use the expression, A letter seems a 
very little thing to analyze. It looks 
so simple and so complete in itself that the 
pupil, and sometimes the inexperienced or 
careless instructor, cannot see the reasou or 
the sense of dividing it up Into its elements, 
and then gradually synthesizing from this 
analysis. Undoubtedly, very much of the 
imperfect and unsymmetrical writing which 
we constantly observe, even in the case of 
those who pretend to be accomplished pen- 
men, is due to this great mistake. The in- 
structor of penmanship cannot be too care- 
ful in guarding agiiinst this impression on 
the part of his pupils. The only way to 
prevent it is to place beforethem the forms 
which they are to imitate in tfie right way. 
To be more explicit, the teacher should 
never under any circumstances permit him- 
self to produce a completed letter upon the 
blackboard or copy slip before he has pro- 
duced, explaiued and synthesized all its 
elements. To habitually overreach his in- 
struction in this respect is almost certain 
to destroy its effectiveness. The lesson 
must he impressed upon the pupil, that the 
moment he deserts his elements and begins 
to tread upon the unknown and forbidden 
ground of combination and form, he is in 
danger of losing all that he has gained, and 
involving himself in mistakes and bad 
habits which he may never be able to shake 
off. Synthesis comes in due time, but 
analysis must precede it. 

The great value of well-prepared charts 
in teaching penmanship by object lessons is 
evident from what has been said. Here all 
the elements are placed before the pupil in 
scientific exactness. A thorough drill in 
the elements, as provided in these charts, is 
the tirst step toward perfection in penman- 
ship. If every teacher of penmanship could 
realize that his success depends upon the 
care with which he proceeds, and that pro- 
gress must at first be slow in order that it 
may in the end be sure and rapid, there 
would be fewer failures in this branch of 

Back Nunnbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others ; All numbers for 1879, ex- 
cept January, May and Kotcmber ; all 
numbers for 1880, except July, Sep- 
tember and November; all nur»bers for 
1881, except December; all for 1882, except 
June; all for 1883, but January; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, lai;k 
of 1886. will be mailed for |0, or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Lesson in Free-Hand and Me- 
chanical Drawing. 
No. I. 

Elementary Exercises in Dexterityof hand 
and accurate power of perception are neces- 
sary to draw satisfactorily. 

For the hand a proper course of training, 
and the ej-e must have its disciplinary prac- 
tice in the estimation of distances, dimeu. 
sions and proportions. It has been truly 
said, " the eye is the window of the soul.'' 
The impressions and the knowledge which 
we receive through the eye are not only the 
deepest and strongest, but they last the 
longest; consequently it is of vast impor- 
tance that it should be taught to see cor- 
rectly. For though all mankiud have the 
same organic structure for the eye, yet 
without proper training it is impossible to 
command its truthful exercise in conveying 
to the mind accurate perceptions of objects 
or scenes of which it is desired to make 

This cultivation of the eye is not only 
important to all classes and conditions of 
mankind, especially of all engaged in pro- 
ductive industry, but it is important in 
judiciary proceedings to witnesses, lawyers, 
jurors, and even judges. "Eyes have they 
yet they see not," is as true to-day as when 
spoken 1800 years ago. 

How much more valuable would be the 
statements and observations of travelers, if 
it were known that they saw with their eyes 
open that they might see and judge correctly. 

All forms in nature, art or fancy, may be 
represented in their contours or outlines by 
two classes of lines, right or straight and 
curved ; all that are not right are curved. 
A right line is the shortest that can connect 
two points, and is sometimes defined as the 
track made by the movement of a point in a 
straight direction from the beginning to the 
end of the line. The curved line is one in 
which the dot or point travels in a circuitous 
or deviating manner from one point to the 

The right line has three kinds, in accord- 
ance with its direction, viz. : Horizontal, 
like the line where the sky seems to touch 
the farthest limit of the sea or ocean. 

The vertical is the line formed by a thread 
held in the hand with a weight attached. 
All other directions of lines mustbe oblique. 

Hand training. The hand should be ex 
ercised in making lines of the several kinds 

In all the following practice, it is recom- 
mended to use the pen exclusively, for 
many reasons ; the principal of which is 
that by the habit of thoroughly considering 
the position of the line to be drawn, and fix- 
ing points for the beginning and end of it, 
the mind is exercised, and a habit of think- 
ing before acting is compelled. 

The hand will carry the pen or whatever 
instrument is used most easily when the 
hand and forearm are at right angles with 
the lines to be made. The pen may be held 
nearly the same as in writing when light 
lines only are required, but for shaded lines, 
while the hand and forearm are the same 
the pen should he held very much as it 
ought to be for flourishing ; thus : 

so that the pen will press on both nibs alike 
and be in the same direction. 

Ist. Practice on a horizontal movement 
like this : 

with the edge of the pen in a free way from 
left to right and right to left, but not throw- 
ing the hand faster than it can be controlled. 
Continue until the movement is correct and 
easy, in a horizontal direction. Next make 
the horizontal lines following ; placing a 
point delicately where the line is to begin, 
and another where it is to end ; then draw 
a horizontal line from one point to the 
other. Pursue the same course for the fol- 
lowing horizontal practice, always making 
points. The eye is to be exercised in 

dividing the space, first into two equal 
parts, then into four, eight, etc.. then into 
three, five, seven, etc., until the lines are 
sufficiently near for pretty good shading, 
cither light or dark. Then take the vertical 
practice ; first the free movement with the 
hand and forearm at right angles with the 
lines when light, but the pen reversed for 
shaded lines as before directed. 

Make sub-divisions as for the horizontal 
lines into both even and odd numbers of 
divisions, as 2, 4, 6, etc., and 3, 5, 7, light 
and shaded. Next exercise the eye in 
dividing the lines, horizontal and vertical 
in the same way into even and odd numbers 
of divisions. 

This practice is followed by oblique lines 
in the various directions, to be treated in 
the same way. made light, heavy and di- 
vided. For the vertical and oblique lines 

s the elbow to accommodate the dii 

tion of lit 

Surety by Mail. 
Parties ordering books or merchandise, 
from this office, to be sent by mail, would 
do well to add the small sum of 10 cents, to 
the designated price of articles desired, for 
registering same, thereby insuring their safe 

Anecdotes of Josh Billings. 

Before I left New York I called on Josh 
Billings with an album and modestly solic- 
ited his autograph. He took it on his knees, 
gave his mouth a comical twist and wrote: 

TliPico Is he armed who hntti his (luarrel Jost. 



Ab<I four tlmca lie who kpIs his blow Id fust. 

—J. mUinga. 

Josh was extremely fond of animals, and 
had a cat in his house at Albany which he 
gravely addressed as "William." I sug- 
gested that that was a dignified name for 
puss, as cats were usually called " Tom " or 
"Tip," or a short, quick cognomen. 

" But that's a special, swell, blue-blooded 
specimen of the feline race, I wish you to 
know, rejoined the humorist. "Recently, 
poor fellow, he has had fils, and since then 
I call him ' Fitz William.' " 

When Ruhenstein was over here he was 
presented to .Josh, and the pianist was care- 
ful to impress the American with accounts 
of the nobility of his ancestors. "My fam- 
ily," said be loftily, " goes back to the time 
of the Crusaders. My researches in this 
direction enabled me to discover that one of 
my ancestors accompanied the Emperor 
Barbarossa." Josh ^smiled, and affecting 
to be immensely impressed immediately re- 
marked: "On the piano, of course." 

A story is told of the humorist being 
thrown on one occasion among a batch of 
students in a county town near New Haven. 
He was tramping along with a rusty yellow 
dog and entered the bar-room of a hotel 
for some refreshments. A group of Yale 
lads chanced to be there on a frolic, and im- 
mediately interviewed Billings, whom they 
evidently mistook for a farmer. They in- 
quired with affected interest after the health 
of his wife and children, and Josh, with 
counterfeited simplicity, gave them a 
graphic account of his family and farm. 

" Of course you belong to the church ? " 
asked one of the boys. 

" Yes, the Lord be praised, and my father 
before me." 

"Now, I suppose you would not tell a 
lie," said one of the students. 

"Not for the world." 

' ' What will you take for that dog ?" point- 
ing to Josh's cur. which was crouching be- 
neath his chair. 

"I won't take twenty dollars for that 

"Twenty dollars I Why, he's not worth 
twenty cents." 

"I assure you, I would not take twenty 
dollars for him." 

"Come, my friend." said the student, 
who, with his companions, were bent on 
having some fun with the old man. "Now, 
you say you won't tell a lie for the world. 
Let me see if you will not do it for twenty 
dollars I will give you twenty dollars for 
your dog." 

"I'll not take it." 

" You will not ? Here, let me see if this 
will not tempt you to lie," added the stu- 
dent, producing a small bag of half-dollars, 
which he built up into small piles on the 
tabic. Josh was sitting by the table with 
his hat in his hand, apparently unconcerned. 
"There," added the student, "there are 
$20. all in silver ; I will give you that for 
the animal. Josh quietly raised his hat to 
the edge of the table, and, as quick as 
thought, scraped all the money into it ex- 
cept one half-dollar, and then exclaimed: 

" I won't take your $20. Nineteen and a 
half is as much as that dog is worth; he is 
your property I " 

A tremenduous shout from his fellow 
students clearly showed the would-be wag 
that he was completely sold, and that he 
need not look for sympathy from that quar- 
ter, 80 he good-naturedly acknowledged him- 
self beaten. 

The origin of the sign "%" for the Amer- 
ican dollar ia accounted for in this way : 
The American dollar is taken from the 
Spanish dollar, and the sign is to be found 
of course in the associations of the Spanish 
dollar. On the reverse side of a Spanish 
dollar is a presentation of the pillars of 
Hercules, and round each pillar is a scroll 
with the inscription, " ne plus ultra." This 
device, in the course of time, has degener- 
ated into the sign which stands at present 
for American as well as Spanish dollars — %. 
The scroll around the pillars represents two 
serpents sent by Jiuio to destroy Hercules 
in his cradle. 


The Varieties and Processes of 



Such inventions as those due to Gutenberg 
and Schoeffer could not long remain un- 
known in England. Although the turmoils 
of civil war had hardly ceased in England, 
and men's minds were scarcely in a sufficient 
calm to attend to literature and its advance- 
ment, yet the facilities afforded by the in- 
vention of printing with movable types were 
too great to remain overlooked. 

Gerraany, it is true, took the lead at that 
time in many departments of mechanical 
art. Whether it also took the lead in regtird 
to popular educntion it is not easy to say ; 
for popular education was at sufficiently low 
ebb in all countries. But we know that at 
the present day the cultivation of the middle 
and humbler classes is carried farther there 
than in England ; and that works are sold 
and appreciated there by classes which 
would scarcely understand them here. Take 
the itinerant map-sellers, for instance, many 
of whom are to be seen about the streets of 
German towns ; they can there find a sale 
for commodities which would he almost 
unsalable under similar circumstances in 
England, because the love and knowledge 
of geography are more advanced in the 
former country than in England. Flenee 
there may possibly have been reasons of a 
literary or educational nature why printing 
should have sprung up in Germany rather 
than in Enghmd. 

Be this as it may, to William Caxtou is 
due the merit of having printed the first 
book in England. Caxton is supposed to 
have been born about the year 1412. At 
the age of eighteen he wa<i apprenticed to a 
mercer in the City of London, and he ap- 
pears to have risen to a position of opulence 
and respectability. At a later period of 
life, having a considerable amount of leisure, 
he gave himself the task of translating a 
French work into English. 

He traveled in Germany iind the Nether- 
lands, and appears, during the course of his 
travels, to have become acquainted with the 
then modern art of printing. lie printed 
two or three works in Germany, and then 
brought the art to England. The e.\act 
dates when these events occurred are not 
clearly known ; but by the year 1477 he had 
taken up his residence in the Almonry at 
Westminster, where he carried on the occu- 
pation of a printer. 

Caxton was an industrious translator as 
well as printer, for he gave himself the 
trouble of translating into English many of 
the books which he afterwards printed. He 
spared no pains in obtaining correct copies 
of the works which be printed, and this 
was in many cases a difficult matter, for, as 
all the books before that time were in mauu- 
ecript. the process of copying with the pen 
was very likely to lead to variations in the 
subject matter of the book arising out of the 
ignorance or carelessness of the transcribers. 
Besides the machinery that manipulates 
the newly discovered muscular motion has 
only recently been manufactured and ac- 
nicety for all blunders in the 



Laxton appears to have employed five 
distinct fonts of type. The first of these, 
with which his eariier works were printed] 
was the sort called the "Secretary," and of 
this he had two fonts; afterwards he had 
three fonts of "Great I'riiner." and then 
others of •■ Double. Pica" and "Long 
Primer, ibese lieiiig the names employed 
by iiriiners to designate the kind of type 
employed by them. 
^ A number of other printers soon followed 
Caxton's example, and primed books multi- 
plied very rapidly. Each printer having n 
sort of pride in the excellence of his work- 
manship, adopted a "mark" or symbol 
which generally comprised a small but rude 
woodcut, together with certain initials or 

In those early times, before the division 
of employment was well understood, the 
printer had to make his own types and his , _ 
ounmk.and the labors of a printing office does not find 
" heterogeneous than they 

work, the rejiding and revising and the 
press work are all done in the same room. 
It is stated that about the time when Caxton 
commenced operations in England, a printer 
wishing to establish a printing office at 
Augsburg, engaged a skillful workman, and 
proceeded to make the necessary arrange- 
ments and purchases, which occupied him 
a whole year. He bought five old wine 
presses and made them up into printing 
presses; he cast pewter types and made 
many other preparations, but the expense 
was so great that he ruined himself and 
died broken hearted. 

Not unfrequently a printer had to he his 
own press-maker, type-founder, ink-maker, 
and bookbinder, and hence it may easily be 
supposed that a printer was in those days 
regarded as a very important personage. 


The above details will furnish an idea of 
the kind of links which bind together the 
different parts of the operations connected 
wilhprintiug. From these it will be obvi- 
ous thai the first process connected with the 
matter is the making of the types which are 
to represent written characteis, and that the 
second is the setting up of these types into 
such groups as will form the pages of a 
book. To these departments of the printer's 
art we will at once proceed. The date of 
the reputation of English types is from the 
time of Wm. Caslon, who made a font of 
Arabic type in the year 1720, the excellence 
of which gave to this branch of art a much 
higher tone than bad before belonged to it. 

Printing types are made of a mixture or 
alloy of lead and antimony. The early 
printers were a good deal perplexed to de- 
termine the proper materials for types, 
since the metal ought to melt easily and yet 
be hard when cold. The above two metals 
are now found to be fitted for the purpose ; 
there are from three to five parts of lead to 
one of antimony, according to the size of 
the types— the smallest requiring the most 
antimony in order to make them harder. 
The type-founders have an immence variety 
of moulds for casting type— Roman. Italics, 
Old English, Greek, capitals and small 
letters- very minute "Diamond," and very 
large "Double Pica," numerals, stops, etc. — 
in order to meet the requirements of the 
several kinds of printing. The largest type 
commonly employed in printing a book is 
that called "Double Pica" of which 4114 
lines go to the foot ; while the smallest is 
■' Diamond " with 205 lines to the foot. 

The range of sizes (all of one character of 
type) embraces thirteen kinds, which are 
designated in the following odd way, and 
occupy the following number of lines to 
the foot : 

•r— uvv mi ennlitn- 
r the JuRKNAL : 
m eddukatcd peepl 
i") me thatt 

Double Pica. , 


Brevier. H2J4' 

Minion". 128 

Nonparicl 143 

Pearl 178 

Diamond 205 

Great Primer. . .51 i^ 

English 64 

Pica 71 i< 

Small Pica 83 

Long Primer. ..89 

Many of these names originated from the 
titles of books which were customarily 
printed with the types in iiuestion ; but the 
smallest, which are probably of modern 
origin, seem to have been named on another 

{To be continued.) 

In a 

1 old Dutch print, the compositors h; 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 
and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as its title implies, is a com- 
plete exemplification of the penman's art, 
in every department. It consists of seventy', 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It has forty-two different 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a large 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions, 
certificates, diplomas, headings, title pages] 
etc., etc. We are confident that this work 
presents to the penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
any other work upon penmanship ever 
before published, Price by mail lately re 
duced from fi.OO to $3.50. at which price 
it is the cheapest book of its size and 
character published. 

Any person who orders it from us, and 

all that we claim, is at 

liberty to at once return it to us and have 

I money refunded 

Tom Twix on Penmanship. 

MissUir Eddifur: 

I don't noe hwethur the pennmen throo out 
the kunntra will be pleest to hav an illit- 
turitt, non-profeshunel owtsidur like misellf 
sae ennithing abowt pennmanshipp or not, 
but az thare izn't mutch tu doo on the fahrm 
thiss kohid wethur, and esspeshulli now 
that the eevnings ahr soe lawng, I thowt I 
wooddeunlitn misellf a littl on the impawrtnt 
-subbjekt uvv pennmanshipp by riting a fue 
ahrtikkls fawr the Pennman's Ahrt 
JuRiLNAL. Itt mae seem funni tu hav mee 
sae thatt I wahut tu ennlitn misellf hi riting 
fawr the press ; mohst peepl hoo rite fawr 
the press doo itt tu ennlitn othurs. I hav 
hurrd thatt summ peepl gett soh tchuck 
full uvv wizzdom thatt thae musst lett itt 
owt summwae ; usualli Ihroo the press. 
Thos hoo gett the tchuckest full I hav been 
tohld can gett relief in no othur wae than 
hi slabrting a pennman's papur. Butt I 
wawz going tu ekksplane the fillawsoti— the 
how-itt wawz, az itt w 
ing misellf by riting fa 
Furst, I hav hurd su 
(a lawyurr woodd sae " 
the hesst wae tu lurn a subbjekt iz tu be- 
ginu tu rite abowt itt. Iff thiss be troo uvv 
enni subbjekt, itt awt tu be troo uvv riting, 
fawr I hav seen itt summhwar thatt we lurn 
tu doo by dooing ; soh, I spos we lurn tu 
rite by riting. Theun agenn, summ littur- 
ari peepl sae thatt hwenn yoo sitt down tu 
rite an ahrtikkl yoo hav tu doo sutch pow- 
urful abbstrackt thinnking, and thatt, tha 
sae immproovs and ennlitns the mind, I 
havn't mulch ekkspeerienns inn riting ahr- 
tikkls, butt I hadd a tooth abstraekted 
wunns, and I no thar iz sutch a thing az 
abbstrackt thinking ; fawr hwil the dentisst 
wawz dooing the abbstrackting, I wawz enn- 
gajd inn a verri abzawrhing abbstrackt 
thinking, and itt ennlitnd mee tu sutch an 
ekkslennt thatt inn mi mind's ahe I coodd 
see 10,000 sunns. 

Sekkund I kann ennlitn misellf in riting 
thees ahrtikkls hi asking a grate menni 
kwestchuns — thatt iz, proWdud enni boddi 
can ansur themm. Hwenn I sae a grate 
menni I dohn't meen az inennie az 500. 

Butt befohr I go enni furthur I musst tell 
hoo I am. This I think I kann akkomplish 
besst by stating hoo and hwatt I am nott. 
Itt wawz awlwaz a favoritt wa uw mine tu 
gett att things throo a neggativ. Well, I 
am nott Ames, or Spennsur, oz Peers, or 
Mikl, or Mekee, or Krandl, or Isikks, or 
Pabmur, or Brown, or Flikkingur, or Kib- 
ba, or Madduiaz, or — enni uvv thees bigg- 
gunn pennmen, az itt wurr. fawr iff I 
wurr, mi nam woodd nott be Twix. Uvv 
corse, thar iz no ews deni-ing thatt I woodd 
lik^ tu bee wunn uvv thos jeuntlmenn and, 
confedennshalli, I mite sae thatt I hav sett 
mi mahrk hih, and iff I thawt thatt fewture 
jennurashuns woodd nott considdur mi 
naim— Twix— az a sinnomimm fawr awl 
thatt iz grand and bewtiful inn the wurld 
kirografflk, I shoodd wahnt tu dih att 
wunns hwile the wurld nos nuthing uvv 
mee. Ilwenn I sae the wurid. I meen the 
wurld att lahrj — the nusepapur wurld, az 
it wurr— fawr hwenn a man getts inntu the 
nusepapurs thenn he iz suppozd tu bee inn 
the wurid att lahrj; and summ peepl hwenn 
thac gett inntu thiss wurld att labrj, gro 
konnsiddurabli — gett lahrj. gett tu bee a 
wurld inn themsellvs—fawr I hav sene iun- 
stnsus hwar a pursn seeing biz naim inn 
prinnt the furst time woodd immediatli 
stahrt a pennman's papur. 

Thenn agenn, I am nott an edditur uvv 
a pennman's papur— thatt iz.azyett—buft iff 
I gett alnwngprittiwellwith thees ahrtikkls 
fawr the JuRRNAL, I mae stahrt wunn be- 
fohr lawng ; so. thos innturcssled plees tak 
notiss. Itt iz troo, mi litturari attanemcnnts 
are nott sutch thatt I kood stahrt— thatt iz, 
stahrt and konntinnyu fawr enni lennkth 
uvv tighm— sutch a papur az Ilahrpur'a ot 
the Sernituri, butt thenn, uecthur doo the 
Uahrpur and Sennturi edditiirs hav the 
nessussari kirografflk and orthografflk 
kwawllifikashuns tu stahrt and runn a penn- 
man's papur. ^ Iff I misstak nott, the eheef 
thing fawr the edditur uvv a pennman's 
papur iztu bee abl tu spell, and spelling 
awlwaz wauz mi fohrt. Itt wawz awlwaz 
unttural fawr mee tu spell. I luvv it. 
Tawking abowt spelling reminds me 
uvv the spelling skools we yoost tu 
hav hwenn I wawz younger. Itt wauz 

att wunn uvv thees spelling skools 
thatt I mett mi beluvvd Ssrah, boom I 
afterwurds puiswnded tu kast hur lott with 
mihn, fawr bettiir or wurs. We hav nou 
beenn marrid tenn yeers and hav nihn cbill- 
dren. . Tha awl — I meen the chilldren — 
shoh a wnnderful liking and apptitude fawr 
pennmanshipp and spelling, so thatt hwenn 
I stahrt mi pennman's papur, I will hav a 
full-fledjd edditorial staff tu bcginn with. 
(N. B. — I mennt tu hav stated thatt I wauz 
marrid alt 20, and am now 30.) 

I sedd att the beginning thatt I am a non- 
pro feshunal—tbatl iz, so tu speck— fawr be- 
tween ew and mee I miht sae thatt I hav 
tawt sevural riting .skools lieer in the kunn- 
tri, and summ uvv the greenhnwrns beer 
kawl mee " Frofessur;" butt uvvcorse I am 
no professur in the senns thatt thos pursns 
I naimd abuvv are professurs. I thinnk, 
tho, a felloh kan hav goodd senns witowt 
beeing a professur. I hav nohn summ so- 
kawld professurs hoo didd nott hav goodd 
senna, bekawz thae wurr nott oldenuff. I re- 
memmbur wunn uvv owr nabur bawys hoo 
wawz a smahrt lad and gott a lihsns tu teech 
skool hwenn he wawz 10 ; he gott a skool 
tu teech, and summ uvv the green peepl 
arownd kawld him " professur" wunns or 
twihs, and hwatt doo ew spos the bawydidd 
butt tu go riht tu the sitti wunn Saiturdae 
tu bib himsellf a plugg hatt ! Well, he 
nohs bettur now, and I hav hurrd him laff 
abowt itt sinns. 

Butt I amafrade I am making poorwurrk 

att telling hwatt I wahnt tu, and az I dohnt 

nob how lawng thiss ahrtikkl will look 

untill I see itt inn prinnt, I shall hav tu 

kwitt riht beer jusst now. butt will kindli 

ask the edditur tu sae "tu be konntinyud" 

at the end, so thatt the reedurs of the 

JtntRNAL will noh thatt I am nott throo. 

Verri trooli yours, Tom Twix. 

P. S.— Mr. Edditur: Hwenn ew hav 

prinnted thiss plees cutt itt owt and male itt 

tu mee inn a lettur, az I jusst bawt nue 

shoos fawr all tlie chilldren, and kant afford 

to subbskrihb fawr the Jurrnal jusst now. 


The Variation of Species. 

" The Variation of Species and the Origin 
of Varieties," was the subject of Professor 
J. D. Dana's third lecture to the students, 
in his course on "Evolution," at the Pea- 
body Museum, on January 30. The speaker 
showed that species vary widely by some 
natural method, and that varieties are thus 
produced. The substance of his remarks is 
as follows, the lecture being divided into 
seven heads : The first head he called do- 
mestic species, plants and animals. The 
many varieties of these are all propagations 
of distinct species which amount to hun- 
dreds of thousands in number. Apples, 
trees and roses especially lead in varieties, 
and the variations of plants are not exceeded 
by those of domesticated animals. Doga, 
cattle, etc., have so many varieties that it 
seems as if they must be of different families, 
but it is not so. Tho many diveraities in 
horned cattle and cattle without horns has 
grown up in the last few centuries. The 
varieties in sheep, hogs and horses are none 
the less remarkable. Horses vary in their 
bones, some having fifteen ribs on each side 
instead of nine, and in many other ways. 

Under the second head the speaker treated 
of species in their wild state and said they 
were less frequent than in the cultivated 
state. The common oak has only twenty 
varieties, and it has been deiermined that 
the European elk and the American moose 
are of one species. Dimorphism was treated 
under the third head. The female butterfly 
can produce offspring like the other forms 
of females of her species and entirely unlike 
herself. Mankind cannot. The fourth, 
fifth and sixth heads maintained that varie- 
ties are often of sudden appearance both in 
wild and cultivated growth of trees and 
animals. In the latter they seldom occur in 
the adult. Not all these varieties are 
capable of perpetuation. In the seventh 
and concluding head the speaker said that 
variation was a univereal fact. No two 
trees, flowers, or animals of the same species 
were ever exactly alike. From this he 
argued that if there was a steadiness in this 
process of varying, evolution could have 

A Shocking Bad Hand. 

"So, Kate you nre actually engaged to 
Air. Clarke, in 8[>Ue of his terrible failing ?" 
(jueried Fanny Morton, as the two girls sat 
in the boudoir of the former, enjoying a 
coDfidcntial chat. "I thouglit that would 
bf an iusuperable objection, and now you 
have proved traitor to your own determina- 
tion. How did you reconcile it to your 
conscience to accept him ? Of course, he 
did not offer himself in writing— that would 
have insured a decided refusal. I know. I 
wish you every happiness, dear, but I can- 
not understand your disregard of one of the 
strictest tenets of your faith." 

Kate Ivison threw a rather indignant 
glance at her voluble friend as she replied : 
" Circumstances alter cases. I suppose 
you refer to Mr. Clarke's writing. I confess 
his penmanship is not all that could be de- 
sired, but his many other good qualities 
make me forget his one shortcoming. After 
all. defective cbjrograpliy is generally the 
result of physical weakness. I have read 
somewhere that there is a paralytic affection 
of the leaders of the hand which prevents 
the sufferer exercising perfect control over 

is I have very little faith in the young r 
of the period. I belie 
ly seltish. While his 
ceptionable, his gallantry highly polished 
and his command of snuill talk inexhausti- 
ble, I am inclined to think he would be 
found a very slender support in cases of 
real need." 
" What do you mean ?" 
" I mean that if you were to fall into the 
river, he would save you at the risk of his 
life. That he would stop your runaway 
horse if he was sure of being knocked down 
and trampled. That he would protect you 
from insult and annoyance on the street, 
cost what it might. There would be some- 
thing showy and knightly in such service. 
His vanity would assist his 
and the whole performance 
heroism. But suppose you 
of another kind— financial, for instance. 
Suppose, for the sake of argument, that 
your father were in difficulties, and that he 
needed a large sum of money at once, I 
wonder whether Mr. Clarke would fly to 
your as-sistance as prompt as you would 

■egard for you. 
would savor of 

The young man looked troubled as he 
wrote a few words on a slip of paper, hastily 
put it in an envelope, and sent it by a mes- 
senger to Kate Ivison's house. 

Then he resumed his occupation of writ- 
ing slowly and laboriously on slips of paper 
similar to the one he had sent away. 

" I wish my writing was better. I never 
knew before what a bad scribe I was. That 
capital S is terrible, and my h's, t's and I's 
seem to be running wild. It is no use ; I 
will not try any more today. Besides, I 
am too much worried over this other matter 
of Mr. Ivison's. It is too late to do any- 
thing in that, now, however. It is past five 

George Clarke was a successful young 
business man. He had inherited a well- 
established business from his father, and for 
the past five years had devoted nearly all 
his time and attention to improving it. Per- 
haps this is why he had never formed a 
serious attachment until he met Kate Ivison 
a few months before. 

The young lady had been educated in 
Europe, but notwithstanding, was intensely 
American. She was thoroughly loyal to 


The iibom ml wat photo-mgrmed from cop// vmtlen at </« office of tlu JomiNAL and. an given <M ua 
and may he mrd aa a eopg in eonnectian with the imting leasm of this month. 


ims phoio-cngrared from writing exemiied at (he office of the Journai,. and is given m an exumple of Profem'onal 
Writing— the capitals being struck on the whokarm movement and the mall writing uyritten with the fm-earm. 

the pen. The malady does not reveal itself 
in any other way, but has a well-marked 
effect on the writing." 

" Well, Kate, I always thought your re- 
solve, never to marry a man who wrote a 
bad band, was a ridiculous one, but you 
seemed so thoroughly in earnest that I can 

only hope yo 

will no 

t regre 

\ when too late 

that you have 

taken for better or woi-se one 

of the worst 

vriters 1 

ever si 


"But he is 

so good 



"Of course 

" — So thoroughly devotee 

to me—" 


" Fanny, why do y 

u sit 

here with that 

cynical smile 

on your 

face ? 

Did vou ever 

hear that Mr 


was not a gentleman 

m everv sense 

of (he word?' 

■• No." 

■• Well, you 


e a strong doubt of it 

by your maun 


"Don't be 



But the truth 

"Fanny. T am ashamed of you. If I 
"doubted it for an instant, I would never 
speak to Mr. Clarke again." 

" Try him," was Fanny's only response, 
as she prepared to leave. "Try him, and 
let me know the result." 

Kate Ivison sat in a brown study for half 
an hour after her bosom friend had left her. 
Then she wrote a note to Mr. Clarke. 

Mr. Clarke, a young man of perhaps 
twenty-eight, sat in his office on Liberty 
street when a special delivery letter was 
handed to him. 

"This is strange," he said'. "I never 
suspected Mr. Ivison of being in such straits. 
I hold a great deal of his paper, and con- 
sidered it as safe as rash. Yet, here is a 
letter from Kate telling me in plain words 
that her father is on the verge of ruin. Ten 
thousand dollars ! And I hold his promis- 
sory notes for as much more ! It is a good 
deal of money 1" 

our country, and had only one prejudice. 
She had always held tliat the writing was 
an index of character. That a good, noble, 
manly man must write a hand to correspond, 
and that mean, crabbed caligniphy would 
indicate a disposition not to be trusted. 

She had found in George Clarke her ideal 
of an American gentleman, and before she 
had had an opportunity to see his writing 
had promised herself to him. It cannot be 
denied that when she first gazed upon the 
collection of scratchy, crooked, irregular 
lines and loops by which he was accustnmed 
to convey his thoughts, desires and direc- 
tions on paper, she felt a thrill of disap- 
pointment. But, somehow, by the time she 
bad read two or three of his letters, his 
writing had ceased to be a thing of such 
great consetjuenee in her eyes, luid she had 
come to the conclusion that her theory must 
be based on false premises. 

If her friend, Fanny Morton, had not so 

kindly implanted doubts in her bosom, she 
would never have thought of distrusting her 
lover on account of his failing. She did 
not actually mistrust him as it was, and it 
was only to prove the soundness of her 
judgment that she wrote the letter referred 
to above, in which she implored assistance 
from Mr. Clarke for her father. 

It was, perhaps, a foolish proceeding, and 
if dignitied, solid Mr. Ivison had been aware 
of it there would probably have been a 
severe storm in the Ivison household. The 
old gentleman's credit was unimpeachable. 
He could have made himself straight with 
the world by a stroke of the i)en at any 
time, and sat down in the enjoyment of a 
large fortune afterward. 

But fortunately for his peace of mind, he 
did not know what his impulsive daughter 
had done. 

The answer from Mr. Clarke was not long 
iu reaching Kate Ivison. She tore open the 
envelope as soon as she had reached her own 
room, unfolded the slip of paper and read : 
"Self-preservation is the first law of na- 
ture. George Clarke." 

Kate Ivison did what most young ladies 
would do under the circumstances. She 
dashed away the indignant tears which 
would come to her eyes, and made up her 
mind not to see Mr. Clarke again. 

" What a contemptible creature I Fanny 
was right. The young men of to-day are 
selfish. 1 might have known it. It only 
proves the truth of my doctrine, that the 
true character of a person is revealed by 
their writing, however much they may try 
to hide it. Well, Mr. Clarke, I am thankful 
I have found you out before it is too late." 

She took a ring from her finger, brought 
half a dozen letters from her desk, and tied 
them in a bundle, glancing contemptuously 
at the scrawly characters on the top envelope 
as she did so. 

' ' There ; he shall have these in the morn- 
ing. Self-preservation w the first law of 
nature. I am obliged to him for the sug- 
gesliou. I have had a very narrow escape 
from becoming the wife of an ineffably self - 
ish man. He has shown me his true char- 
acter, and no one can blame me for obeying 
nature's first law. I suppose he will not 
come any more. He will be too much oc- 
cupied iu saving himself from financial loss. 
I should like to see him when he discovers 
that his caution was unnecessary." 

At this stage of her rcfiections Miss Ivison 
broke off to have a good cry. Her eyes 
were still rather red an hour after when she 
weut down to meet Mr. Clarke, who, con- 
trary to her expectations, had come to pay 
his usual evening visit. 

He did not appear to notice his cool re- 
ception as he eagerly asked : 
"Didyouget my note?" 
" Yes. It is iu my hand." 
"Well, now. let us talk ovc 
and decide what is to be done.' 
' ' There is no occasion. Yoi 
your intention in this letter." 

" Yes, I know. But the details—" 
"Need not be discussed. I intended to 
send these to you in the morning. As you 
are here, you may take them now. Of 
course there is nothing else to be done," 
said Kate, speaking as calmly as she could, 
though almost choking with indignation as 
she noted her recreant lover's coolness. 
" Here are your letters and ring, and I wish 
you good evening." 

Her hand was on the door handle before 
George Clarke could find words. Then : 
" Kate— Misslvison, what does this mean V" 
"Look at that note I received from you 
this afternoon. It is on top of the package. 
Surely you do not need any explanation wiih 
that in your hand." 

The young man glanced at the slip of pa- 
per, and gave Kate a look in which horror 
and amusement were strangely blended. 

" Why. Kate, here is a terrible mistake t 
And yet it is very easily explained. I put 
the wrong note in the envelope. See ; here 
is what I wrote to you." 

He had hastily pulled half a dozen slips 
of paper from his pocket, and looked 
through them, selecting one, which he 
handed her : 

" Shall place myself entirely at your 
ser^e- George Claukk." 

"There, that is what 1 meant to send. 
You notice that the first word commences 
with an ' S.' and the second with a 'p,' as 

» matter 

1 have stated 

AH I ,J<>|TK.\AI> 

in tbe slip you got. There are about the 
Slime number of words in each, and iu my 
Lurry I sent you the wrong one." 

Kate was standing by his side now. 

■• Well, what did you write the otlier for 
at all V " she asked. 

■• I will tell you. I have been trying very 
liard lately to improve my writing, and I 
utilize every spare moment in practice. You 
know writing copies are nearly always em- 
bodied in fluch precepts as this one. I had 
been writing ' Self-preservation is the first 
law of nature." signing my name to every 
one. a do/en limes. It is not very strange 
that I made the mistake." 

Kate confessed that she bad only been 
trying the extent of her lover's regard when 
she asked him for financial assistance, and 
promised him that she would never do it 
again, whatever Fanny might say. She 
thinks George Clarke is perfect, though be 
still writes a shocking bad hand.— George 
C. Jcnks. in East End Bulletin. 

Drawing Lesson. 

{Uop>TiKlited by George E. Little.) 

In the present number Prof. Little pre- 
sents another of his amusing and instructive 
transformation series for drawing. Whether 
or not man has ascended to his present high 
estate from a mere wigler through a long 
line of a more or less humble ancestry, a la 
Darwin, we are not now going to discuss, 
but that there are more or less evolutionary 
facts that are within our own observation. 
Prof. Little has very forcibly reminded us 
in this and preceding sketches. If some of 
our readers who are practicing drawing or 
writing will but preserve their maiden effort 
and, from time to time, compare it with 
subsequent trials, they will behold a strik- 
ing example of evolution, and in many 
instances one that, if it would not have de- 
lighted, might have astonished even a Dar- 
win. Skill in these, as in other attainments, 
comes through thoughtful and long con- 
tinued study und practice. It is evolution 
evolved by the force of patient and persist- 
ent effort. Genius may start with a magnifi- 

cent flight, but labor toils forward, and while 
genius reposes on its easily won laurels, 
labor presses on and passes by to unexplored 
bights ; we are firm in the belief that a 
thorough genius for vsork Ib the highest 
ordir of genius bcatowed upon mnn. The 

a;;^sharp mode of^swindling. 

The above cut illustrates a device which has been somewhat extensively used by sharpers for swindling unwary persons. On its 
face it is a very harmless instrument, but after procuring the signature of the victim, the sharper cuts the paper iu two, after the name 
Hunt, when he has the unconditional note of Cbarles Hunt, which be at once sells or discounts at a neighboring bank and skips to seek 
new victims in other fields. 

greatest masters of the world have been the 
greatest toilers, and many of them far from 
boasting of any special gift of genius. 
Should there be among our readei-s any one 
who bas refrained from the earnest study 
and practice of drawing orwriting from the 
belief that their mastery required a special 
gift, which tbey were not conscious of pos 
sessing. we advise them to at once divest 
themselves of all such belief and to go reso- 
lutely to work, in the full assurance that 
though their gift of genius may be less than 
that of some others, there will scarcely be 
such a deficiency as may not be more than 
supplied by largely increased industry. 

The designs here presented should be 
)riieiiced freehand with either pen, pencil 
.1- .rayon. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 
Remember, that if you order either our 
" New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship." or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit fttr practical writing, It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
.ToDBHAL on receipt of 80 centa. 


Educational Notes. 

iiiiik^utloiia for this Department i 
N. R. F. KRI.1.KT, Office of the _ 

Broadwiiy, New York. 

' the Pemuan's 

Brief fldu cation al Items soliclted.l 

The value of school property in the United 
States in 1884 was $^40,6^4,416. 

The new annual catalogue of Cornell 
shows a total of 687 students in the univer- 
sity, nearly 100 more than ever before. 

The English language is spoken by 100,- 
000,000 people, the French by 45,000.000, 
und the German by 60,000,000. 

The fair Vassar students are going in for 
physical culture, and the Alumna; have 
raised a fund of $aO,000. which is to be 
devoted to the organization of an arithmetic 

Japan has just settled the question of free 
popular education, and all children be- 
tween the ages of 6 and 14 are compelled to 
attend school from three to six hours a day 
for thirty two weeks in the year.— iV. K. 
Journal of Education. 

There are in the worid 1,434,000,000 peo- 
ple. They are divided according to their 
faith as follows : Pagans, 856,000,000, or 75 
percent.; Papists, 190,000,000. or 13 per 
cent.; Mohammedans, 170.000.000, or 13 
per cent.; Protestants, 116,000,000, or 8 per 
cent.; Greeks. 78,000.000 ; Jews, 8.000.000; 
Anneuians, 7,000,000.— iV. E. Journal of 

Cornell University has established a chair 
of pedagogy, and assigned toil the professor 
of geology. This is a very " gneiss " arrang- 
ment. Such a professor ought to be able to 
dig all the old fossils out of the profession 
and lay them on the shelf. Several "quartz" 
of ink could be profitably shed in demon- 
stration of the value of slate, chalk, and 
graphite as promoters of the art of 
iu imbuing janitors with liberal ideas 
ceruing the functions of the coal meai 
during the "glacial epoch" of the school 
year, and in showing the shortest way 
to teach primary pupils how to spell 
the names of such pets as the " Ichthyosau- 
rus" and the " Dinotherium." — New Eng- 
land Jom-nal oj 

EducationaIi Fancies. 

All that is left of Athens is a spot of 
Greece.— A'3?. 

■■ Well, that beats me 1 " the boy exclaim- 
ed, when his teacher sent him up to the 
luincijiiil s rrioDi to borrow the master's rat- 
tan —S-m, rci/h- Journal. 

■* Wliiit straits are the most perilous?" 
asked n Sunday-school superintendent, and 
a little boy spoke up promptly : " Whiskey 
straits." — Ex. 

A West Lynn teacher asked a little hoy 
the color of the Atlantic Ocean, and he said 
he guessed it was water color. — Ex. 

" What is an epistle ? " asked a Sunday- 
school teacher of her class. " The wife of 
an apostle," replied the young hopeful. -£'.c. 

" Are you in favor of enlarging the ci 

replied the old gentlemen ; " the buildii 
big enough. What we want is to teach more 
thmgs to the scholars." — Ex. 

A teacher asked a boy who was the meek- 
est man, "Moses, sir," was the answer. 
" Very well, my boy ; and now, who was 
the meekest women ?" "Please, sir, there 
never was any meekest women," — Ex. 

Examination Day. Committeeman — 
" What animal is the most capable of at- 
taching itself to man ?" Head of the class 
— "The leech l"—^^. 

Pupil — " I have an idea, but I can't ex- 

Professor— " There's where boys fit for 

Mrs. Partington— "Then if they fit for 
college before they went, of course they 
didu t fight afterward." 

Pi-of.- " Yes, but the fight was with the 

"Butted, did tbey?" said the old lady. 

An up-country schoolmaster, whose wife 
was one of his pupils, had occasion to pun- 
ish ber one day. The nest day the school- 
house door bore this inscription: "School 
closed for one week owing to the illness of 
the Schoolmaster." — Ex. 

She was one and 1 was one 
Slrollin-T ner ihe licallier, 

Yetbcfon" n,.. V. M u :- ilniie 

Having nothing else to do, 

We were separated. 
Now, 'twould seem that by this action 
Each was made a simple fraction ; 
Yet 'tis held in Love's subtraction 

One and one leaves two. 

— Chicago Kc 

Just for Fun. 

Even the laziest boy can catch a licking. 

" Can a man marry his widow's sister ? " 

is one of the traps laid for unreflecting per- 

A man seeing the sign " Hands off. "inno- 
cently asked if they had gone on a picnic. 

When a man falls down his temper gen- 
erally gets up before he does. 

An ounce of keepyour-mouth-sbut is bet- 
ter than a pound of explanation after you 
have said it. 

A tiy is said to have 16.000 eyes. No won- 
der he is careless where he leaves his specs. 

Life is short — only four letters in it. Three 
quarters of it is a "lie" and a half of it is 

The grasshopper bas, according to its size, 
120 times the kicking power of an average 
man. It must be exciting times for tue 
young grasshoppers which go courting and 
find the old man at home. 

"I find that with light meals my health 
improves," said the Esquimaux ; and down 
went another candle. — UarjH-r's Bazar. 

Once while Dr. Samuel Johnson, the liter- 
ary bear, was talking very learnedly, one of 
the company laughed. Thoroughly indig- 
nant, Johnson turned on bim and said : 
" What provokes your risibility, sir ? Have 
I said anything that you can understand ? 
If I have I ask pardon from the rest of the 

*■ Pturs to riif your mill goes awful .slow." 
^iM in ill i III 11 lainier boy toamiUer. "l 
. M :j : , ,: I i: ,,, III faster'u you grind it." 

I 'II think you could doit, 

111^ 1 -■ ■ ii iln- miller. "'Till I starv- 

rU Lu diiiUi, au.-.wcred the boy. 

A dull old lady, being told that a certain 
lawyer was lying at the point of death, ex- 
claimed : "My gracious, won't even death 
stop that man's lying ? " 

A Minnesota exchange says that "Peter 
Butler, of Cannon Falls, aged SO years, 
shocked eleven acres of grain one day last 
week." Some of these old farmers use pret- 
ty bard language, when they once get 
started.— i'tcfc's Hun. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvemeut in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-Instxuction iu Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmauship" (in paper 
covers), or ^1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with It you may return It, 
and we will refimd Ibe cash by return m&U, 




^iT- ^~ 

4 ^^ 

faiS commdj 





i was 2^hoto-en{iraved from pen-and-ink copy, executed at the Office of the Journal, and is given a^ a »peci,nen of Diploma wm-k. The Diplomm were printed . 
Paper 18x23 tmhcs. Diplomat, are gotten up in any form to suit, on aliort notice, and at very low prices, cw compared witli Vie coat by any oth^ metUd. Special 
estimatea given and speciirrnia mailed on request. Diplmna Blanks far Business Colleges. Penmanship SeJmls, and other Institutions in stock, also 
Testimonials and Certificates. Sa/mples sent for 25 cents each. 

The Lawyer's Advice. 

One of the best stories tbat has been told 
oil a lawyer for many years is being told on 
Hr. Weisbrod. of Osbkosli, partner of 
Henry Harshaw. Mr. W. goes every year 
for a duck shooting trip up Rat River, 
wliicb empties into Wolf River, twenty-five 
miles above Oshkosb. All along Rat River 
are farms owned by farmers, and they bate 
to see anybody sliootiug along the river. 
They go out shooting on Sunday, and they 
want all the fun there is to he had. When 
n hiinliu- -kifT i-, sien ascending the little 
stiT;nti til. n;iiivv. .-.I work in the fields will 
yfll ;ii I 111 iiuiiii, rs, ;md use language that is 
noi ]tli :isiiit i<i li^iir. Nothing would please 
tlicm liL-ttcr than to have the hunters talk 
back and give them an excuse for a row, and 
ptThaps u shooting match. One day last 
fall Weisbrod was being paddled up the 
stream, and occasionally his gun would ring 
out a familiar soimd, a puff of smoke would 
be seen, and a duck would fall. Presently 
he came to a fence across the stream, which 
stopped his further progress. He got out 
of the boat, let down the fence, and passed 
on when a German farmer came down to the 
bank with a pitchfork, looked at the in- 
truders and said: 

"You fellows go back by dat fence, and 
don't you come here again." 

"I guess not," said Weisbrod. "You 
have no right to fence a stream that is navi- 
gable for ducks and skiffs. There is a law, 
sir. that protects an American citizen, and 
In fencing the waters of the United Stales 
and the Stale of Wisconsin, you are guilty 

of treason, rebellion and mayhem, and can 
be thrust into a bastile, sir." 

The Genuan looked a little frightened at 
the big words, but he said be had a right to 
fence the stream, as he had consulted a law- 
yer, and paid him five dollars for the ad- 
vice, and he should insist that they go back. 

"There are lawyers," said Weisbrod, 
"Who would give an innocent man any kind 
of advice for five dollars, and get him into 
trouble that would cost a poor man his farm 
and everything he has. The lawyer who 
told you that you could fence Rat River and 
cut oil this natural highway, and block the 
wheels of progress, and interfere with life, 
liberty, and the pursuit of happiness guar- 
anteed by the constitution to all people, is 
no credit to the profession, and he probably 
lavighed at you after he had taken your five 

"Veil, 1 don't know apout dot," said the 
German. "I tell him I vanl to vence dot 
stream, and he look in a big book and he say 
to me dot is all right, you go head and vence 
it, und I did. He vas de pest lawyer in 
Oshkosh, und he know his pishneea, you 

"Who was the shyster who told you to 
fence Rat River?" asked Weisbrod. "Give 
me his name and I will have him arrested 
for obtaining the money of a poor man on 
false pretences, and I will gel your money 
back, and send him to the penitentiary 
What 18 his name'/" 

by de posh office." 

Weisbrod, und his office is 

"Whatl My name is Weisbrod, and I 
never in all my life — " 

"Veil, by shingo. so you vas Mr. Weis- 
brod. Don't you remember dot time I vas 
in your office, and you tolt me dot it vas all 
right to vence de stream, and I gave you u 
ten dollar bill und Hank Harshaw change ii 
for you so you could give me back my 
change, eh?" 

Weisbrod thought a moment and scratched 
his head. He could see that he was in a 
tight place. Finally he recovered and said, 
"I remember. I remember it well, but the 
advice 1 gave you was only intended to ap- 
ply up to the 15th of August each year, 
when the law is off on ducks. From that 
time till the ducks go south the constitution 
provides that fences shall be removed and 
all persons shall have free access to shooting 
grounds. I supposed you understood that I 
was only giving you advice about building 
the fence. If you had asked me about tak- 
ing the fence down, it would have cost you 
five dollars more. As it is I will not charge 
you anything for this supplemental advice, 
but let me impress upon you the importance 
of keeping the fence down after the 15th of 

"O. veil, if dot is de case, you go aheat, 
and I will go across lots up dc stream, and 
have the two other ences down by the time 
you get there," and the German dropped his 
pitchfork and went ahead and let down the 
fences, and Weisbrod had splendid shoot- 
ing, and went home to dinner with his client. 
As Weisbrod was leaving the house the Ger- 
man turned to his wife and said: "Dotia 

Mr. Weisbrod. yon Oshkosh. He is n: 
lawyer, and he is de smartest lawyer in Vi 
nebago county." — Peek's San. 

foa c.iLil 

Though you are eleliteci 

-Margaret Vandergrlft. 

Agent for Canada. 

We have commissioned A. J. Small. 13 
Grand Opera House. Toronto. Canada (P.O. 
Box 634), to act aa agent for the JouUHAL 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We trust ibal our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 



Published Monthly at «1 per Year. 


single liiaerUoD, W owita per line oonpuleL 
No adtrertiBaiiiiint unscfoiEiptuiled with caab. aocordlng 


New York, March, 

Name the Premium. 
Much annoyauce nod some loss has been 
occasioned, to us and subscribers, in con- 
setjuf nee of the premium desired not having 
been desiguuted ut the time of the subscrip- 
tion. It will, of course, be observed that 
there is now offered to each subscriber re- 
mitting $1 for the Journal one year a 
choice of one of ten premiums free, to be 
mailed with the first number of the JouR- 

Ames' (iulde to Practical and Artistic Penmanship 

Webster's Handy Dictloiiery. 

The Centennial Picture of Progress .22x28 

" Flourished Eagle ... . a4x32 

" Bounding Stag , . .,ajx32 

" Lord's Prayer , ..19x34 

" Qarfield Memorial ,i0x24 

•■ Family Record . J8i22 

" Marriaire Certificate. .. . ...18x22 

" Grant Memorial 23x38 

and for 35 cents extra the Guide, full hound. 
In view of the number of the premiums, 

each subscriber should name the one of his 

choice. Where no premium is named, the 

new premium for the current year (The 

Grant Memorial) is mailed. 


We cannot undertake to be responsible 
for the safe delivery of any package by 
mail, nor can \\i itTMi.i h< n -i-li.r ordinary 
packages, bm iv il, ..i-.- ivln/re parties 
to whom thc_\ :m. ■ ilin - i,l will reuiit 

the registcry tn- III ii lut'^., wl' will cause 
such packages t" \n.- regiskrcd, thus insuring 

We are 
of the J(U 
of the Bu: 
be able t 

The Convention. 

assured that before the next issue 
nijjAL the Executive Committee 
siness Educators' Association will 
o lay before the members such 
s as will fairly indicate the scope 

of the forthcoming Convention. There is 
every evidence of ft large and enthusiastic 
gathering, and assurances are at hand of 
the co-oporation and aid of distinguished 
specialist.^ in the various departments of our 
educational work. 

Penman's Skill Put to a Bad 

A few days since, while in Washington, 
we were shown by the chief of rogue catch- 
ers, Mr. James J. Brooks,, who is at the 
head of the Secret Service Bureau in the 
U.S. Treasury, a fS counterfeit legal tender 
treasury note which had been photo- 
engraved from a wretched pen-and-ink 
drawing. The penman who perpetrated it 
deserves, if caught, to be sentenced for a 
double term — first for being a wicked pen- 
man, and second for being a mean artist. 
Where is Tignire, Jr.? 

The King Club 

for this month numbers ffty-eight, and was 
sent from Spalding's Business College, 
Kansas City. Mo., by S. C. WUIiams, pen- 
man of that institution. Mr. Williams, in 
an elegantly written letter, says, " The 
JoiniNAi, is superb. It distances all others 
every heat." 

The Queen Club numbers fifty, and came 
from the Rochester{N. Y.) Business Univer- 
sity through the penman of that institution, 
A. S. Osborn. 

The third club in size numbers /or/^-ij/'o, 
and was sent by C. S. BUIman, penman at 
the Miami (Ohio) Commercial College. A 
club numbering fwty came from It. E. 
Gallagher, of the Canada Business College, 
Hamilton, Ontario. He says, "I note the 
steady progress of the Journal. It is 
without exception the best penman's paper 
in the world." G. W. Weltou, of the Grand 
Rapids (Mich.) Business College, sends a 
club of thirty-four. L. L. Tucker sends a 
club of twenty-nine from the New Jersey 
Business College, Newark, N. J. D. H. 
Farley sends a club of twenty from the 
State Normal College, Trenton, N. J. A 
club of «ew/(tott was sent by C. Bayle-s, of 
the Dubuque (Iowa) Business College. O. 
S. Westbrook, of the Mansfield (Pa.) Busi- 
ness College, sends a club of fifiien. 

Hurrah for clubs. 

The Packard Anniversary. 

Rarely has the Academy of Music in this 
city exhibited a more pleasing sight than 
that of Thursday evening. March 11, which 
was the occasion of the 28th anniversary of 
Packard's Business College. The vast audi- 
torium was filled "from pit to dome, "every 
seat — clear to the roof — being filled, while 
some hundred or more people were standing. 

The stage, which, differing from other 
who hold their commencement 
here, was used by Mr. Packard for 
his graduates, contained, besides the gradu- 
ates— 85 in number, more than half of 
whom were young ladies — seats for a hun- 
dred people, and in the centre of the stage 
was arranged on tables a hundred baskets 
of flowers of all hues and designs, making, 
as seen from the upper boxes, a medallion 
with a gorgeous setting of white robed girls, 
neatly clad young men. and the various dis 
tinguished personages who figured as speak- 
ers and guests. It was a lovely picture. 
Dr. J. 11. Vincent, of Chautauqua fame, 
delivered the principal address on "The 
True Education." Mr. Morris Wise. Presi- 
dent of the Packard Alumni Association, 
gave the Alumnus address, and the Rev. C. 
H, Eaton addressed the graduates. The 
music was given by Gilmore's band, and 
was a great feature of the occasion. Nearly 
all the pieces were encored, some of them 

Altogether, Mr. Packard can write this 
down as the best among his always excellent 

All of the excellent addresses delivered 
upon the occasion were reported in vcrhatim 
by Prof. Kimball of Packard's Shorthand 
School, and consists of over thirteen thou- 
sand words. The speeches, neatly printed 
from the typewriter, were placed in Mr, 
Packard's hands, complete, within twenty- 
four hours after their delivery. The entire 
work of transcribing having been done by 
Mr. Kiuiball, than whom there are few more 

competent reporters in the country. It i 
proposed to have the addresses appear i: 
full in the next issue of " Packard's Com 
mon Sense." 

Answers to Correspondents. 

W. A. P., Mattoon. 111.— "Should one 
write well before beginning to flourish ?" 

Not necessarily. The advantage that re 
suits to writing, from flourishing, is free- 
dom of movement, and if properly practiced, 
precision or uniformity of hand, and this is 
as beneficial to a writer at one time as at 
another. But to be of benefit to writing, 
flourishing should he practiced thoughtfully 
and carefully, and for a definite purpose; 
aimless scribbling is time and paper wasted. 
And above everything else, when writing 
begins let flourishing end, for nothing is 
more to be abominated than flourishy 

E. W. M., Red Bank. N, J.— "I take the 
liberty of asking you if you will not send 
me some of the many specimens that you 
are constantly receiving from the various 
penmen throughout the country, for my 
scrap-book ? " 

Requests similar to the above are fre- 
quently made. We cannot comply, 1st, 
We should doubt the propriety of our doing 
so without permission from the senders, 
2d, All such specimens are filed away with 
the view of ultimately placing them in a 
large scrap-book, to preserve and exhibit in 
the office of the Journal, All similar re- 
quests must be positively declined. 

G. A. W.. Dayton, Ohio —"Inclosed are 
a couple of sheets of paper, upon one of 
which please favor me with a specimen of 
penmanship direct from your pen ? I want 
it for my scrap-book," 

This, to the writer, is doubtless a very 
simple request, and one that ought certainly 
to be complied with ; yet were he to know 
that his was only one of fifty or more simi- 
lar requests likely to reach us by the same 
mail, he might think otherwise. One not in- 
formed cannot possibly imagine how requests 
similar to the above, aggregate at such a 
widely known oflice as ours, and how utterly 
impossible it is that they should be complied 
with. Our entire time devoted to that 
purpose would not suffice, our days would 
require to be lengthened, and our regular 
business abandoned. Much as we would 
be pleased to gratify our correspondent, 
self-preservation, which is a prior duty, 

B. R. J., Racine, Wis. — "Do you recom- 
mend oblique penholders for business 
writing ? " 

Were our correspondent to ask if we re- 
commended the use of "crutches," we 
should say certainly ; for those who have a 
need for their use, but not for everybody. 
So with oblique pens or holders, they are 
designed for a specific purpose, and that is 
to aid those writers who have a difficulty in 
holding a straight pen or holder in the cor- 
rect position for writing, that is so that the 
holder shall point over the right shoulder, 
so as to cause the pen to squarely face the 
paper, thus bringing each uib under uni- 
form pressure and causing them to glide 
easily over the paper, and to give a smooth 
line. To those who cannot or who find it 
difficult to so turn the hand as to give this 
position, the oblique holder or pen will be 
an aid, to others it will not. We do not 
advocate the indiscriminate use of such 
pens or holders, no more than we would 

J. A. W., Brighton. Ill,—" please say 
through the Journal what should be the 
weight of the forearm in writing?" 

Just the weight of the forearm, or if less, 
sufficient to secure a forearm rest, and 
hence prevent a wholearm niolion. 

N. M. W.. Holcomb Rock, Va.— "Is it 
necessary to procure a license to write visit- 
ing cards, etc. ?" 

We have never heard of a license being re- 
quired in any State to write cards. 

the Journal. I would like .. 
know how I can recover from it and how it 
can be permanently overcome?" 

In considering the writer's cramp %ve mtist 
first note its cause, which is usually from 
over practice, and often aided by the use of 
toosmall and smootha penholder, held with 
too tighl a grip, thus while the muscles of 
the hand and forearm are exhausted by over 

the fingers are compressed and the 
blood circidation hindered so as to cause 
ntimbness and finally paralysis, liemerly: 
First, be sure of a position that relieves the 
arm from all weight but itt* own. Seamd, 
avoid as far as possible finger movement. 
Third, use a holder above medium size, of 
wood or raalerial having a rough surface. 
Fourth, grip the holder as lightly as pos- 
sible. Fifth, cease practice at the first symp- 
tom of weariness. These directions fol- 
lowed will not only prevent cnunp, but 
restore to soundness those already afflicted, 

M. H. G,. St. Albans, Vt.—" Can I acquire 
a good style of writing by taking a course 
of twelve lessons from a good teacher of 
writing r 

If you mean to ask if you can do so while 
taking the lessons, we answer— That it is 
not probable ; but if you mean to ask if you 
can gain the requisite knowledge of all the 
essentials of writing for enabling you to 
become a good writer, we answer — Yes, 
most assuredly, and with great dilligcnce in 
study and practice, you may make sub- 
stantial improvement during the period of 
the lessons. 

. — "1. How far 

should the first finger beheld from the point 
of the pen when writing ? 3. How far 
above the paper should the second finger be 
held when writing ?" 

1st. This will depend somewhat upon the 
character of the pen, and how far it pro- 
jects from the holder ; as a rule, we should 
say about one and a quarter inches. 2d. 
About one quarter of an inch. It really 
matters little how near, provided it is clear 
of the paper. The following cut i 

illustration of the proper positions of the 
pen : that in which the pen is back of the 
knuckle-joint is preferable, 

R. H. S., Dexter. Mich.— " I have a bot- 
tle of Spenceriau Japan ink which refuses 
to flow from the pen after a few words have 
been written. What can I do with it?" 

Add to it one-third its own quantity of 
Arnold's or Carter's writing fluid. This is 
best with any kind of Japan ink. 

G. N. C, Grafton, Dak.— "My greatest 
ditficiilty in teaching is to secure the correct 
position of the hand while writing. Can 
you suggest any means by which it may be 

This is a ditiiculty experienced by all 
teachere of writing, and must be met in the 
main by a patient and persistent placing of 
Ihe pupil in position; as aids we have adopt- 
ed various expedients, where the pen is held 
out too much from the shoulder pass a small 
stick through the hand between the thumb 
and fore finger and under the holder so that 
Ihe lower end will jtist clear the paper when 
the baud is in the correct position, then when 
thu hand turns outward the stick will strike 
the paper, tliiis reminding the pupil of his 
error. If the fingers are too much cramped, 
place a wad of tissue paper in the hand, 
sufficiently large to force the fingers out 
to the proper position, but above all, a kind 
and frequent correction and explanation to 
the pupil will he the most cff<!ctive remedy. 

Superior Pens. 

Just rcceircd — a new lot of " Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular price, 3n cents. Try them, 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it is 
a rule that the Jodrnal will be discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 



The Western Penman for Fehniary came 
late, on account of the removal of its place 
of piiblicatiou from Chicago to Cedar Rapids, 
Iowa. It was of more than usual inlereat. 
Certainly it was tlie btst peomau's paper that 
has come to our sanctum. Several of the 
articles were worthy of mention, but our 
space is too limited. 

The Am^riain Penman for March is of 
more than average excellence. Were we to 
ciiticisc it as a penman's paper, we should 
.say that its tendency is too much towards a 
business college organ. There has been alto- 
gether too many so-called penmen's papers 
that would have been more properly cidled 
school journals or circulars. All such, as 
periodicals, are doomed from the start. 

The Penman's Omctte for February in some 
respects is excellent ; the lesson in shorthand 
by Prof. Bridge, and the writing lesson by 
Prof. C. R, Wells, are of far more than or- 
dinary merit. " Hut what is bred in the 
bone, etc.," is true of the Oazetle; had it not 
been an organ of a "quack compendium," 
it would not have been at all, and it does not 
forget its mission. Underneath a portrait 
and autograph of a very young face, with an 
elegant mustache, is the testimony of one of 
the " Compendium Guards of Honor "(?) to 
the efficacy of the compendium, which is 
followed by a modest editorial claim, as fol- 
lows : "Asa ficlf -instructor , Oaekell's Compen- 
dium luis nocqual and nosewnd." Justwhat 
is meant by the latter part of the above 
quotetl editorial we do not know ; but the 

way of penman's papers, she has no dearth 
of pursuers; may they all CJilch her. 

The Penman and Artist, by C. N. Crandall. 
Indianapolis, Ind. , after a suspension of a 
year or more, again makes its appearance in 
creditable style. May it go longer and fare 
better than in its former effort 

The TeacJier and Penman, by Palmer & 
Bixler, of Smithville. Ohio, is an unpreten- 
tious four page sheet, of considerable merit. 

The Normal Penman, by G. A. Hough, 
Fort Scott, Kas., is a new venture, in the 
line of penman's papere. It is a twelve-page 
quarto, at 50 cents per year. It begins 
sprightly, is finely printed and well edited. 
Looks promising. 

The Journal of Education , of Boston, Mass. , 
for February, publishes a memorial and por- 
trait of Hon. John Dudley Philbrick, L f-. D. , 
D. C. L., for many years superintendent of 
the schools of Boston. The portrait is ad- 
mirable. The poet Whittier writes of him 
among Ins neighbors ; Secretary Dickinson 
of his educational career ; Dr. Orcutt of his 
college days ; Dr. Joshua Bates of his school- 
master days ; Dr. Samuel Eliot, W. T. Har- 
ris, LL.D., H. P. Harrington, Larkin Dun- 
ton, Gilman II. Tucker, A. A. Miner, D.D.. 
Superintendent E. P. Seaver. A. G. Boy- 
den, Moses Merrill, Samuel W. Mason, W. 
A. Mowry, and others. These papers not 
only do honor to Dr. Philbrick and those 
who write thus tenderly of him, but they are 
a revelation of the characteristics of the ed- 
ucational movement of the past half-century. 
Such a symposium on all phases of educa- 

ceedingly interesting. Prominent as articles 
of interest was a sketch, with portrait of 
John Grcenleaf Whitlier, by Rev. E. A. 
StJifford, M.A., and a contribution of S. S. 
Packard on "Struggles with Foreign 
Tongues," which is written in Packard's 
happiest style. Altogether the number was 


'■ The School-Uoom Chorus," a collection 
of Two Hundred Songs for Public and 
Private Schools, compiled by E. V. DeGraff. 
70th edition, enlarged, and from new plates. 
Small 4to. pp. 148. (Syracuse : C. W. Bar- 
deen. 35 cents. 

The man that hath no music in himself. 
Nor Is not moved with conoord of sweet souiidB, 
Is fit for treason, strategema and spoils, * • 
Let no such man be tnisteA.—Jiferckfmtqf Vsnlce. 

The man who does not know the power 
of music in the school-room is sure to be 
subject to " treasons, strategems and spoils," 
whatever his disposition may be; and it is 
tjuite a question whether he should be trust- 
ed as a teacher. For no school discipline is 
perfect without music. How often an excess 
of animal spirits which would otherwise 
have fomented into mischief if not rebellion 
has found happy vent in an inspiring 
chorus. How many thousands and thou- 
sands of times a dull, listless, discqutented 
school has been inspired with vigor and 
earnestness by singing a song the scholars all 
know and like, especially if it is a move- 
ment song, exercising arms and legs and 
wits as well as voices, and sending the slug- 

The following 

Gaskell Compendium. 

a^y^^ -—M/. 

editor who could make the first statement, 
would not be over nice aboutany expression, 
so that it was construed as favorable to the 

On this page is a cut giving fac similes of 
several different forms used for only three 
of the capital letters in this compendium that 
has no equal. Will the editor of the Gazette, 
or any of the venerable members of the 
"Compendium Guard of Honor," please 
to inform us, through the next number of 
the Oazette: 

First, wherein consists the peerless excel 
loncc of these letters as copies? 

Second, why it is better that a learner should 
vacillate between five to ten different, crude 
and widely varying forms for each letter. 
rather than devote his efforts to one or two 
really good forms? 

Third, will they please look through the 
compendium and name the specific qualities 
which render it of such utterly incomparable 

Their answer shall have a place in the 
Journal, that is, of course, should such 
answer be vouchsafed. 

The Caltiffrapher's Quill for January is an 
effort to revive a not altogether creditable 
venture made by C. H. Randall, of Kimball. 
Neb., a year or more since, at publishing a 
penman's paper. It stopped early in its 
career, as its editior now sjiys, " because it 
did not pay for itself. " and , be adds, ' ' the pen- 
man's paper business was then fearfully over 
duue." Why he should presume that it is 
less so now. we cannot divine, since three 
have since been started, while only two have 
died. Verily, if diime fortune loiters in the 

tional life in New England has never ap- 
peared from so many able pens in so brief a 

The Lithographer PublishingCo. for many 
years past established in Chicago, have lately 
established a branch house at No. 12 Centre 
street, in this city, which is in charge of 
Mr, Fred Buehriug. The LitUgrapher and 
Printer is among the finest periodicals de- 
voted to the lithographic art published in 

The Paper and Press, of Pliiladelphia, 
Pa., and the American Bookmaker, of New 
York, are two of the most elegantly appear- 
ing periodicals that come to 
If their typography is not faultless 
discriminating eyes than ours 
to see wherein is the imperfection, while the 
subject matter is well chosen and elegant in 
its composition. 

Among the noteworthy college papers are : 

lle^ld's Business College Journal, San Fran- 
cisco, Cal. 

The Rochester Commercial Jtemew, by 
Rochester, N. Y. Business University. 

The Lincoln (Neb.) Monthly, by Lillibridge 
& Rosse. 

The Commercialliemew, by St. Joseph, 
(Mo.) Business College. 

The College Record, by Jacksonville, (III.) 
Business College. 

The Practical Educator, by Rider's Tren- 
ton, (N. J.) Business College. 

The Normal Criterion, by Maxwell Ken- 
nedy, Ruseville. 111. 

Among our educational exchanges the 
School Supplement for February was ex- 

gish blood coursing actively through their 
veins, Whatever else gets crowded out of 
the curriculum, music should always have 
a prominent place in the daily programme. 
This book appears to be the right book for 
an admirable purpose. Let all who have 
music in thcirsoui send foracopy,and those 
who have not should send for a copy, and 
through its aid seek to repair a lamentable 

"Clark's Progressive Book-keeping," by 
Clark & Johnson, Erie, Pa., consists of 112 
finely printed pages. The forma of the sev- 
eral books of account are printed in a good 
style of script, and so far as we are able to 
judge of such a work by a cursory examin- 
ation, it appears to be a work well adapted 
for instruction in book-keeping. Price, by 
mail, $1.00, 

Why Watterson was not Known. 

The failure of Mr. Henry Watterson to 
secure an audience with the Secretary of 
War some time ago. which- has been so 
widely commented upon, is explained at the 
War Department, by a statement that Mr. 
Watterson, in writing his card to be pre- 
sented to the Secretary, neglected to cross 
bist's. so that the card read "II. Waller- 
son." Neither the Secretary nor Major 
Lee. who presides over the reception room, 
recognized the name, and hence the reply 
that the Secretary did not know him and 
never heard of him, and could not see him. 

Watterson will hereafter cross his t's 
when he writes bis cards, or else get some 
cards printed. 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

The lesson for April will be given by E. 
L. Burnett of the Providence, R. I. Busi- 
ness College. Mr. Burnett is one of our 
well-known penmen and will undoubtedly 
make his lesson highly interesting. 

The lesson for May will be given by 
A. J Scarborough of the Cedar Rnpida, 
Iowa, Business College. 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable : 

H. W. Flickinger. Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. J.; W. R. 
Glen, Phila.,Pa.; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
R.J. Magee, New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N.J.; C. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
H. Patrick, Baltimore, Md.; E. Burnett. Bal- 
timore, Md.; H. T. Loomis, Spencerian 
Business College. Detroit, Mich.; Uriah 
McKee, Oberlin (Ohio) College ; A. W. 
Lowe, Providence, R. I.; W. A. Moulder, 
Clyde, Ohio; G. A. Hough, Port Scott. 
Kan., a lesson on combination capitals. F. 
F. Judd, Chicago, 111. 

We are very sure that the practical infor- 
mation that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to be given by such representa- 
tive teachers as are named above will be 
of solid advantage to all teachers and pupils 
of writing. 

Note. — All who have consented to give a 
lesson, are hereby requested to designate the 
lime at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
nified his purpose to give a lesson, and 
who contemplates doing so, an invitation is 
hereby extended. 

Complimentary to the JournaL 

As usual, the Penman's Art Journal 
comes to us freighted with much that is 
good in its special line of journalism. If we 
have not opened our mouth as each number 
has come to us with the regularity of the 
" waxing and waning" of the moon during 
the year just closed, it is because it speaks 
for itself, 90 that "He who runs may read." 
The artistic work in the way of penmanship 
is of a superior quality and at the same time 
it is replete with interest to tlie general read- 
er. Our word for it, no teacher of penman- 
ship can well afford to be without the Pen- 
man's Art Journal.— ZTm^d's College Jour- 

For the teacher and scholars, or anyone 
who desires to write well, the Penman's 
Art Journal is just suited. It is finely 
gotten up, showing examples of handwriting, 
both good and bad, and contains articles of 
interest on the benefits of being a good pen- 
man both in business and society, besides 
other important subjects. It is a success in 
its line. Teachers will find it a helpful com- 
panion and scholars a clear teacher. — Ghitrch 

It affords us pleasure to mention the lead- 
ing Art paper of this country. Of course 
every one will know I mean the Penman's 
Art Journal, which comes to us, if pos- 
sible, better than ever. — Normal Criterion. 

The Grant Memorial.— It is an admirable 
design and artistically executed, and fur- 
nishes an appropriate tribute to the honor 
and memory of America's "great captain." 
for every home. — Jmirnal of Education. 

Going Security. 

I affirm that the system of indoi-sing is all 
wrong, and should be utterly abolished. I 
believe that it has been the financial ruin of 
more men than any— perhaps all— other 
causes. I think our young men. especially, 
should study the matter carefully in all its 
bearings, and adopt some settled policy to 
govern their conduct, so as lo be ready to 
answer the man who asks them to sign his 
note. What responsibility does one assume 
when he endorses a note ? Simply this: He 
is held for the payment of the amount in 
full, principal and interest, if the maker of 
the note, through misfortune, mismanage- 
ment or rascality fails to pay it. Notice, 
the endorser assumes all this responsibility, 
with no voice in the management of the 
business, and no share in the profits of the 
transaction, if it proves profitable ; but with 
a certainty of loss if for any of the reasons 
stated the principal fails to pay the note.- 
WaUo F. Brown. 

And School Items. 

A. E. Parsons, prinoipnl of the C'omtnerclal De- 
parlment of N- N- S. A., Wilton, Iowa, Is hlRbl^ 
complimented for sucoesirul instraction and as a 
pen artist by the Wilton HevUrw. 

M. J. Goldsmith, who i:! recogiiized as one of the 
most skilled penmeti and proficient commercial 
teuclieK of the South, is well-known in his more 
immediate home circle for hfs vocal and literary 
attainments. In a grand conoorl lately given at 
Atlanta he sucoessriilly rendered several tenor 

The Nelson Business College. Cincinnati, Ohio, 
eave a concert and reception at Nelson Hall, 
Wednesday evening. March 3d. The programme 
was varied and interesting. The committee of ar- 
>leaac accept our thanks for their 

well be proud. The "tolii'n' was a fine huntiug- 
caso Rookford gold wat«b, with heavy gold chain 
and locket. On the innnov case of the watch was 
engraved: 'A slight token of esteem to A. P. 
Armstrong from tlie students of the Portland Busi- 
ness College. Portland, January25, ISSe.'" From 
wliiit we know of Mr. Armstrong we can only say. 

Prof. George E. Little is about starting on a tour 
of Virginia, West Virginia. North Carolina and 
Illinois to give lectures and Instructions in draw- 
ing before teachers, institutes, normal schools. 
and other educational bodies during the summer. 

J. R. Carrolhers is teaching large writing ela^iies 
in the High School Building, at Bumsville. Ohio. 

Says the South Bend (Ind.) DaH'j Tribum : 
" I*rof. Snoke, of the South Bend Commei'cial Col- 
lege, ha;) executed a beuulifiil piece of engmssing, 
containing the reaohitions of respect passed by 
the managers and foremen of the Singer works 
concerning the late John P, Rosen. The docu- 
ment is a handsome specimen of pen art," 

The Newark (N. J.) Daily Journal, of Feb. i:»h. 
says: "A large number of ladies and gentlemen 
who are not afraid of rain gathered in Association 
Hall, Clinton street, last night, to listen to the 
twelfth annual graduating exercises of the New 
Jersey Business College. The exercises were en- 
livened by music, addresses and recitations At 
the close diplomas were a^^a^de() " 

A. B. Uumphrey is Instructor in penmanship at 
the I'attersonillle (lowni Fdui atu.nal Insllttitlon 


k^rthy of 1 

Letlers the style of which 
have beeu received from : 

K, C. Davis, penman, Providence, R, !.. luid a 
club of subscribers, 

M. L, Anderson, Halifax, N, R. 

L. W. Utlne. Hooh.-lle. Va. llesays : " Had I the 
laTiguage uf a Wi-h-ter or a 'I'alniudge I would en- 
?rly my appreciation of the 


I Imv, 

J- 11, Livingston, Carey, Ohio. 
J. K. Dcpue, Johnson's Commercial College. St. 
Louis. Mo., and a club of five subscribers. 
H. T Engelhorn, Helena (Mon.) Business College. 
L. B. Williams. Kent's Hill, Me. 
E. L. Burnett. B. & s. Business College, Provl- 

■.R. I.. 

bof r 

Arthur U. Elliott, of the Mansfield (Pa.) Business 
College, and a club of fifteen nauK's. 

A. B. Capp. penman at Ueald's Business College. 
San Kranolsco, Ciil, 

J. F. Buruer, Kureka. Nev. He says. " Your ex- 
position of the (luack compendlums has done me 
u heap of good." 

C, H. Reynolds. Soule's Business College, New 
OrleauH. I-a,. and a club of seventeen names, which 
added to the Iblrty-elghl of last month, makes 

Uettle Merrlain. Covington, Ky. 

D. H, Farley. State Normal School, Trenton. N 
J., and a club. 

R. S. BonsaU. B., S. & Carpenter's Business Col- 
lege, St. Louis, Mo. 

R. W. Davison. Peddle Institute. Hightstown. 

A. M. Ryan, Oxford. N. J. 
John Hock wood. Natlo, Uaai, 

A. A. Uezelton. Sbaw's Business College, Port- 
land, He. 

J. S, Cooley, Windsor Locks. Conn., and a club 

A. S. Osborn. Roobester, (N. T.) BusInesaUnl- 

A. C. Madden, Union. Iowa. 

F. J. Rogers, Prairie du Rooher, III. 

A. O. Coonrod, Atchison (Kas,) Business College. 

L. W. HaUett, Miilerton. Pa. 

A. N. Palmer, of the Wftttrn Penman. 

W. F. Uobbs, St. Morgan, III. 

W. A. Phillips, St. Catherines (Ont.) Business 

T. H. R. Christie, Washington College, E, Tenn. 
W. F. Roth, M. D.. Manheim, Pa. 
H. T. Loomls, Business Univeraity. Detroit. 
Mich., and adds twelve names to his club of niiity- 

bof ti 

1 College, 

N. S. Beardsley, St. Paul (Minn.)Bu8ineHB College 
J, L. Trone. teacher of writing, Albla, Iowa. 
J. A. Jackson. St. Louis (Mo.) Mercantile College. 
A, R. Dunbar. Prairie City. HI. 
Henry Sykes. Manchester. England, 
M. L. Miner, VpsllantI, Mich., and a club of 
fourteen names.' 

i, Denver, Col., a letter and copy 

S. C. Williams. Spalding' 
Kansas City, Mo., a letter, 
specimens of flourished bu-ds. and a club of 

A. D. Skeels. Romeo, Mich., a letter and cards. 

P. B. Shlnn, Paducah (Ky.) Business College, a 
letter, fiourished bird, and a club of eleven names. 

D. T Morgan. Pen Art Institute. Macon. Ga., a 
letter, all written In fine style with an automatic 
shading pen. 

W. H. Palmer, teacher of penmanship. St. Au- 
gustine, 111., a letter and cards. 

P. A. Westrope, penman. Grant, Iowa, a flour- 
ished bird aud card designs. 

C. H. Jump. Sandusky, Ohio, a letter and several 
specimens of writing by pupils. He says. " 1 take 
several penman's papers, but the Journal is worth 
more than all the rest." 

J. P. Medsger, Jacob's Creek, Pa., a letter and 
several flourished cards. 

M. E. Miller, Dayton, W. Ter.. a letter and set of 

I. J. Tuch, card writer, Commercial Hotel, Chi- 
cago, III., a letter and cards. 

J. M. Luntz, Emmltsbury, Ind., a letter, set of 
capitals, cards, and flourished specimen. 

c, H. Stadelman, Iron City Commercial College. 
Pittsburgh. Pa., a letter. 



The iihvcc cvl represenfjf t/u: Alphabet 
M. M. Bartholomew, 36 

Arthur A 

. Montreal, Canada, and a club of 

H, B. Bowman. Pierce. Ohio. 

W. S. James, Columbia Commercial College, 
Portland. Oregon, and a club of seven names, which 
he says " Is in very small proportion to his love for 
the Journal." 

J. H. Wolcott, Sherman. N. Y. 

E, G. Mausfleld, Commercial Department. Texas 
Wesleyan College, Fort Worth. Texas. 

C. T. Smith, Jacksonville (Hl.)Bn.-.ines8 College. 

J. A. Hartman, Lebanon. Ohio. 

0. F. Wellman. Milford, N, H. 

W. n. Gardner, Jr., Salem. Mass. 

C. A. French, teacher of writing in the Boston 
Evening High School, and sends bis usual club 
numbering nine names, while Mr, A. P. Whitte- 
ate teacher, sends another club of 

L. C. Havener, East Bostcm. Mass. 

E. K. Isaacs. Valpariso, Ind. 

W. H. Wilson, Halifax, N. S. 

W. E. Deegan. Monday, N. Y. 

E. M. Shellenbarger. teacher of writing. Uma- 
vlUe. Ohio. 

O. W Temple, teacher of writing, Nlles. Mioh., 
and a club of eleven names. 

J. W. Patton, Alfred University, Alfred Center. 
N, Y., and a club of six names. 

H. J. Putnam. Arehibald's Business College. 
Minneapolis, Minn., and a club of eleven names. 

P. P. Frost, Boston and Albany R. R. OfHce, 
Springfield. Mass. 

J. R. Carrothers. BarnsvlUe, Ohio. 

U. S. Brewer. Valpariso, Ind. 

W. 0. Christie. "School of Business." Lock 
Haven, Pa. 

C. S. Blalsdell. Writing Academy. San Francisco 
J. O- Rosengarten, Philadelphia, Pa. 
J. T. McCleary. State Normal School. Mankato, 

R. Baunerman, Winnipeg, Manitoba, and a 
club of twelve names. 
P. F. Judd. Louder's Business College, Chicago, 

L. Aslre, of the Northwestern CoUege of Com- 
nerce, Minneapolis, and a club of twelve names. 
J. A, Dodge. Mt. Sidney, Va. 
Prank 8. Btewart, Durand, Wti. 

J. N. Harkins. Curtlss Commercial College, Mbine- 
apolis. Minn., a letter and a skillfully designed and 
engrossed set of resolutions. 

A. V. Fife, Shayer, Iowa, a programme and a set 
of copy slips as used by bim in his course of writing 
lessons ; also u specimen of flourishing. 

J. S. Cooley, teacher of writing, Windsor Looks, 

W. C. Harvey, Davenport aowa) Business College, 
a letter. 

John 0. Hartman, Fort Randall, D.T., a letter 
aud curds. 

L N. Inskeep. S. K. Normal School, Winfield, 
Kas,.aletter. He says, "I havetakenthe Jc.urnai. 
three years, and each number has been better and 
better ; now it is without a peer in the world as a 
a penman's paper. Parley's lesson was alone worth 
five times a year's subscription." 

Marlng, Portland (Oregon) Business College, 

club of eight Nubsorihers. 

C. A. Fleming. Northern Business College, Owen 
Sound, Canada, a letter, and a cabinet-sized photo 
of a complicated specimen of pen drawing and 
lettering, which exhibits c. creditable degree of 
skill. It received the first prize at the Industrial 
Exhibition held last Fall at Toronto. 

E. J. Cobum, Brookvllle (Pa.) Commercial Col- 
lege, a letter and a flourished bird. , 

D. L. Stoddard, Emporia, Kas., a letter and cards. 
P. F, Judd. of the Chicago (His.) Business Col- 
lege, a letter. 

J. R. Carrothers, Bamesville. Ohio, a letter. 

W. J. Rotchiff. Belleville. Kas.. a letter. 

W. G. Christie. Christie's School of Business, Lock 
Haven, Pa., a letter In elegant style. 

H. P, Vogel. pen artist. St. Louis, Mo,, a letter. 

G. W. Temple, penman, Nlies. Mich., two photo- 
graphs of medleys of penmanship, embracing writ- 
ing, flourishing and pen drawing. 

W. P, Behrensmeyer, Gem City Business College. 
Quiney, HI,, a letter and cards. 

C. H. Kimmlg. Philadelphia, Pa„ letter and cards, 

C. E. Simpson. Saco. Me,, a letter, in which he 
lays. " Guides pleasing to aU, ' Grant's Memorial ' 
8 the most beautiful pen work I have ever seen." 

New Edition of the Guide. 
A new edition of the Guide is now nearly 
ready for the press and will be ready for 
.sale within two weeks. Several new pages 
of new copies for plain writing have been 
added, which will greatly add to its value 
alike for self instruction aud school use. 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20c. each, or by the dozen |1.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
oflfered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmanship, and. as such, 
are richly worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely printed on plate paper, 


This talk about the editorial pea 
nonsense — nearly all editors use pencil; 

Gall is an im])ortant ingredient in 
composition of writing ink. — ^ckntific Ex 
Also in the composition of the user.'* o 
writing ink. 



■ now that Governor Hill, of New 
m li fc as a school teacher. Smart 
t pttiple begin life as a baby. — 


I 111! iCIiarles Egbert Craddock), 
- 1 \\ i mi-painter, writes so plain- 

II lir who runs maj' read. The 
vv ati ipt are big and clear enough 
, by the ordinary eye some four 

in Enf^hind ;i patent for a device that ' 
in printed «bar;ifters, one at a time and one 
nfier anothtr,' but it was not until ia67 
that it was improved so as to work 

' Now, hubby, mine, it seems to me 
You nicer are for being bossed, 
In fact, you're like the letter t. 
Only perfect when it's crossed." 

Tour argument is sound, 
ro me you are the letter C 
'Cause it's nice to have j 

: Nellie. 

) the letter ; 

-Ea^e End BuOitin. 

Although a banker, and one of the best 
business men in the world, the late Lord 
Mayor of London, Sir It. N. Fowler, writes 
so atrocious a hand that a sentence which 
he intended to read as follows, "I regard 
the conduct of the Government in this mat- 
ter as absolutely inhuman," was, owing to 
ibe inability of a printer to decipher what 
was meant, transfoimed in type into "I 
rarely can compass a tale. My grandmother 
is the best narrator of amusing incidents." 

Every novelist is not so considerate as the 
late Colonel Burnahy, of the Guards. In 
bia leisure momenta lie ;iniu.'^ed himself by 

writing ii .-]. ^vlii. k u;(s afterwards 

found ani.iiij ' ii ■■ U hen it was de- 
termined t' ' 
theycouhi mi . 


in this which 

follow to advimlai^av If (licv \v;iiit to write 

let Ibein write afti-r (Viloiu-l IJuruaby splan, 

and so make the world huppier. Some poets 

might judiciously adopt ibe same method. 

lie understood perfcclly.— Q. — " What 
kind of a man is Smith 'l " A.—" He is a 
bright chap, smart as a steel trap." Q.— 
"O. you mean he is a thief. And how about 
Jones?" A. — "As genial a man as ever 
you saw; a real good fellow." Q.— "A 
drunkard, eh? And Hobinsou ? " A.— 
"Robinson is a regular dude, and a con- 
founded crank." Q.— "That is to say, he 
is a man who believes in keeping himself 
clean, and a man with some sensible ideas 
in his head. I understand. That'll do for 
today. "~5o«f(7ft Tramcript. 

" My dear, yon haven't cut Out the leaves 

of III _i ii ^ nuoiight hoinelast week." 

" '■ ■ ! ' ' ■ liinL'to read. See howl 

Mcutors found 
I <an those who 
Is handwriting 
Then' i.-; ;i hint 


1.1.. h:\ 

.d steadily . 


live yards of it, isn't there?" 
"Ye-i." " You can buy it in the store for 
about I wo cents a yard, can't you?" "Yes." 
■' That would be ten cents, wouldn't it V I 
regard il as a wonderful freak of economy. 
The gas, Ibe tnx on your eyes, the superi- 
ority of rlck-rack over a well-stored mind, 
the — ' "Fred, you're just too 
anything." — PhiUuklphia Cnll. 


Can You Make a Better Invest- 

than to pay ^1 for the. Joitrn.\,l one year, and 
the "Guide to Self- Instruct ion in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium 1 

The Guide contains sixty-four largo pages 

of instruction, and coi)ies for plain writing, 

flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 

for 76 ceQt« (In paper covers), and $1, hand* 

iely bound. 



kJ>.«J , \^tff T-m-Trj ^ssif — g:afr =. n-. jiiii um^ n o «or 



'"■''"* &II 'l"'"^""'""** ah**" 


THE ^ ^ , 

i*:^'^^'^'''^*'^ ''^'^•^^'^^.^^i^^*^ 

l«^> V4 Vl^iWVt MV^-k? 4-<(-J V V« V«^«l UV4V fVV««4(l V III \' II- 


•-iV-' I t 

The above is photo-engraved from pen and ink copy by JamesJVV. Harkins, of Curtiss^Commercial College, St. Paul, 

Minnesota. The merit of the design and work speaks for itself The size of 

the original is 36x46, 

Mrs., and Miss. 


Not only iu our country, but apparently 
witli all modern peoples, the babit has 
arisen and become a permanent and every- 
day custom of appropriating wbat were for- 
merly definite titles of high distinction, and 
making Ibem absolutely meaningless by 
tjieking them to the name of every obscure 
individual. Does not, for instance, every 
German butcher and baker expect to be 
dubbed "herr" or "lord!'" It is the same, 
too, both with " monsieur " of the French- 
man, and the "signor" and the " senor" of 
the Italian and Spaniard. In actual conver- 
sation we are less assuming than our neigh- 
bors, and do not require to be spoken of as 
Esquire Smith or Lord Jones, being quite 
contented with a plain ■■ Mister " before our 
names: but-wc are quite apt to feel slighted 
and offended if the "Esq." should be 
omitted after our names on the envelopes 
which contain our correspondence. The 
history of those everyday titles of Mr. and 
Mrs., which are now the common properly 
of evei7 one, or, at any rate, seem to be 
supposed to be so, is not without interest, 
though some of its steps area little obscure, 
and a few remarks upon it may not be out 
of place here. 

In the earlier times of our history the or- 
dinary man was simply William or John; 
that is to say, he had merely a Christian 
name, without any kind of • handle " before 
or surname after it. Into the question of 
surnames we do not propose to enter here. 
Suffice it to say that as some further means 
of distinguishing one .)ohn or William from 
another John or another William were 
found, in process of time, to he necessary, 
names, generally nicknames, derived from 
a man's trade, or from his dwelling place, or 
from some personal peculiarity, were tacked 
on to their Christian names, and plain John 
became John Smith. As yet there were no 
" Misters "in the land. 

Some John Smith accumulated more 
wealth than the bulk of his fellows— be- 
came, perhaps, a landed proprietor, or an 
employer of hired labor. Then he began to 
be called in the Norman-Krencb of the day 
the " Maistre " of this place or that, of these 
workmen or those. In time the " Mnister," 
OS it soon became, got lacked on before his 
name, and he became Maister Smith, and 
his wife was Maistrcss Smith. But it was 
only pcmons who had a notable position in a 
place, and who actually were '• masters " or 
something or other beyond the ordinary do- 
mestic chattels, who were thus diguilied 
with the title. Gradually the .sense of pos- 
session was lost sight of, and the title was 
conferred upon any man who had attained 
social distinction of any kind, whether by 
wealth, or by holding some position of more 
or less consideration and importance. 

For a long series of years, however, no 
one was called "Maister," or "Master" 
(into which "Maister" got transformed), 
unless he was distinctly in a position super- 
ior to that of the great bulk of his fellow- 
countrymen, and was really, in one sense or 

another, a " master," and it is only within 
comparatively 'modern times that the t 
came to be considered an almost indispensa- 
ble adjunct to one's name when mentioned 
in ordinary conversation or writing. Mais- 
tress Smith soon became Mistress Smith. 
Exactly how and when the term got cor- 
rupted cannot be said. Master Smith, how- 
ever, remained Master Smith long after bis 
wife became Mistress Smith. 

The first use of "Mister" is difficult to 
trace. It is certain, however, that itis a use 
of by no means long standing. The con- 
traction " Mr." appears on the title page of 
the first folio edition of Shakespeare, but it 
would probably have been read as "Master" 
at the time of its publication. It is likely, 
indeed, that it was not till long after 
Shakespeare's day that the influence of the 
corresponding form of mistress was able to 
turn the a of the old fashioned "Master" 
into i of the "Mister" of our own times, 
though we still retain the old word for the 
service of children, and to-day Master 
Smith is no longer the head of the household, 
but his little son. 

We find an example of the old use of the 
word still surviving in England in the mas- 
ters of the supreme court, officials ranking 
immediately below her majesty's judges, 
and it is occasionally amusing to a stranger 
to hear a grave and gray-haired old gentle- 
man referred to as Master Jones. A some- 
what similar instance is still to be found in 
France, where the title usually given advo- 
cates and notaries is "Jlaitre." 

Not only, however, was John Smith's 
wife known as Mistress Smith, but his 
grownup, unmarried daughtersweie equally 
called Mistress, with the addition of their 
Christian names, for distinction's sake, if 
such were necessary. Nor did the use of 
Mistress give place to our modern form of 
"Miss" till after the lapse of a considerable 
portion of the last century. The word 
"Miss" was certainly used before that time, 
but not, indeed, very long before. At the 
beginning of (he last century it was appro- 
priated to the daughters of gentlemen, under 
the age of 10, or given slightly to giddy 
young ladies, or to those to whom we should 
apply the modern term of "fast." 

It is only within moderately recent times 
that it has become the property of unmarried 
ladies, whatever be their age. As to the 
derivation of the word "Miss," it seems 
clear that it is not obtained by curtailing 
"Mistress" of its last syllable, but rather to 
have arisen from the custom of abbreviating 
that word into Miss. Probably, too. our 
modern Missis or Mrs. is to be accounted for 
by an attempt to give a definite sound to 
this abbreviated form. At any rate the 
present writer is unable, after considerable 
invesugation of the matter, to offer anv 
other suggestion, or to discover that anv 
other one has been offered hy any other 
writer.— Boston HariK Journal 

Mr. Jones" Spelling. 
Mr. Jones was writing a letter. Writing 
^^* his strong point ; neither is spelling. 

and he called ( 

I Mrs. Jones, who 
, to help him. 

1 his 

Remember that now is the time to sub- 
scrllie for the JocnNAl., while you can eet 
aU the back numbers and begin with tlie 
year and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for »1.75 with a copy of the 
S.!I°,? n'^'' »i'''«:rtber. Also remember 
that the Gtm>B alone Is worth aU the money 

"Maria, "he said, suspending his pen 
air, and catching a globule of ink 
nose, " is there an h in sofa 't " 

" Of course there is," answered Mrs. J., 
taking from her mouth a button that she 
was going to sew on Willie's best jacket, 

' ' Thanks; thats the way I always spell it, 
come to think of it," said Jones, airily 
Then there was a silence. Suddenly he 
asked, ' 'Are there two g's in sugar, Maria '/ " 
" Mercy, no I" said Mrs. Jones, sharply. 
■ ' I should think you could spell a liltle word 
like that, .lephtha. S-h-u-g-a-r, sugar." 

"That's so," assented .lones', " but I for- 
got the h; thought the word didn't look 
right." And be scratched in the aspirate. 
Then he folded his letter and set about 
directing it. 

"IIow many n'a in Cincinnati?" he 
asked, balancing a postage stamp on his 

''About a dozen 1 " snapped Mrs. J., who 
had only just discovered that both knees of 
Willie's pants needed repairing. " S-i-un- 
c-i-n-n-a-t-ti, Cincinnati. I'm not sure 
whether the last letter is a y or an i. Von 
ought to keep the dictionary, Jepbtha and 
not depend on mc for everything. " 

" I don't need one when you are around 
my dear, " said Jones, with "a sly wink at the 

"I used to be a pretty good speller," said 
Mrs. Jones, complacently; " but I am liable 
to make mistakes like other people. It 
comes natural for some folks to spell, aud I 
suppose I am .me of them." And she pro- 
ceeded to cut out the square ornaments for 
Willie's knees, while jonts went out and 
posted bis letter.— (W*n A 




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are w.'ll adapled for bold business writing. 
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'ollege, Quiney, Dl. 

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an be pursued 


Penmanship Cours.. 
Taaohers" Course in Plain Penmanship, 
Course in Plain and Ornamental Pen- 

Thorough Instruction given in Phonography and 
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Specimens of Plain Writing 25c. 

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Ames* fompf^ndiuTFi of Prnctica! and Orna- 



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D. T. AMES, 

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Guide" is a book of sixty-four large pages, elegantly printed on tbe finest quality of fine plate-paper, and is devoted 
■du/iiBely to mstruetion and copies for Plain Writing. Off-Hand Flourishing, and Lettering. We are sure that no other work of 

efficient aid to either t«icher or Jearner, in all the departments of 
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70 cents; uandsoinely hound in stiff r-nvdrn »1 Riwon fr*i/i /;n r,or,nr\ no n r,-».v.;..n. .«.;<*.' *».-, t^^«,,.. ___ » _' £. 

full bound (in stiff covers) for |ll.25. 

ly equal' cost, is now before the public that wilfrender i 
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„,.,'■' ''I 'I f \\ r d t r th Qg includ ni, the I 

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^'T^"'." W^ri'ioe. Flourishingr.. Lettering or Card Writing 

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t One Dollar for twelve plates. Single plates. 


ind sell tlicm at bottom prices. We will tend yon one gross 
rid for Card Writing and Flourishing for 78c. Six sheets of 
iHshiug for flOc by eVress'' '^"^ ^^'^^ °^ *''*' ^^^^ ■^'^P^.u Ink for Card Writing and 

We have a few more complete sets of the CHIROGRAPHIC QUARTERLY, which la 
'd Ind wUI e d th "° I'an'isoniely Illustrated and valuable penman's paper yet pub 

We keep a choice stc 
of the beat Pens in the 



Ac,, and furnish Engravings 


Shorthand Writing 

Thorough instruction In the best system ; terms 
low ; satisfaction guaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shorthand lo 
make it a sure source of profit. Stenographers 
ve better salaries than are paid in any other 
clerical posit Isn. 

id stamp forspciimen of wrillueand circulars 
MV. U. HCLTON, 8t«nop-Bpher, 




Gives the best iuHtructlon In all the Buainestt 
Branches, and the finest course of 


Omameptal Penmanship. Telegraphy. Short- 

P. RITNER, Prbsidbht. 


'>k Sfbuol Thoroastily BqnippeJ for OITice Training. -^ 

Book-Keeping by Actual Business Practice. 




April 1st. next, a Teacher thoroughly 

The latter preferred. 

LUtle Rock, Ark. 


Send me your name written in full, and 
and 1 will fltnd jou one doznn 
writing It, with in; 
slamp. and I ^v^ll s 
hand, price list deecrlpti 

Cards, Flouri=hin 

dozen < 

. v'e of Lessons by Mall. 
Tracing Exercises, Capitals. 

Wilton Junction, Iowa. 
,1 cards need apply. 9-12 

TBIS BINDER Is light, strong and handsoi 
and twelve issues of the Journal are held toeet 
convenient form of a book, which t 

Shading T Square 



The acoompanylng cut represents the head ■with 

the United Stiitc;. or C'liiimlii. Addioss for dr.-ulnr 
giving prlcea ^ud description, D. T. AMEiJ, 

205 Broadway, New York. 

New York. Jul? 27, 1880, 

D. T. Ky\v.%—Dtar Sir: In the ereat scope and 

perfection of our designs I have had occasion to put 

y.nir patent ruiing and tiuilnR T square lo every 

liiissilile test, and find It the most reliable and con- 

piiiIiciBe fur which it is desicmd. 

r Gquures bos been in i -i: 

line past, and I have fuuiui 
he various l)ranche3 of diL 

,,Ga.. Sept. 14,1881. 

putting them toth< 
ed >yith tJie perfectioi 


The only Instru- 

Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 
A Child 13 years of 

TOE AHOVE CUT hephesents a very 

a05 Broadway, '. 



UKIni.tly .. 


O WIFT'S HAND-BOOK of 100 valuable Ink 
^-> Keclpt^M niLiilvd i..T 'M iviiis. iir freu to all 

" RilY FAVORITE "PKN sent at $1.25 per B 
IVI For liitrodnition. 35c. per M gro. Add 
PsiKiE's BcsiNEse Coio-EOE, Keokuk, Iowa. 


Department of Penmanship. 

This Is exclusively a School Qf Fenmqnthlp. It was made a Departmont of Oberllu Colloee In 
1875. and has, therefore, a standing of 10 years. It has constantly grown In patruuage and r'ul'lic 
favor, and is now extensiveiy recognized as the LEADING SCHOOL OF PENMANSHIP IN AMKIIICA 

The Graduates 

Of this School are among the best and leading Penmen of this country, and occupy the best i«)si 
lions, as teachers of penmanship, in onr leading institutions of lenrnlng. It la largely the mission 
of this school to supply the educiitional Institutions of this country with superior penmen and 
teachers; also to train yonng men and women as superior bueiness writers. 

Advanced Pen Art. 

It is the determination of the Principals of this School to maintain it as the FIRST SCHOOL 
OF PENMANSHIP IN AMERICA. To aU amaUur penmen who have acquired some skUl, through 
the use of compendiums, cheap school short courses, etc,, we would say that your efforts are com 
mendable ; but you can afford no longer to dally with these very Imperfect helps, but come directly 
to the very FOUNTAIN HEAD OF AJIERICAN PENMANSHIP, and secure a course of training 
that will eminently fit you for the best and most desirable positions. 

Send for our COMMERCIAL WORLD, giving full information relative to Teachers' Course 
and general information regarding our School. Address, 

McKBB & HENDERSON, Oberlin, Ohio. 


Unlike the Penmanship Department, this Is strictly an independent training school, and has 
connection whatever with Oberlin College, It Is In charge of Prof. J. T. Henderson, formerly 
Berea College. Mr. Henderson Is a gentleman of most thorough scholarship and ripe experience 

ant and teacher. Be Is also a practical and experienced book-keeper, which caimot 

B-teuths of the teachers In our business colleges. 

To whom it may c 

certify that J ki 

nderstandshis b 

: of this bank for s< 

understands h 
of this bank 
We found b 

First National Bank, Berka. C, September 20, 1884. 

1 J. T. Benderson to be a roan of good moral character, trustworthy, 
iness, competent to teach or practice book-keeping. He bad charge 
e time, and his work was well and thoroughly done and to our entire 
ind rapid in his work. We can cheerfnlty recom- 
. H. POMEROY, Cashier, First National Bank, Berea, O. 

e faithful. 

The Course 

i ample practice to every s 

Literary Society 

Branches Taught. 

BoBlnesa Arithmetic, Business Penmanship, Spelling, Letter Writing, Commercial Law, The 
most approved methods of Book-keeping by Single and Double Entry, Banking, Practical Grammar 
and Business Forms, including Promissory Notes, Receipts, all kinds of Bills, Mortgages, Deeds, 
Bonds. Contracts, Drafts, Checks. Certilicates, and many others. We are confident that the ad- 
vantages here afforded are superior, and that in no other similar school, does every student receive 
the kindly Interest and personal help of the Principals and Assistants that he here receives. Send 
for the COMMERCIAL WORLD, giving full information. Address. 

^X2t McKEE & HENDERSON, Oberlin, O. 





For Sale hy all Stationers and Booksellera. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

For students, scliools. and accountants. It gives 
the most practical forms for tiie capital and small 
script alphabets: also the figures: thu: ' 

'nient before tlie ' 

a length, metal edged. 

for writing. This ruler ii 

e seeking to improve 

200 Broadway. New York. 


the most practical book of the n 
to any address on receipt of ts. 
For circulars, address 


-, „. RICE. A.M , L.L.D., 
322 Chestnut St.. St. Louis, Mo. 


I will 

Through a period of a conple of months 
send a sample AUTOQRyVPH. for practice, to any 
person sending, per mail, FIFl'EEN CENTS and 
stamp; or, If desired. In their place, TWO SETS 
OF CAPITALS or three samples of Rapid But-i- 
ness Writing. 


2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1 . 




Course of Study, 


Send for Cat-alugue with full partlculari to 

A. J. RIDER, Principal, 

8-12 Masonic Temple, Trenton, N. J. 


The first number will bo issued about Dec, 
585, and will be mailed for 50 cents a vear. to 

. American renman will be £ 
Journal, well filled with everything pertaining 

an Penman will be a large 8-page 
filled with everything pe " " " ' 
Penmanship. Sutiscribe ri 

Lessons by Mail 

B®" Sl.SO.-^a 

ry with regard 

3ed the undersigned 

i learners, and 

ij teach penmanship: 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

titude of elegant]\ 
kinds of ExERcie» 
Alphabet?. Word i' 


■ -■ roui-sea is based on a 

.1 .■.!., 11 I. 

iM-n.- Ijeuuty. the copies 

,„,, .,.....-.' 

/ l.> ,1 

M ! pfTinian doing a mail 

H/- -M 

-..•i/,/ <ii 


o / uiU Bind both eourm. 

Ilinman, i 



ishing, W 

itlng. ) 






Penman, Jf. I. Nor'mai School, 






Prcsifleiit Pelpce'B Busliie83 College. 


t from the original 

lity Of Ilristol board 


!>. ii M I :...!! I r. . < iiMy patented, admits 
1 '[.Mj,'ht, 03* the writer 

I iK'.loLTItNAI. wlllHond 

','.'' ""'' ' '■" 10-tf 


The flneiil flouri«hlnff ever sent out by any pe 
man will not eiiiial tbe marvelnus specimens I can 
send you, 8 for «0 cent*. Executed by W. E. De 
nls. who In this Une has do equal. To be had only 
by RddresslDg L. HAdarasz, Box 2116. New To k 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

Th* vndfrHijrifd, who hatfoUoweil (ht jrrofutiim 
card uniting for l/u p<i*t teven yt-ara, and hax yet to 
Itant of thefirtl irutanex wherein M» work has faiUd 
toffivn erUtre tati^aetUm, taiCM pUaeure in caUlng 
your atteiitUm to the compltU Una of written viMttn 
cariU, which are offered at ratr.» coiwuittnt with th 
(piaHt]f of eardi and jTenmanahip. Order* prompt 
flIUd. All poti paid. 

tV With every 4 packages ordered at one tlm 
ail extra package of Oill Bevel Edge Cards will b 
sent free, with any name written on. With a lltt 
effort you can easily Induce several of your friends 

$3500 Made by Investing $2 50 

fnn sbapes 
ro 3 "^a 

•h a. S' r 

Number of Cards in each package : 1 8 36 

Style A.— Ptofn IKAyr. good quality $0,88 J0.75 

'■ B.~Wedding Brittol,YeTy best 40 .7" 

" C— out Edge, aasorted 44 .84 

" H.— Bevel QUI Edge, the finest 50 ,08 

" Z.—BtoeU of Cream and White ... .53 1.00 

" a.SUk and Satin Bevde 55 1.05 

'■ I!.— .ffi!7A(-p/i/B««&, assorted 57 1.10 

" \.~EHU, the latest styles 60 M5 

Addrese ii/iw— extra Ifi .30 

If yon ordor cards j'ou should have a card case 
to kcpii them clean and neat. 


No. l—Buseta Leather, 4 pookets $0.23 

No.2~ " 4 " 35 

No. 4—iforoca}, bestqtiallty 50 

No. tt—C(iif, extra good 80 

Ho. e— Alligator Skill, yery Sno 1,60 

No. l^- " voryhest 2,00 


Assorted designs— birds, scrolls, quilts, etc., ex 
eouted with taste and skill. To students who wish 
good models of FlouHijhliig to practice from, these 
will be found to be " the thiuK." I'rice, 85 cents 
per package of IS. 


An unsurpassed specimen of bold business 
lug in the shape of a letter, and any 
anawered, on the finest quality of nnrule 


If you wish your name written in assorted style- 
and oombinatlous, send 51 cents, and the h 
somest cards 1 can possibly \vrite will be sent 


Elegant specimens of off-Land flourishing, such 
as birds, eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper. 
which are amended t,y alt to Im the mott gpiHUd work 
ever tent out tn/ any penman. Price, 25 cents each ; 
a for 45 cents ; J2.10 per dozen. 


Executed in the highest stylo of the art, and 
wluulng (he bouor of being superior to the work of 
any o(A«- penman in the world. Each 25 cents ; 2 
seta (different). 15 cents ; 3 sets (different), GSoenta. 
Mention If you desire plain or ornamental styles. 


In response to numerous calls for very brilliant 
black hik. arrangemenU have been completed for 
sending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
oftheoountry. Price per quart. $1,30. Bydllutlng 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is tbe best), 
more than three quarts of good Ink may be had 
from a single quart of this quality, l use this Ink 
In all my work. See samples. Recipe for its 


If you experience difficulty in securingapen that 
will make a very fine air line combined with great 
elasticity without being scratchy, I can send you 
Jnstwhat you want. 

The Favorite P" box. 40 ot«.. per gross, $1.10 

Card Writing, No.l... " 50 ■' " 1.50 

NECadC Nw k 

m m C mm g 

Lessons by Mail, Etc. 

celved t 

Itduri .. 

jl flatterinK comii 

' Inquiries whether I givi 

i by mall. 

t elegant 


ishiponly ^ __ 

hard study an'S prac 
work— whether card, copy, or displ 

in advance. This will embrace 

willing to devote a 

- Jdyand practice, it 

fail to fit them to do anyolassof script 
vhether card, copy, or display. With each 
the student receives an elegantly written 
■ "i full instructions, and a great variety of 
copy writlnK, -'- " '- 

with full 

ses. copy writlnK. etc.— all in my very 

style. My method is the only one for ele„ 

i.i J .. .V taught and practiced 

wTiling. I 

i Is the s 

by the greatest experts now living^ Having been 

I pupil of that 

V whereof I speak. 

For •!, 

si owing y 

) I will i 

ft full V 

. W. Fllckiuger. I 

what ease and faofhiy 

and perfection >i for 2oc 1 « ill send ten clird' 
showing the d fferent styles of writ ng an expert 
must he alle t« execute Th se doubting my 
ab lity a above need onl> enclose l)c forelegani 
=„ — r„. .,„^ „, .., _ „, _ . --nmantbip A ' ■ 
Ph ladelpb; 


intbip Addre<<' 


Remember ti 

r full n 

in ovpry letter ynu scud. Make your 
by Postal Notes or Rerlstered Letter, and •ce 
that all letters arc carefully sealed and addressed 
plainly. If you don't hear from me in 
due time, drop mc a posul and I will see what is 

1*. o. Box mm, 
8-9 New York Citv. 



Or The Real Secret to Good Writing. 

Penmansbtp can be made easy by the proper 

training of the arm and fingers. A^imeroug c^. 

rt*«/rMA/r(wn(A«7)<»* with each book "it is un 

doiibtedlv tbe best and roost ensible work uu 

vtlit O Prii.e. postpaid S 

Piynie* at Twill, Royni 


the front rank,"- 
Try him." 

il -- -^ 

iTing; Capitals 

rf"!" Scrap-bunk, 25 ct8__each. 
the best I 

remit rkabh 

~C.N. Crandle. "standB 

!. Knoxville. Tenn. 


a Teacher of Penmanship, 

9, Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

s.-ilo. an old established business college In 
uetropolis : reason for selling. Ill health of 
rs ; large school ; rent reasonable: long lease; 


for right party. Address KRANCls" 

In the city. Good ohiince 


The Southern Bivouac. 

Mr. Dakin Is one of the finest pirn 

his writing Is a model of c 

large business in 

Sftle by all New«de 

B Virginia Cavaliers, 

. M. Rowlands. 

Five Uli 

The Night of Battle, Alexander. 

M Howellsand the Poets. Robt. Burns Wilson. 

ilitha. Princess of Ghouls; Poe's last Poem. 

Henry W, Austin. 


Resolutions of 1708 and 1709. R. T. Durrett, 

The Debate, 


T Reign of Terror In Tennessee. J. A. Trousdale 

VI t. 
A Fragment. Robert Bums Wilson. 


T nyson's Later Poems. P. B. Semple. 

D ire: An April Idyl, ' ' DanskeDaodrldge, 
Richard H. Mi 

y Building In the South Will Wallace Uamey. 

Paris and Helen. ' ' B. W. D. 

The Cotton Harvester. ' Hugh N. Stames. 

Thirteen IlIustratiODS. 

XIV.— Comment and Criticism. 

XY.-Editor's Table, 



Penmen who desire first-class ink and wish to 
have It fresh ami reliable, can secure two splendid 
recipes to make Jet Black Ink and Carmine Fluid 
in such (juantUies as they desire, at one-tenth the 
cost at stores, by Inclosing 25 cents and addressing 
Prof, H. RUSSELL. 

3-1 Drawer 3175, Juliet, 111. 


!• DEPARTMENT is closed because of diph- 
" '~ ' ■■- '' ' 1, and having consideraole 

in giving Lessons In Bo ikkeeping by 
man. i win give a course In the Rochester Univer- 
sity Complete Bookkeeping, including Banking, 

.VOLCOTT, Sherman. 

The Normal Penman 

Is a new 12 paged Journal of Penmanship, Each 
number is edited with ability and care, contain- 
ing many Dew illustrations and thoughts pertain- 
ing to Pen Art. It will be mailed to you one year 
for 50 cents, or three mouths for 15 cents. Sample 
copy sent for six one-cent stamps. Address. 
■^-1 FortSoott, Kc 

Given in plain Penmanship 

A very thornueh course of twelve le.isons is 
for your t<:;ii'liir- Till- r..iir-i> lias been prepared 

Over 1 OO Pupils 

Are now taking this coui-se, and all eipresslng 
their satiafactiou. It is fast becoming known thai 
this is the best and cheapest way to learn to write 
an elegant hand. 


Pay SlOO to attend a Business College or an Insti- 
tute of Penmanship, when you can receive just as 
good instruction and make just as rapid Improve- 
ment at yonr own home for only $3. Do not think 
because this course is cheap that It has no merit. 



Portraits enlarged in Crayon, India 
Water Colors, batlsfactlon guaranteed. __ 
wanted. Permant Solar l*r\nts for tbe trade. 

Students wishing to enlarge pictures can c 
at a weat saving of labor by using Solar P; 
hend tor Price List. l 

I guaranteed. Agents 




L small volume designed s 
Study of Book-keeping. 

lion when taken In connection ^ 

e feature Is the large number of Busl- 
B— nearly all the Notes. Drafts, Checks, 
sof Deposit, Receipts, etc., that occur 

A variety of Trial Balances i 
which to make Statements of 1 

abilities, and 1 

I and Gains. Example) 

; and Partial PaymenL., ._. „ ... 

ability to perform the computations c 
**■ ■*"' transactions. 

rtaining Averages and 

ounts. A new and Systematic Scale for putting 

m Trade Profits, or taking off T"-"- '"-- 

Negotiable Paper presented 

laking off Trade Discounts. 

Payment Endorsements and 
isfer Endoreements alteroating on the back trf 

nts, greatly simplifying the 
B work will Interest teacher 
Price of single c 

if the Theory of Closing j" 

By the hundred 25.00 

Remit by Draft on Chicago or New Tnrk, hy 
Postal or Express Order, or Currency by Express 
or Registered Letter. 


(1685) Writing publication, for 

' business colleges and 

s just been Issued, under the authorship of 

-a HKRs, In neat portfol'- ' *' 

1 of elementary and 

the SpEHCEit Brothers, In n 

comprises 15 pages ofelemt ^_„ 

graduating course. The letterpress histruction.s 
are short and concise. All of the 36 pages of plain 
model writing, embracing single letters, words, 
phrases, sentences, commercial correspondence 
and book-keeping, are entirely now matter pre- 
._j i_ _ g(y]g auuerler to any hitherto rrnh- 
called "New Practical," and is 

1 fail 

o greatly 
i skill displ 


McClellen Fent, Mt. Victory, Ohio, 

have received tbe second lesson an. 

pleased with it, 1 prize your lessons very highly 

and would not exchange what ' ' • ' - 


». ... 1.,^..^..,. .. illlamsoL, 1 a., cajo, 
teaching a class of forty-five pupils, and ( 

ne Dak in '8 . „. 

lesson Two complete 

capitals free with t 

have got 

iok. Williamson. Pa., says; "la 


making Daktn's Card Ink. and 
;e with the lint lesson *" 
les'sons given in Card Writing for $1 


ill be written by Prof, 

and combinations, making I 

tures obtainable. Many oould write the 

better if they had good copies to practice 


For 25 cts, a set of capitals will be sent i 

111 this 

'" be found wonderful _.. ^„. 

ill ■— 

Steel Pens. 

Send 40 cts. for a box of Dakin's favorite pens. 
They have a very fine point and do not scratch. 
Conceded by all penmen the best in use. 

Good Black Ink. 

have a great deal of trouble in 

Dakin on thirteen c 

y different style; 

) of tblB 

capitals will be found wonderful in gaining skill 
with the pen. A set of buainess capitals 20 cts. A 
fiourisbea set 2.'i cts. Three ^ets all different JScts. 

getting good b 

s ItnposEibte t' 

quality of 1; 
" "a work 

A fine specimen of off-hand Hourish- 

Written Letter. 

An Unparalleled Offer. 

In order to place my work In the bands of eve 
reader of this paper. Iwlllsend on receipt of $1. 
the following : 

llahed , 

r mail on receipt of tl. by 

H. A. SPENCER. 8-lS 

Speacerian Business CoUege. 36 Sut Iltb St., H. T. 

Published Monthly 
at 205 Broadway. N, Y. for $1 per'yeac. 


Entered at the Post Office of New York. 
NY., as Second-Class Mail Matter. 


t according to Act t^f (kmgrtM 


'ht Office of the librarian ( 

Vol. X.— No. 

Writing Lesson.— A LittlelHash. 

Move ou, geutlu kniglits, jind JiHow me 
to blow the organ a while. Hello ! Well ? 
Give me 205 Broadway, please. Now let 
inc breatlic a minute ami contemplaie tlie 
long procession of sages as they file tlirougli 
the columns of the Jouknal. On ahead I 
see Burnett, Tolaud, aoidsmitb, Mother 
Is;i!its In her LUiiy Wiilktr garb, nod others 
who have just swept the harp string and arc 
now half pausing to catch a faint echo from 
the throbbing hearts of the chii-ographic 
worid. I look back and sec an eager army 
of kuights. with mciitnl domes choekful of 
restless ideas and drawn pens loaded to the 
breech with the sable dew. Well, boys, 
just keep a low mercury for a spell while I. 
air my half suffocating ideas and change the 
combination so that _they may appear new 
and original. Here in the recesses of my 
mental attic I find a number of threadbare 
thoughts which were perhaps drifted there 
by the high tides of repetition or hammered 
ill by necessity. By a little clothing and 
burnishing they may be made to appear 
youthful. In ransiicking the lot I often 
come across some which are healthy-looking 
and well proportioned, and I stop under the 
lush of conscience to recall the man I stole 
them from. Thus it is with the world, we 
are constantly embezzling and masking 
with synonymous language the thoughts of 
other men, and hurling them to the worid 
as the creation of our own mental muehiu- 
ery. But now we are all talking on the 
same subject, and naturally enough we will 

thought. Two reporters witnessing a fire 
would each write a correct and detailed 
accouut of it, and convey the facts to the 
reader's mind exactly alike, yet the subject 
would be clothed in an entirely different 
style of expression. In explaining the letter 
O and its formation I may say, allow the 
weight of the arm to rest ou the muscle of 
the forearm (also on the desk) and move 
around in a circle without bending the 
fingers, shading first or second down stroke, 
clc- Another penman steps in front of the 
board with inspiration l)eaming through 
his eyes and Bays: ■"Will the chirognipliic 
luspirants please compass the t^ubstantiiil 
portion of my illustrations wi(h their visi<iii- 
iiry organs for a brief period. The c;ipilal 
() re.temblcs the longitudinal section of an 
egg, hence it is oblong and curvilinear and 
leans toward Keokuk at au angle of 52^2 
degrees It is formed by allowing the pen 
to circumnavigate an imaginary .spheroidal 
body." Result, pupils bustled home on 

Every person who has ever given any at- 
tention to writing knows that a free and 
clear style of penmanship is only learned 
through free movement. Of course move- 
ment without an idea of form would pro- 
duce no more accurate results than the ran- 
dom kicks of a buy mule. A penman may 
possess unbounded movement and yet never 
reach any high degree in penmanship be- 
cause the eye is not trained to correct formfi. 
There must he accuracy of eye before there 
can be accuracy of execution. Taste may 
be cultivated and is as necessary in writing, 
as in any art. The successful penman 
stores his mind and scrap-book with fault- 
less models, and in producing a piece of 
work he culls from these stores an idea of 
curve here, one of shade there, and another 

of harmony here until he has material for 
the work. Now. he has used taste in select- 
ing his material, he will display taste in 
combining the whole into one grand concep- 
tion. We may say movement in writing is 
the cause, and form the effect. Then if the 
movement is good and the effect poor the 
idea of form is necessarily poor. If the 
idea is correct and the letter poor the fault 
lies in au uncontrollable movement. ' We 
cannot separate movement from form. 
There can never he a correct movement un- 
less preceded or directed by correct Ideas 
of form. For those who are familiar with 
the formation of all the letters and have an 
undecided or tedious movement there can be 
no better exercise for practice than ovat 
exercises, combined capitals and snudl 
letters For instance, take up capital C and 
practice it by combining a half dozen or 
more without lifting the pen or turning the 
hand to right or left. Don't stop after mak- 
ing two or three, but make up your mind to 

you must move about so far without [stop- 
ping or lifting the pen before the work is 
complete. In combining three or four let- 
ters you ore constantly shifting the course 
without much pausing or lifting the pen, 
thus getting better control over the hand. 
It is one of the best methods of giving force 
and at the same time perfect control of the 
muscular movement. 

Self-Formed Penmanship. 

There are a host of advocates for what is 
termed ■'self-formed penmanship." Audit 
is a somewhat significant fact that, a» a 
rule, those who favor this naturally devel 
oped style of handwriting are themselves 
most villainous penmen— to put it mildly. 
The man who never took a writing lesson in 
his lite, and who has always scribbled off 
his correspondence in a sort of confirmed 
schoolboy scrawl, cannot imagine why any 


make si.\ or eiglit every time before 
the pen. By Uiking np letters that will 
combine easily in this way. you will soon 
use a vigor of movement which gives letters 
a fresh and graceful appearance. With this 
article I present a few exercise copies notes 
specimens of whal I can do, but as a few 
gymnastics tor some of those narrow-gauged 
movements. Try them, mild eyed scribes. 
But stop ! " What's that," some one says: 

Nothing gives so much skill and freedom 
in movement as the practice of combination 
capitals. Like flourishing it becomes so 
fascinating that yon put forth great effort 
without realizing it, and skill of any kind is 
always most graceful when unconscious of 
its movements. You get a sweep and vari- 
ety of stroke in a combination which can- 
not be had in any other practice, because 

body should put himself under bonds to a 
writing master to be taught to write, any 
more than to a dancing master to be taught 
to walk. He will say that they are both 
natural, and stick to his inconsistent logic 
with an obstinacy which forbids conviction. 
The lawyer, as a rule, the literary man, the 
scholar, the editor are all of the class wTio 
believe in self formed penmanship. And 
their manuscript shows it. It is a strangely 
inconsistent theory — and as inconsistent in 

What is " self-formed penmanship ? " To 
use a arang phrase, it is'writing " go-as you-" A pupil learns to write in the pub- 
lic schools ; he learns to spell at the same 
time. By and by he discovers that, after 
al), he did not learn to spell— he only learned 
at it. ns the little girl said. There are a 
number of words in regard to which he and 
Webster seem, somehow, to disagree. He 
consults Worcester, and finds that Webster 

right. Thereupon he amends his spelling, 

by instruction and otherwise. 

But how about bis writing t lie learned 

lis as he did his spelling, in a very crude 
and rudimentary way. lie may not vpnlize 
it. but bis penmanship is just us full of 
faults as his orlhography. Here, however, 
he is a law uoto httOBelf, he imagines. lie 
has'thesrunc olistinate pride in (^elf-fonncd 
chirography as .losh Billings in self- 
formed orthography. And be nudtcs just 
about as presentable a thing of it. There 
!'re spelling reformers who would like to 
make the thorny path of orthography a by- 
way strewn with roses, by letting every man 
spell according to the sound. This is prac- 
tically the disposition of the "self-formed" 
chirographist. He would like to have any- 
body write as the letters look. 

Now it is evident that no mere guess-work 
like this can make a man a respectable pen- 
man. What we want is a disposition to 
write, not as letters look, but as they are. 
This we must find out by study ajid practice. 
Every letter is composed of elements. What 
are these elements— how formed— how pro- 
portioned — how joined t The "go-as-you- 
please" penman, who believes in the self- 
formed theory, lakes no account of this 
fundnmenlal fact. If there are elements, he 
sees them only in combinalion. The 
simplest form, to him, is the completed 

Wha' is the result V Ask the compositors 
who used to struggle with Horace Greeley's 
manuscript. Ask the poor type-writer girl 
who h-is to puzzle out a famous lawyer's 
brief. The result, forsooth, is a scrawl. It 
is the natural criterion of a aireless method 
of penmanship. Here, as anywhere else, a 
man must begin at the bottom, and work 
up -. he must take the tirst things before the 
last things. A * * self -formed " style of 
handwriting is nothing more nor less than 
unsy.stematic and nnseientiiic penmanship. 
It involves methods which no conscientious 
man would think of using in any other kind 
of attainment. 

It is argument enough against *' self- 
formed " penmanship, to note its results, 
Who ever saw a page of munuscript written 
in a self-formed hand that was at the fame 
time legible and beautiful V And yet this is 
what the true art of penmanship aims at 
and accomplishes. The result can be 
reached in no other way. There are no 
royal roads to fortune in any department 
of human achievement. What we attain 
must be attained by the good old methods, 
industry and tidelily. The penmiiu is no 
exception to this rule. 

Back Numbers. 

Every nniil brings intpiiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others ; All numbere f(U' laTU, ex- 
cept January, May and NoDaiiber ; all 
numbers for 1880, except July, Sep- 
tember and Nocftnbcr ; all nunibei"s for 
1881, except December; all for 1K82. except 
June; all for 1883, but January; all for 
1884; all for 1885 All the 75 numbers, 1 ack 
of 1886, will be mailed for $0. or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Remember, you can gel the JotntNAL c 
year, and a 75-ccnt book free, for |1 ; o: 
$1 book and the Journal for $1.35. ] 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

The Varieties and Processes of 

The compositor holds in his left baud a 
small pieve of apparatus called a "compos- 
ing slick." This is a melal frame with one 
side movable, so that it may be adjusted 
to the required width of the column or page 
about to be printed. It will contain about 
(en or twelve lines of average type. 

The manuscript from which the printing 
is to he copied being placed open before the 
compositor; he reads a line or two of it, 
and, retaining the words in his memory, 
proceeds to pick up the letters one by one 
which will form the words, adjusting them 
in their proper order in the composing-stick, 
and placing the spaces which arc to divide 
the words one from another. The rapidity 
and accuracy with which this is done are 
(piitc remarkable, and evince the tact which 
is oblainable by long praciice. He places 
letter after letter, and word after word, un- 
til he has reached the end of bis cninposing- 
-siick ; he then begins a new line, niui i)ro 
(ceds in Ihesameway until the stick is lillcil 
He then grasps the whole of the letlers in 
his fingei-s so dextrously as to not allow one 
lo fall, and transfers them to a flat plate 
called a "galley." 

The work of the compositor proceeds un- 
til he has as many lines set up as will fill u 
slicet, and be arniugtss his lines in the proper 
way one beneath another. 

Sometimes the pages of the book arc 
made up as far as the type will go. before 
the ■ ■ proof ' is sent to the author for his re- 
vision : while on other occasions the type it- 
put together in long slips or columns, to be 
afterwards adjusted into pages when the re 
vision has been affected. 

Before being sent to the author, however, 
tlie proof is " read" carefully at the print 
inir office ; that is, one person reads the 
author's manuscript while another reads the 
printed sheet, to see that the two agree, and 
to make the necessary corrections when 
lliey do not. 

Where so many thousand letters, stops, 
lines, spaces, and marks have to be arranged 
separately, it is next lo impossible for the 
compositors to avoid making some blunders, 
and the correction of these blunders is very 
tedious work, for each wrong letter has to 
be picked out separately, and a proper one 
put in its place; the omission of a word will 
of len derange several lines, und the omis.sion 
nf a sentence will render necessary the en- 
tire re-eonslruction of a page. As the com- 
positor is paid nothing for these corrections 
{his labors being remunerated according to 
the quantity of "correct type " which he 
has set up), he has every reason for trying 
lo bo as accurate as possible in the first in- 

In making the corrections on the sheet of 
paper the " reader" uses certain marks or 
symbols at the sides, which instruct Ihe 
compositor as to the corrections which he 
has to make. 

When the reader has perfonned his task, 
1 lie compositor corrects his work; another 
(■'>py is printed, and this copy, designated 
llie "proof," is sent to the author, who adds 
or curtails or alters jvist as he may think the 
neressity of the ease recjuires. Some proof 
t back by the author scarcely 

cd at all. while others a 
up that the 



o do nearlv 

'silor falls 
Hge of his 


care, there frr(|,H'ntl> n-maiii link- inamS 
nes wbKli go through the whole of the 
primed copies uf the work, so difficult is it 
to insure perfect accuracy in these matters. 

Hemember that now is the time to sub- 
scribe for the JoCRNAL. while you can get 
all the back numbers and begio with the 
yeiir and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will be received for $1.75 with a copy of the 
OuiDB to each suliKcrilipr. Also re.mpm»HT 
that theGumif alone is worthall the mum-y 

Normal Writing. 
We clip the following very sensible article 
upon " Normal or Standard Writing." from 
the Teacher'n ImiUvte. What is there said 
respecting the necessity for fixed and per- 
fect standards of form, and the ridiculous 
notion that the practice from such forms 
will tend to destroy individuality in hand- 
writing we heartily endorse, as it fully ac- 
cords with what has been earnestly contend- 
ed for by the Jouknal — but respecting 
movement, the writer has twice mentioned 
shoulder movement where we would have 
used arm or combined movement : 

" The question of a normal handwriting 
has been discussed in the preceding chap- 
ter. A normal hand, it was explained, is 
the hand that has the maximum degree of 
legibility and the minimum expenditure of 
force in production. Although the question 
of the highest degree of legioility between 
the round hand and slanting hand remains 
unsolved, still the amount of museular force 

individuality in their own penmanship, so 
wonderful that it often takes an expert to 
decipher the thought hidden behind the 
cabalistic scrawls. 

■' Individuality or differentiation of ment- 
al and moral power has no place in training 
a child to write, except perhaps innate 
energy aids effort. All conventional forms 
of expression can be learned only in one 
way. and that way is by imitation. The 
idea that a child would or can intent con- 
ventional forms, is ridiculous. The learn- 
ing pupil has no other guide but the pattern 
before him ; his deviations from the pattern 
do not arise from individuality, but from 
weakness — mainly, mental weakness in con- 
ceiving the form by observing the pattern, 
and phjfsical weakness in reproducing that 
which IS in his mind. The line of progress 
is a growing concept that approximates the 
external reality, the form, and enhanced 
skill that becomes adequate to the perfect 
reproduction of the concept. If the grow- 
ing concept gained by observation, or the 
skill enhanced by practice, stops short of 
adequacy (providing the pattern be a perfect 
one), then there is a great mistake some- 
where. To assign clogged or stopped 

Mr. Scarborough, whose portrait and au- 
tograph appears above, and whose lesson in 
writing appears on the first page, was born in 
Noxubee County, jVlississippi, about twenty- 
five years ago. llis boyhood days were 
spent on the farm with the usual privilege 
of Ihe district school. lie had a clecided 
taste and talent for penmanship, and pater- 
nal vigilance often found him at the desk 
scribbling, when he should have been prac- 
ticing a very different movement in the corn- 
field. -■^.,. 

He received his first ideas of writing from 
Gaskell's Compendium, and becoming inter- 
ested in writing he determined to increase 
bis improvement. He carried the United 
States mail two' himdred and twenty-five 
miles weekly, on horse back, at a salary of 
three dollars, to procure means to attend a 
business college. He was thus enabled to 
complete the course at Chambers' Business 
College, Harperville, Miss., where he re- 
mained as teacher about two years. He 
also taught with Chambers in Meridian and 
V^lcksburg. Miss. He was then employed 
as teacher of the commercial branches in 

and mental energy saved, to be used for 
higher purposes, by using the shoulder 
movement, gives tile verdict to the slanting 

The)uiv.,.^ii..a ui u 

ally algieut expense of eyesight to' readers, 

Illy, gener- 

toutly affirm that children should follox. 
their own sweet will in the formation of 
letters and words, ■ for," say they, * lo force 
a child to write after one pattern is lo rob 
him of his individuality." 'Anybody who 
is anybody has marked peculiarities in writ- 
inn that indicate character.' This is a fair 
slatcment of the individiialily thmrizers ; 
by the way, most of tbtui hiwe wonderful 

Greenvfood Institute for a few months. 
Krom here he w-ent lo Knoxville. Tenn., to 
accept a proffered position in the business 
college there. 

As a teacher Mr. Scarborough excels. A 
love for the work, a genial disposition and 
warm enthusiasm win the esteem of his pu- 
pils and call out their best efforts. With 
the pen he can flourish well, but his forte is 
business writing. He uses pure muscular 
movement, of which he has perfect com- 
mand, and his success in imparting it to 
students is remarkable. He is none the less 
qualified in the other departments of busi- 
ness college work. Having voluntarily 
chosen his profession he has spared no pains 
to prepare for it. 

His careful attention lo business wins for 
him the confidence of his associates, and in 
all his relations he is uniformly the courte- 
ous gentleman. He is now teaching in t|;e 
Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Business College. 

Mr Scarborough is also an able writer for 
the press. Several of his articles have ap- 
peared in the Journal, and he is a regular 
contributor to several other periodicals. 

growth, weakness and lack of capacity, or 
worse, imperfect training, to individuality 
is ridiculous. The less we have of such 
individually the better. 

"The forms of letters in writing corrc- 
.ipond to articulate sounds in speech. Ar- 
ticulate sounds are made by following a 
pattern. The pronunciation nf a child, un- 
less there is some <Ii f.:( I, U nu exaci 
imitation of the putin n~ ■<.<■{ \>\ his parents 
and family, Ihe sMltIiIi -i Ir^ iiiin.n trnm the 
normal form will t(.rt,niil\ li-ul in ibc form- 


speech. No one will deny that there 
standard or normal forms of articulation, 
and that the more thoroughly they are ac- 
quired, the better one can express his 
thoughts orally. Now is it not Just as rea- 
sonable to suppose that confining a child to 

from fundiiiin iii;il hu m,-. hiLli in speech 
or writing, and tbiii fact is suflicient for this 

" The slightest change in articulation or 
pmniincijilinn eiiliiinci-s the difficulty lo 

'■'iiiiin' I i liii LiMi II -I ihniiijbt. We write 

'■' I 'I for ourselves, 

I I 111 to indicate ; 

nnuii'ls ()| inrnis iii;ii our reader has been 
trained lo use. the cii-sier be can receive the 
thought ; ileviatc' from that model in the 
slightest, ns I have already said, and you 
enhance the difficulty of iboiight-reception. 
" On my deSk is a very large pile of ex- 
amination papers. I must look through 
those written forms into the thoughts of my 
pupils, in orderto find out what I must do 
next in teaching. It is a matter of great 
importance to me. that with the least 
amount of effort I can take in thought by 
means of these hundreds of written pages. 
ITm. fr. til , -vriting. a feminine affecta- 
li I! ! I ' I 1 1 Illy indifference to style, 

111 I ri to understand ; there, a 

III me shrink from search- 

iii- li I ihi Ui.'i-bt. If. like this paper — 
writiiii liy the strong shoulder movement, 
every line were clear and distinct, how 
niiKh better T could judge the thought- 
power of my pu])ils, how_much precious 

onld "save me.~ Almost an 
this hud writing is a direct result of 
the individiiiil plan; indeed I have seen, 
in 11 long experience, very little good writ- 
ing Ky uood writing I mean legibility. 
As !i result of allowing each child to write 
iis he pleases, one outof twenty, with strong 
iiinntc power of seeing form, may learn to 
w rile well— the other nineteen are foisted 


s Ihe plain and imperative duty of all 
iiiary schools to equip all children with 
•i liiirlily useful power. 
' 1 have written this much concerning 
. wiclched rvrnse fnr tind writing, false- 
;iilled till' (h'\cl'ii"iH'iti of individuality, 
■ause -^M iiKiM\ I hililnii .wq robbed by 


similiarity of 

w itself in sli 
damental form; 


these four chapters 
of the theory of writing; in the 
bapteis, 1 propose to apply the 

not writing alone, but wniing as a means oi 
developing thought power in reading, lan- 
guage, and all otlier subjects taught in our 
liools." — The Pracficfd Teitfher. 

Modesty is an attribute of true greatness, 
and men of real learning arc never pomp- 
ous. Any freckled and saturnine school- 
boy can ask questions that il would puzzle 
a ten volume encyclopH'dia to answer ; and 
confusion is apt lo overtake the pretentious 
individual who tries to impress his hearers 
with the false idea that he "knows every- 
thing in all the books." 

A story is told of a certain bishop who 
addressed a large assembly of Sunday-school 
children and wound up by asking, in a very 
paternal and condescending way. "And 
now, is there a-a-n y little boy or a any 
little girl who would like to ask mc a 
question ? " 

After a pause he repeated the question, 
"Is there a a-n-y liltle hoy or a any Utile 
girl who would like to ask mc a question? " 

A little shrill voice called out. "Please, 
sir. why did the angels walk up and down 
Jacob's ladder when they had wingsV" 

"Oh. ah, yes, I sec," said the bish(»p. 
"And now. is there a-a-n-y little boy or 
a-a-n-y little girl that would like to answer 
little Mary's question V" — Youths Compnniim. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendhim of I*ractical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide lo Self- 
Instruclion," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

Across the Andes. 

By way of prefiicc, I beg thiit the readers 
of the Journal and my brothers of the 
quill, will not look upon the following as a 
litemry effort, but simply consider it ns n 
friendly letter. 

My sole motive for writing is gratitude, 
for I feel that I owe much to Mr Ames and 
the Journal ; and I promised him that 
when I started on my journey from Santiago 
Chili, to New York, I would trj and keep 
my eyes open. So here you ha% o the reiultb 

We left Santiago on the mornmg of Jan 
uary 10th, which is the midsummer month 
in that latitude, and after a ride of several 
hours through striking mountain scenery 
we passed through a very fertile section of 
country, until at four o'clock we arrived at 
Santa Rosa de Los Andes, commonly called 
simply Los Andes. 

Here we found Mr. W a gentleman 

that I had met nt Valparaiso, and as he was 
going home to Boston I arranged that he 
should accompany us over the mountnms 

Driving to the hotel we found Don An 
tonio Rivero, our arru-i'o, or guide await 
ing us. 

Antonio had nine animals, eight mules 
and tiiQffegtut madrina or "god mother as 
the bell-mare is called. To a!,si''t him in 

.\ (U'IDE \\n HAGt \(JE MULF 

loading and unloading, and caring foi tUi 
animals he had a lad of seventeen oi ci^h 
teen years of age named Francisco Two 
of the mules were used to carry the baggage 
and two extri ones took then turn every 
other day. The othei four were used as 
saddle animals and all were just as fat and 
sleek as one could wish and we looked for 
wni-fftn iollj -fini <j n their backs Earl\ 
next moroing we turned over our lu"-f, igt 
to Antonio and Pi ancisto and after blind 
folding two of tht mules with their pon 
chns, they soon loided them and were oflf 

W , who w a-s nearly dead with dj spcp 

sia, had hired u coach to iide as far as 
" Los Loros or Tht Paiiots a distance of 
about twenty miles in older to save him 
self, and he kindly invited ub to ride with 
him. After breakfast we weie off and 
anivcd at Los. Loros about noon In front 
of a little low mud hut wis a shady arbor 
which we found eool and pleasant 

OloRc to the hut a iivci went roaring bv 
and on either side the giand old m(.uniaius 
towered above us 

At about two o clock we mounted our 
mules and then began climbing in earnt st 
up and up we went leaving, the rivei far be 
low, and after winding along the mountain 
side the trail inelined again towards the 
river. We were now well started on our 
journey across the \ndes by the Lspallata 
Pass, and although the scenery around us 
was very striking we knew there was some 
thing grander m store for us when we 
should get into the heart of the mountains 
About four o clock we came around a point 
from which we had a splendid view of the 
" Salto del Soldado or Soldiers I cap 
The earth had split ind formed a deep daik 
cha^m, the shadows making it seem black 
and awful. About ihiet hundred feet be 
low, the river vhot out with a rush and roar 
as if in a rage at its close eonflnemcnt I 
asked Don Antonio why it was called 
" Salto del Soldado and he rcpbed that in 
olden times a soldier probahl> n deserter 
was being pursued and to sivc his life 
leaped across at some narrow place. 

"We wound our way up and down follow- 
ing the River Juncal until at last we came 
to its junction with the " Rio Blanco" or 

While River. I soon divined the source of 
its name, for as it came tearing down the 
mountain, it was just one mass of white 
spray and foam. 

How those two rivers did dash together, 
as if contending with each other to be first 
to the sea ! The air was full of moisture 
and the leaves on trees and bushes sparkled 
8 if decked with jewels 

The' valley turned and we'came out into 
a grand amphitheatre where was our stop- 
ping place for the night, at the Guardia 
Vieja, This was where some fifteen years 
or more ago the Custom House was located. 
The station house wa.s a long, low mud 
building, not very attractive, but still a 
welcome sight to weary riders. 

We carried plenty of provisions anjd every 

the mountains towered high 
up towards the clouds and combined lo 
form such a picture of grandeur as fairly 
made us shout from admiration. 

I could but admire the good sen&e of our 
baggage mules. At each steep ascent they 
would stop and rest for an instant, then 
piocccd carefully picking their way for a 
1 w > d rest and thed on up to the top 

thing necessary to prepare them, also fur 
robes and blankets, as it was not wise to de- 
pend upon the resources of the stopping 
places. At this place they asked us one dol- 
lar and fifty cents each for soup. That night 
we camped down on some boxes, and before 
morning we bad a realizing sense of their 
We. were off again at half past si\ — and 

As the evening came dow n upon us it was 
eharming to watch the lengthening shadows 
of bold crags 

Looking back we could sec the path over 
which we hid wound our way fist hcooni 
ing ha7y and blue in the distance and tvvi 
light, but away up, the mountain tops weie 
glorious with the rays of the sun. Nothing 
to break the silence but the twittering of 
the birds and the tinkle of the bell on the 

such scenery We could bee thousands of 
feet above us great white snow banks and 
starting from them we saw a stream come 
blippm^ down the mount iin side falling a 
hundred feet or more then disappearing 
and again eorainj, out and over some bluff 
looking like a silver ribbon. Many of these 
miniature " Bridal Veil " falls could be seen 
on all sides of us. 

Those cascades looked indeed beautiful 
as the sun suddenly peered oveT the moun- 

tain lops and shone down upon thtir spark- 
ling dancing waters, chasing away the great 
black shadows that filled valley and ravine. 

In about three hours we reached a place 
called ■■ Ojos de Agua," or "Eyes of the 
Waters." Here two large streama rise out 
the mountain slope and are supposed to bo 
outlets from the "■ Laguna del Inca" or 
' ' Lake of the Inca " which lies higher up. 

In this neighborhood at midnight the 
guides see the igniit fntuii^ which gives 
them considerable trouble as they are some- 
what superstitious. 

Wt arrived at Juncal at ten o'clock where 
we stopped for the balance of the day as we 
dared not try to cross the crest of the moun- 
tains at that hour, for a furious wind is un- 
chained and blows all day, fierce and cold, 
and dangerously too, for it is said to blow 
strong enough to dash a mule off of his 

Antonio and Francisco carefully inspected 
the shoes of the animals that they might be 
prepared for the struggle of the next day. 

We will not soon forget the night we 
spent at Juncal. there was something so 
weird about it. As soon as the sun disap- 
peared behind the lofty peaks, the shadows 
fell thick and fast, but did not stay long, 
for soon the rising moon tipped the moun- 
Iftins with silver. 

W ( sat and talked in bushed voices, for 
it { f iiicd no place for merry laugh or jest. 
W \\ re up to the snow line now. and the 
buow bauk.s gleamed out white and cold, 
and on both sides of the twolittle stone huts 
mountain torrents went roaring past. In 
fact during all our long journey we rarely 
lacked this rough music. 

On an eminence near by. with one end 
built up against a huge boulder, stood the 
first of a series of easuehas or stone houses 
of refuge, put up by the Government to pro- 
tect the daring mountaineers who cross on 
foot carrying the mail in winler months. 
This one was about eight by ten feet, arched 
roof very thick wiills. covered with cement, 
no windows and only a narrow aperture 
to admit the postman. It stood out grim 
anc' dehant as if it could withstand any 
tempest They are always placed on some 
height as the wind then whirls the snow 
awaj and prevents them from being entirely 

Reluctantly we left the scene that I find 
I am utterly unable to describe, as we 8,'iw 
it and retired to our little room with its 
mud plastered walls and hard packed floor, 
where we were soon lost in sleep until 
aroused by our guide crying out, " Vavioa 
am/a jnt on Let us go up.Tnaster. 

This was loug before daylight, and by the 
lijjht of a small lantern we were soon busy 
puttrag on heavy clothing, for we knew 
tbit we were to encounter piercing cold 
vvindb Don Vntonio ha<l a blazing camp 
fire St irted and I soon had the fragrant cof- 
fee read} and as soon as this was disposed 
of wc si irttd to make the grand effort of 
the journey 

Soon we were passing by and over the 
sn w banks that had gleamed out so while 
the night bcfoie On one side of the trail 
was a torrent torn into such white foamy 
masses that in the distance I had thought 
It was a crevisse filled with snow. Up we 
began to toil the sturdy little mules never 
makin„ a false step, and I soon saw that 
one s s ifetv la} m leaving the faithful little 
fellows prettj much to themselves and not 
try ing to guide tbeni. In fact a timid person 
should leave the bridle entirely alone, as a 
fright iicd pull might hurl animal and rider 
hundreds of feet down the mountain side, 
and their fate would be easily known, for 
wt could see ominous looking akeleions of 
animals sticking out of the snow and ice. 

1 best had probably been crowded over 
by their (ompanions. or some fierce, surly 
steer had made a wicked lunge with his 
long sharp horns, and in trying to avoid the 
thrust over they went. We were always 
very fortunate in meeting bands of cattle in 
places where there was room to pass. I 
never ceased admiring the sagacity of our 
baggage muhh when I saw how they 
tw isted and sfiuirmed to avoid knocking the 
trunks against the boulders that hemmed in 
the trail at times lo such an extent that it 
seemed as if we would never find our way 
out. Wc toiled up two long steep ascents, 
and at the top of the Hccoud wc halted for a 

iiiiniRriil to survey ami admire tlic sci-ric. 
itn our lefl lay tlie Lake of the Inca. 

1 1 was literally as smooth as a mirror, nnd 
wf saw reflected on it^ glassy surface Ibe 
stirrounding snowcapped mountains. It 
niu"! have been very deep, for the nioun- 
l;iins rose sheer up from its waters. And 
how cold imd black it looked in those awful 
solitudes, with the snow banks us it were 
slipping down into its dark depths! Up 
another ascent, and into a valley, where the 
t<irrent was spanned by ice bridges, and we 
were up in thai part of the world where 
livers were made. "OjosdeAgua" were 
plentiful, I remember seeing a stream at 
least six feet wide bursting out of the moun- 
tain side, without any surrounding indica- 
tion of its presence, such as soft wet soil ; it 
simply shot out of the hard rocky earth, fell 
over in a pretty graceful cascade, and was 
oir on its mission of helping to make a 

On wc went through this dark valley. 
Francisco, quietly humming snatches of 
Spanish songs, rode the leader, and behind 
liir in single file came the othermules. Our 

friend W looked gloomy and doubtful, 

for lie was afraid be would not prove equal 
to the strugijlc of gettiug over the "cumbre" 
or " divide," so he saw little of the grandeur 
and beauty of the scincry. As for my 
" hetter half " and me, one moment we were 
awed into sileuce by the frightful solilude>, 
surrounded as we were by huge black mrks 
tbat told of the eonvulsi{,us of nature in by 
:;(me ages, at another, on looking up, we 
would be charmed into the most extravagant 
expressions of delight at sight of the moun- 
liiin tops glowing so cheerfully, louebed 
by Ihe sun which wc knew was sliinioL: 
brightly on the eastern side of tlu' Amies 
Out of this golden light would cum. Hit- 
dancing waters, and falling over s.oiiie dill' 
would be swayed to and fro by thu wind in 
such a charming way that we were loath to 
leave tbem. 

And whose baud had spread out before 
us such glorious pictui'eg Y 

At last we were at the end of the valley 
and rciidy for the ascent that was to carry 
us n;) to nearly thirteen thousand feet. Up 
oa tlic steep mountain side we saw a party 
CDuiing down ou fool, driving or leading 
their mules. We trembled as we saw one 
man stumble ami fall, but he quickly rccov 
ere I himself. Soon we all met at a place^ 
where it waa wide enough to pass, and afttr 
a chat they saluted us with a hearty " Qm 
vaya bien ! " (A safe journey to you !) which 
was as heartily responded to, On, up. and 
there on a little level wc saw the luins of u 
caaaefta sticking out of the snow. An aval- 
anche had knocked it to pieces and the de- 
bris were strewed all along and over the 
sides down into the yuleli near which it 

There were plenty of bones to be seen, and 
1 thought one of our strongest bagga^'c 
mules was going to leave his also, for be 
took a side path, and l)efore Antonio could 
stop him he was going around n dangerous 
l>oint. I watched the bliick rascal gingerly 
pick his way along a path where he had not 
over six or eight inches of good trail to walk 

Near the lop we met another party, one 
of whose mules was stuck fust between the 
hard snow walls that rose high above his 
bead and all efforts to break the snow ou 
each side of bini proved of no avail, Wc 
Urt them unloading the poor beast and con- 
tinued our way across the snow (ieldi?. 

Finally the crest of the Andes was reached, 
and we emerged from the dark cold sha 
(lows out into the bright dunlight, and stood 
oil top of the world looking out over a vast 
expanse of snow-capped mountain peaks. 
Winter indeed at midsummer. On the west 
lay Chili while on the east Argentine invited 
us to a trip down into the sunlit valley in 
which, thousands of feet below uk, we could 
see the " Uio de las Cuevas." River of the 
Caves, looking like a iuutow footpath 
through a meadow. On the summit we 
noticed where repairs had been made to the 
Transaudino Telegraphic Cable, which is 
carried over the mountains hurled in iron 
tubes. A remnant of cable was eagerly 

seized upon iis a memento of our visit, and 
then we were otf on footdown (be Argentine 
side, leaving the mules to the guide. The 
sides of the mountain were covered with a 
thick, loose deposit of dirt and pebbles, and 
as the trail zigzagged down we took short 
cuts across from one section to another, and 
the result was often such n display of the 
ditling moncmtnt as would have rejoiced 
the heart of a cbirographer. When the 
pace became too fast we sat down suddenly 
and applied the break'* by digiring our heels 
into the earth, or bj ftlchitm up against a 
rock. 15y the time ue leiirlied the bottom 
we were well covered with a green dust 
intermingled with red, cnustd by mineral 

At the bottom of this Urst descent we 
mounted our animals and rode along 
through the valley, soon arriving at "The 
Caves." This is a place where a vast por- 
lion of the mountain seems to have been 
shattered and literally spewed out, the tre- 
mendous boulders lying around in strange 
heaps, filling up the gulch, down in which 
the Rio de la& Cuevas worms its way under 
the huge boulders. Up in the gap of the 
mountain were great snow and ice caves. 

Passing on. we were shortly in sight of 

the Children of the Sun. Indians on foot 
pas-scd over the bridge ou their way to pay 
tribute to the Inca. 

Here there were also four hot springs. 
The first of the series. " Mercurio,*' is situ- 
ated upon the bank of the river and pos- 
sesses no special mineral qualities; but 
passing on down towards the river and 
tmdcr the bridge there, each in its own 
beautiful grotto, are the other three " Nep 
tuno," "Champana," and Venus." The 
grotto of Neptune is large enough to hold 
quite a number of persons, and the poo! 
willaccommodatesomc seven or eight bath- 
ers. The waters enter with a rush and roar 
that give evidence of a terrible force down 
below. The grotto of Champagne is about 
the same size as that of Neptune, but the 
pool is a trifle amallcr. Here the water 
sbools into the bath through a natural lube 
with such force as to completely cover the 
surface with a mass of foam, hence its 

Passing down to Venus I found that the 
grotto was small and not more than two 
persons would be comfortable in its basin. 
The water in all was as clear as crystal, 
and such quantities run in and out tbat 
they arc always clean and pure. Bathers 

comes more solid and compact than Roman 
cement. To add to the effect of the strange 
surroundings, the abrupt river banks in the 
immediate neighborhood of the bridge were 
stained from the top down to the water's 
edge with odd mixtures of colors. 

During six months of the year the station 
house and surroundings are buried deep 
under the snow, and, of course, imoccnpied 

That afternoon we were off for Puiita 
de las Vacas, our next stopping place. 

In a narrow pass by the river we met a 
party with their faces masked, showing 
only the eyes, for Ihe stiff wind which we 
bad at our backs met them full in the face. 
Our faces, liberally daubed wiib cold cream 
and other greasy compounds, and protecled 
by broad-brimmed hats, needed no masks, 
Without these precautions the unwary trav- 
eler would come out at the end of the 
journey with peeled and swollen face, pain- 
ful to behold. 

On we rode, and after entering a narrow 
defile, looking back we saw in the distance, 
framed in by ihe walls on either side, the 
grand old Volcano of Tupungato, one of 
the highest in the Andes, 21,104 feet. Its 
hoary head was uplifted so high that it was 
bathed in the golden raya of the departing 

,, ^ .^ 

y, „__ j^^ ' y 

ihe ahum cut wan plioto-engravfd from a IctUr iriitl*:ii by J. M. Viiifi^nt, and '» ffiven aa a specimen »f practical writing. 

the easif£?ia and station house of "Puente 
del Inca." Bridge of Ihe Inca. .lust be- 
fore arriving at the station wc had to cross 
Ihe river on the "Puente de Piedra,"The 
Stone Bridge, formed by a large rock thai 
had fallen into the stream from Ihe cliffs 
above. The stream had worn a passage 
around each end, and these being bridged 
over, the whole affair presented a wonder- 
fully picturesque appearance. 

We soon rode up to the long, low station 
building where I secured a room nnd bed 
— and such a bed ! Somehow or other ihey 
had managed to gel a billiard table up to 
this spot high in the Andes, and on top of 
this an inviting looking eoueh was made 
up with the aid of our fur robes and blan- 
kets. After we were all snugly fixed I ^vas 
off to sec the bridge. A few hundred yards 
from the bouse I found this wonderful 
natural bridge, which is about sixty feel 
long, forty-five to fifiy wide and varying 
from fifteen to twenty-four in thickness 
From the lop down to the river, which 
goes foanung and swirling beneath, the 
distance is said to be one hundred and fifty 
feel. Tradition says that in the lime of 

are sometimes seen flying in a terrible fright 
from these grottoes on account of feeling 
the earth shake and tr''rable under their 
feet. In Venus the water reached to my 
arm pits, and through this depth the stream 
arose with such force as to raise the water 
several inches at the surface. As I stood iif 
the water I heard the ominous grumblings 
and mumblings down below and felt the 
bottom quiver and jerk, bul as this had 
probably gone on for ages I did not propose 
to be scared out of a most delicious bath 
which only a weary and dusty rider knows 
how to fully appreciate. 

As I stepped out of the spring I saw tbat 
Dame Nature was very lavish with her gifts 
in this wonderful spot, for within three 
feet of me there trickled down from the 
roof a stream of clear cold water, forming 
as nice a shower bath as one could wish. 

These waters possess the property of 
petrifying objects ; a sheet of thin paper 
becoming as stiff as cardboard in eight 
days, and in a year's lime a bird will be- 
come thoroughly petrified. The rocks and 
bluffs are covered by the drippings with a 
deposit, which in the course of time be- 

sun, and its humbler companions were seen 
only in the twilight. Wc shortly arrived 
at the station where we ri's|.<d over night. 

The next morning we were aroused by 
the usual ciy of " Vamun, patron!" and 
again were oiT before daylight. 

Wc had n journey of about forty-two 
miles ahead of us, and knowing (hat ii 
would keep us in the saddle at least twelve 
hours, we bad to start early as the mules 
only travel at a fast walk. 

I noticed that on the Argentine side the 
Government had made some effort to keep 
the trail in good condition. Passing on we 
came to one of those spois that fonned a 
neverlo- he-forgotten picture. 

On the right the cliff that overhung the 
river had been worn into irolumns and on 
one of these a boulder weighing many tons 
was perfectly balanced, seeming to need but 
a slight push to topple it over into the river 
far below. 

Soon a train of mules came around a 
point just ahead, and our animals needed 
no urging to make them hug up close to 
the face of the rock. I noticed that some 
of them trembled as the others cautiously 


burriod by; evidently they knew it was an 
ugly place to lie crowded. 

The guide afterwards told me that some- 
where iu that vieinily a poor fellow was 
traveling, having ull of his worldly posses- 
sions loaded on the back of a mule ; the poor 
aniintil by some misfortune slipped and fell 
over into the river, and the plaee was ever 
after culled " Poor John's Slide." 

All that afteruoou we followed the Qourse 
of the Mcndoza Kiver until sundown, when 
wc were iu sight of Uspiillata, which is 
situated where the pass spreads out into a 
wide, fertile valley, having au elevation of 
over 6,000 feet. The Custom House and 
two or three other buildings make up the 
station, and as we rode up I iiskeii two 
rough, dirty-looking fellows in uniform if 
they would favor us by examining our bag- 
bogc where it was, unloaded from the ani- 
mals. They gave me very gruff and un- 
satisfactory replies, and 1 feared that the 
contents of our trunks and vuHges would 
suffer at their hands. When I bunted up 
the bead offldnl, however, he proved very 
kind and courteous and soon passed our 

Next morning we started at six o'clock 
for Villavicencio, a distance of forty-live 
miles ; the long trail leading up over the 
•■diviiie" of iljf I'iiraniillo, over 11,000 feet 
lii^i, Alhr ..Ihiij ^^.|| -.l:,il,,i uvi.K.ked 
1m. . ii. M, u Iiuhe 

soft folda seemed tu be euressing the up- 
lifted heads- of the mighty Andes. Away 
off on our right there towered up in bold 
relief the " Cerro Negro. " All around us 
everything was quiet and peaceful, for the 
ever present tinkle of the leader's bell 
led to chime in with perfect harmony. 

and .lid not di> 

..fT f 

irb our fancies. Bea 

Llitj Uail iuul l^u^Ultil u> a ■ (..uuii i.>ui-iiiug." 
At dillercut purls u[ uur road wc noticed 
a queer species of cactus. At a little dis- 
tance they looked exactly like a Hock of 
lambs nestling in the nooks of ilic rocks, or 
curled up on the mmnul- hv iln' hm,! side. 
The first I saw onu 1 ^^ >■ |m,~iiin, ^,;m- one 
had dropped a sheip -km, ini sm.h ,iiscov- 
eredthat tin- sofi -im\ Ii.^^kinj ..iij-rt pre- 
sented Ihun-ilnl- -;■ : . I ; . ;.. l;K 

By elcv.N ■ : . '. ■ ■! r. ,. i,,,] ■■ Los 

Homos, " I ' ' ■ I-, well 

named, for i ,■■ ,. 1 1. - ^ hifcze, 

and the suu Iji.ii iluun upun u.-. m it very 
uncomfortable manner. 

Passing on we were soon on the summit 
of the Paramello. While we had been al- 
most baked down in the Ovens, here we 
were nearly frozen by the cold wind that 
blew up from the pmnpas which were hid- 
den from view by the clouds that floated 
between us and the lower world. --- - - 

we irot Ik'Iow I lie clouds, and then haci a 
splciidiil view of ilie gi'and pampas, or prai- 
riL-^, nf ,\r-fiiiiii(/ stretching as far as the 

those, and as the trail led down through 
the dark gorges we were almost shut in. At 
"La Angosuini." "The Narrows," the 
rocks clostil ill 1i ;L\iip.' L \>:i<s of only about 
ten feet witli, \i ih.ii -|i(ii ihc rocks above 
usseenml to N. i ,i,u lIIn,. with little birds 
that flitted ni -Aiui Mill Mt 111,' crevices, twit- 
tering awa,v 111 ;i \ci.\ iutrry fiishiou. 

Lower down the air became fragrant with 
the rtdor of the beautiful flowers that lined 
the path on either side. How we did enjoy 
that afternoon as down, down we rode, un- 
til at sunset we arrived at Villavicencio, at 
the foot of the mountains, and only forty- 
five miles from Mendoza, the end of our 

We prepared supper at a camji-fire, and 
then lay down on our furs and rugs to try 
to snatch a little sleep, for we were to 
start bpfore midnight. The reason for this 
was it Wf sljiried during the diiy -time. 
;iloi ..(iiii_ .H,i „ii the plains, we would 
ii I 'I the rays of a blazing, 

-I mI plod our way through 

-^:iimI oil ili-i \\iili Qo water for man or 
lieiist foi' thirty miles. 

At a quarter to twelve we were again on 
our way. It was a very beautiful moon- 
light night, and wc enjoyed the weird ride 
very much at first. 

The mules' long ears acted as good in- 
dicators, for when they slanted sharply 

forward and 

I 'lack 

/irb lUi'ir drivers lik^- mi.lni-lil specters. 

Hut when ibe moon went down and the 
■ wee sma' hours " began to draw nigh it 
iras very hard work to keep from falling 
*lrep in the hikMIp Hnw rn-.'erly wc 

old sun rose suddenly. One has to be on m 
level prairie to see such grand sunrises. 

We had passed the worst part of the road 
now. and as it was daylight and there was 
no danger of missing the road I allowed the 
party to proceed while I spread a fur by the 
wav side that my wife might close her 
eyes " just for a few minutes." As usual I 
bad to blindfold the mides to keep them 
from pulling away, and then after a fifteen 
minute doze we were scampering on to join 
our cavalcade. 

a unusually hot day, and 
' would never reach the 
ili?;tance surrounded by 
il -iliade we longed to en- 
1 my poor little wife 

It proved to be a 

and : 

i: her in care of a kind 
Spanish woman 1 hurried ahead for a coach. 
For myself the trip was all right, for I had 
served my apprenticeship on the backs of 
mustangs in California. At last our jour- 
ney was ended, and although weary we 
both felt well repaid, for we had beheld 
scenery which ranks among the grandest of 
the world and the remembrance of which 
will go with us to the end of time. 

" Fair Play." 

Editor Penman's Art Journal : 

I have read with much care what has 
been said from time to time in the columns 
of your valuable journal concerning Qas- 
kells Compendium. Very few, if any. of 
the many words have been said in its favor. 
On the contrary the Compendium has been 
mercilessly criticized and denounced as be- 
ing the product of quackery. I have read 
so many of these criticisms and denuncia- 
tions that I have recently asked some of my 
professional friends if it is really true that 

1 :ini 1(11111' willing to acknowledge that 
the Compendium, as a work of art, has de- 
fects. It is not exact iu the Spcncerian 
sense, but considered as a whole it is a work 
which encourages and tenches the essentials 
of good writing. 

I have made these remarks not because I 
have any pecuniary interest in any work on 
penmanship, but simply bcrause I have 
found very few works meeting with large 
sales that are wholly without merit. The 
Compendium is not an exception to the 

For twelve years I have given considerable 
attention to the subject of teaching writing, 
and strange as it may seem I should be de- 
lighted to see the majority of my students 

movement have been a whit the less had it 
been supplemented by a good orderly, 
sensible style of copies as is done in several 
other compendiums. Is it necessary or well 
for the learner, as Mr. Ferris says, " to 
exercise considerable freedom in the practice 
of the copies as given in the Compen- 
dium," which really means that he will find 
no two capital letters nearly alike in the 
whole series of copies. Throughout his 
practice the learner will in one copy be 
called upon to forget or avoid some thing 
that he struggled to learn from the preced- 
ing one. Our readers will remember the nine 
styles of Hs, ten styles of M's, and five J's. 
published in the March Jodknal, and we 
here give the nine style-* of P's presented in 

going out from my school able to execute 
readily the grade of work presented in Gas- 
kell's Compendium 

W. N. Frrris. 
Bhi Rapids. Midi.. April 30. 1880. 

If there is anything we love it is fair ptaj/. 
It is therefore with pleasure that we give 
Mr. Ferris' letter a place in the .Journal. 

We have written no line respecting the 
Gaskell Compendium that we did not believe 

the (lifT.nni rojiir - nf llie Compendium. 
Will Mr Fi ni- pl'.iM hi) the readers of the 
Jot;itN\i w Ih o in 1- ilii:iihantagp of having 
such 11 v;iiii ly oi forms (saying nothing of 
their artistic merit), rather than using one 
or two of the most desirable ones. Finally, 
Mr, Ferris says, "be would be delighted to 
have the majority of his pvipils write like 
the Compendium." But we are persuaded 
that in saying so he does himself an in- 
justice, for certainly in his own orderly and 
excellent hand there lingers scarcely a ghost 

y^^'^^^t't^^^. C^-^'^Z^^-C-t-^^ ^-^^^^^t 



s pTioto-eng raved from a letlsrwr ate n hi/ W. N. Ferris, Pnndpa'. of Industrial School, Bio Rapids, Mich., and i> 
written with no t/wuffht of its being pnblitfttd. 

the Compendium is an absolutely worthless 
work. Is it a fact that no one of its many 
purchasers has learned to write by follow- 
ing its instructions and copies ? As the 
result of my limited inquiries I do not find 
its purchasers generally dissatisfied ; I do 
not find them failing to derive great benefit 
after earnestly trying to follow its sugges- 
tion. I do not find all of my professional 
brethren willing or anxious to say that the 
Compendium is worthless. In other words, 
the Compendium has friends. These friends 
are quite as conscientious as its enemies. 
Many of them wrote with a slow finger 
movement when they purchased the Com- 
pendium. At that time they knew of no 
other movement. In the public schools 
they bad sacrificed everything to form — to 
exact writing. They were totally unpre- 
pared to meet the demands of the business 
world. The Compendium offered something 
infinitely belter. Daily practice upon slip 1 
according 1o its instructions would go a 
long way toward giving the student ibe de- 
sired power. The remaining 17 slips might 
induce the learner to exercise considerable 
freedom in his style of writing, not more 
than thousands of good actual business 
writers exercise. The Mark Checkup style 
would arise in imy case where the student 
used very little judgment and allowed his 
love of display to predominate. In Oaakell's 
Instructions the essentials of good writing 
are declared to be " Itgtbitity, rapidity and 
heauty." What more does the Journal 
demand ? 

to be true and from a sense of duty to the 
readers of the Journal, and Mr. Ferris is 
the first to write usadissenting word, while 
those written endorsing our sentiments and 
thanking us for their expression would 
scarcely be contained in the entire Journal. 
But Mr. Ferris treats the matter courteously 
and evidently conscientiously, and we are 
none the less willing to give him a hearing 
that he takes the adverse side, There is 
said to be two sides to every question, and 
however weak one may be, it is entitled to 
be beard. Mr Ferris errs when he quotes 
us as saying that the compendium is " an 
ubHolutely worthless leork." We have spoken 
of its merits as relative rather than as ab- 
solute. We could not say that a stone or 
copper knife was absolutely worthless, hut if 
such were made and sold, by mail, iu this age 
of steel as being " without an equal or a 
second," we should denounce the bvisiness 
as a fraud. That many purchasers have de- 
rived a benefit from the Compendium by 
being- induced to think and to practice writ 
ing, and that many young men have been 
inspired with a love for writing that has 
led them to pursue a course resulting in 
their becoming fine penmen, we do not 
doubt or deny, but in all such instances the 
best part of their good writing has been 
what was not learned from the C'nmpcn- 
dium. Think of Madarasz, Dennis, Dakin, 
Ferris and others writing now like the Com- 
pendium. But Mr. Ferris says we got an 
idea of freedom in movement from it which 
w.asgood. Yes; but would the result in 

of the (-'ompondium style, of which fact we 
leave our readers to judge, as we herewith 
present a fac simile of bis letter accompany- 
ing the foregoing article, which readers can 
compare with' tiic Compendium writing as 
given in ihe last Journal. Possibly some 
reader may trace an ancestral resemblance 
in Mr. Ferris' present admirable style to 
that of the Compendium, but if they should, 
we imagine that the "missing links" out, 
little of the chain would remain. 

Permanent Subscriptions. 

It should be remembered that while it is 
a rule that the Journal will he discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request nuiy have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case, a 
bill for their subscription will be sent ut the 
beginning of each new term of subscription. 

The Price of Atnes'Compendium 
restored to its regular 
price $5.00. 
It shoidd l.L- ohs.rved that tin- pn<*- '»J 
Ames' hirge Compendium of Artistic Pen- 
manship has been restored to its regular 
price of $5.00, at which it will hereafter be 

Agent for Canada. 

We have commissioned A. J. Small, 13 
Grand Opera House, Toronto, ('auada (P.O. 
Box 634), to act as agent for the Journal 
in Canada. He will take subscriptions, ad- 
vertisements, and supply our publications at 
the regular rates. We-trust that our Cana- 
dian friends will give him a liberal patron- 

Lesson in Free-Hand Drawing. 
No. Ml. 

It st'cin* nerc-ssury beforp going fnrllier 
llml the studcut sbould liave some knowl- 
edge of tlie jiriuctpal gcnmetric terms, de- 
floitions ttud forms. Two riglil lines tbat 
meet without forming a continuous riglil 
line, forni iit llicir junetion lui iingle ; 

quarters will then form a right angle con- 
laiuing ninety degrees. 

An acgle contiiining more tbnn ninety 
degrees is culled an obtuse angle, when it 
contains less than ninety it is called an 
acute angle. 

Not less than three right lines can em lose 
a space, and a space so enclosed is called a 

There are four kinds of triangles. A 

triangles are called scalene or irregular 

A right line is of great use in assisting to 
draw an irregular or curved line, so righf- 
lined or regular figures are used in drawing 
curved or irregular tigiires : 
And regular geometrical solids are almost 
indispensable in enabling us to secure the 
correct form and proportion of irregular 
solids, which might be illustrated by almost 

Angles may be formed of right or curved 
lines and are named accordingly right-lined. 
curved, or raixtilinear : 
An angle is estimated by the number of de- 
grees contained in the space between the 

A circle is said to contain 360 degrees. If 
a circle is divided by two diameters into 
four equal parts or quarters, each of the 

Educational Notes. 

(Conimuntciitlons for this Department m 

P. Kbllrt, Office of t 

Brief eduoatiODiU 1 

Iroadway, New York. 

Out of the ,303 colleges in this CQuntry. 
ir)5 use the Komau, 114 the English, and 
^4 the continental pronunciution of Latin. 

The Hampton Institute, at Hampton. Va., 
has a total attendance this year of 907. Of 
this number 140 are Indians, averaging 17 
years of age, of whom a little less than onp- 
half are girls, 

John Mossey of Portland. Me., who grad- 
uated at Bowdoin ('ollege in 1809 — sevcnty- 





I I ji.nliiate of the Normal 
"111 chosen by the 

I I >iiM I iiiiR-iit's expense, at 
the Hak-iii. .MH>-i,, Normal School. She 
will then lake charge uf the Normal Schools 
of .lapan. She will be the first Japanese 
woman to be educated at the Government's 
expense in Auiericn. 

According to the report of the Commis 
sionur of EducJition the business colleges 
reporting number 221, having 1,015 instruc- 
tors and 44,074 students. Improvement is 
uoied in these schools in respect to appli- 
ances, methods, and results of instruction. 

The numlHT of schools of theology re- 

'■2.2;!.'' M' ! ■ '.nd students. Their 

prop, II > 1,495,200; produe- 

*il.i:» ; iccciins rn.iii tuition fees for 1884^ 

The number of schools of law reporting 
is 47, with 260 instructors. and 2,680 stu- 
dents. Their property valuation is $40,000; 
productivi' funds, 1^825,400 ; income from 
same. *38.205 ; receipts from tuition fi>c-s in 


''?.*'^1^'7 •i'stnQce wliere the Bouroe of any item 
used In tbiB department la known, the proper credit 
iB (rtvBn. A like ooartoay from other* will be appre- 

Teacher— ■• IVliue ' snoring.' " 
Suiull b(»y— " Letting off sleep." 

triangU- formed by three lines of 
equal length is called an equilateral. 
If a right line passes froni one angle 
of a s(iuare throvigh the centre to 
ihe opposite angle it is called a di- 
agonal, and divides the square into 
two equal parts. The half on each 
side of the diagonal is called an 
isoceles triangle, and has its two 
sides of equal length, and its prin- 
cipal angle is a right angle. 

A figure with its four right angles, but 
with one of its diameters longer than the 
other, is called a parallelogram. If this 
figure is divided by a diagonal similar to the 
square, the triangles on each side will each 
have one right angle, but their sides will be 
of unequal length. Such a triangle is called 
a rectangled scalene triaogl^. All other 

singular." — Independent. 
A writer asserts, "No 
the whole range of bui 
Let him wait until comn 
at the colleges, and he will be undeceived. 
— Boston D-unsmpt. 

Four peaks, specified by a Civil Service 
candidate, as within the United States were, 
"Pikes Peak, Fremont's Peak, Smith's 
Peak, and Chesapeake." 

According to the T^'ibuw, "Astronomy 
parties are the latest ifad in the Kast." They 
are usually organized by stepping on a seg- 
ment of banana cuticle. 

If a Mr. Brown marries a Miss White, 
and a son of this couple marries a Miss 
Gray, anD a daughter of theirs again mar- 
ries a Mr. Black, what color is their off- 
spring ¥ 

A Boston gentleman overheard his two 
little girls playing school. The elder said 
to the other, "Spell cat," "I can't; I 
don't know how," said the little one, 
" Well, then," returned the small teacher, 
"if you can't spell cat, spell kitten I'.— 

One little girl was heard to say to a play 
mate, " When I grow up I'm going to be a 
school teacher." " Well, I'm going to be a 
mamma and have six children." "When 
they come to school to me I'm going 

" Mary, do you know what a miracle is," 
said n lady Sunday-school teacher to one of 
her class. " Yes'm, ma says if you don't 

lew parson it will he a miracle," 

■th ArguH. 

Sunday School Teacher — " Why was 
Joseph put in the i)it t " 

Smart Boy — " Because there was no room 
for him in the fjiinily circle" 

rheyil drop their verb!* and liistory, 

riieir Hi^leiice and Its mystery, 

\ud " finished" out to liattfe they wl 

know, know, know. 
A little boy \vn9, trudging along the s 

ight, iiu 

nndly: "That's 
ive to see little 
I II and arc fond 
nickel for you." 

au infinity of examples with subjects or ob- 
jects from nature and art. Of plane figures 
the triangle, the square and the circle are 
the most important. 

Of solid geometrical boaies theTprmclpnl 
are the cvhe, the cylinder and the spliere ; 
in fact the last three may be considered as 
the elementary generators of all forms that 
we can see or of which we can conceive ; 
either with modifications or combinations. 

They should be drawn on paper ruled 
with lines intersecting each other at about 
half an inch apart, the objects sometimes 
enlarged and sometimes diminished pro- 
portionally. The pupil should not only 
practice to discipline bis hand and eye, but 
to exercise his memory by drawing from 
recollection and his inventive power, by 
making changes and even new designs. 

" Thank you, mum," said the little boy. 
" Been buying a new slate, I see." 
• Yes, mum, it's for me fadder." 
" For your father t 

Just for Fun. 

William K. Vanderbilt's middle name is 
Kissam ; but the girls say he doesn't. 

" Figures wont He," Think bo ? Just nsk 
the _drc»amakerOTh«a8he-isHiirTrcoirtidentIal 
mooia. — Boston Transcript. 

We've just counted up tbat we have saved 
several hundred dollars by smoking the pipe 
instead of cigars; but where is it? — Ken- 
iitcky State Journal. 

Young wife— '-John, mother says .she 
wants to be cremated."' Young husband — 
" Tell her if she'll get on her things I'll take 
her down this morning." — Tid-Bita. 

The Christian Union tells of a young man 
who in three months gave his seat in a car 
to fifty-nine women and girls, and everyone 
thanked him. We are sorry to see that even 
religious journals are beginning to 
fiction. — New Haven News. 

More than four thousand devices for 
coupling have been patented, and yet 
thousands of bachelors and maidens go it 
alone iu this country. 

lie— "Is this seat epgaged ?" She— "Yes, 
sir, I am keeping it for a gentleman." He 
(bowing politely) — "Madame, he is here." 
(Sits down.) 

The word salary comes from the Latin 
salarium, literally salt money, from sal,' salt, 
which was part of the pay of Roman sol- 
diers. This will probably explain why cer- 
tain young ladies reprd young men who 
"- meagre salanes as being entirely 

) fresh." — New Ha/cen News. 

jirking upon 

The evil couaequentus of smoking are 
illustrated by Mt. Vesuvius, which constant- 
ly suffers from eruptions. 

A brother editor says a newspaper is not 
noisy, yet it frequently creates a bustle.— 
Oermantown Independent. 

Did you ever feel that deep, inner, subtle 
sensation of the whole being, as though the 
whole world had flopped up and bit you on 
the head, which creeps over a man when he- 
steps on a place that isn't there V—C'/oW/f/w 

The Irish patriots should not be dis- 
couraged. Married men have struggled for 
home rule for twenty centuries, and have 
not yet succeeded in getting it. » 

A mistress who had jusl liired n new cook, 
made a tour of inspectinnjiftfr ■<\u- t.'i.i k<pt 

her a week, and foumi ^. n-li.. ir i... k,ii 

up in the pantry, "lli.. .i i _ii 

bereV" asked the lady ■-. , i i i ur,; 

have been leftover bv thv old 

The Pen. 

Every graceful shadui) line, 
strength and beauty does um 
'Tis the penman's pride to dr 
Eaoh fair curve witliout a lla 
Records of all deeds and tinic 


Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20c. each, or by the dozen $1.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have they been, 
offered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic pcnmai^hip, and, as such, 

ore nchfy-Vrr. HJt t l'<^ prip ^qYirPrtT- ^h .^T ^ jW'**- 

are handsomely printed on plate paper, 

Grace In Penmanship. 

Herbert Spencer, than whom no other has 
writtcu more philosophically upon ■■raceful- 
ness, came to this conclusion: that, given a 
certain change of altitude *io be gone 
through, a certain action to be achieved, 
then it is most gracefully achieved when 
achieved with the least expenditure of force. 
So it is with all movements. We never at- 
tribute gracefulness to those movements 
which appear to be executed with great ef- 
fort. The waddle of a duck, tlie move- 
ment of an extremely fat mau in walking, 
suggest nothing graceful. Our first efforts 
at skating or dancing produce any thing but 
graceful movements, because of Ihe lal.or, 
fear and besiatancy with which we enter 
into the exercise. Without entering at 
engtb into the philosophy of movement in 
'penmanship, we wish to apply the above 
illustration to this most useful and pleasing 
art. Carrying this idea of grace further, 
however, and applying it to objects, forms, 
and figures, we must admit that the object 
wlucb-i ^l^tjuij lu auppuft usfH wim g 'i mi 
difficulty, or ueeds to be propped lo keep 
from fulling over, would not give us that 
pleasurable e.vperieuce of peace of mind by 
which we would attribute to it graceful- 
ness. So in the different forms of writing . 
those appear graceful which seem to sup- 
port themselves with the least effort. Hav- 
ing this idea of grace, with the understand- 
ing of the harmony of lines and beauty of 
curves clearly in mind, we have an ideal 
toward which to work. Easy and graceful 
movements only will produce graceful and 
harmonious forms. Ease and grace are al- 
most inseparable. All movements must he 
made easy by continued practice and a 
natural adaptation of all the parts brought 
into play — position of pen, arm and paper. 
The child only learns to walk and hit its 
mouth with the spoon after it has bad suf- 
ficient practice to give it confidence, so that 
it uo longer hesitates, but strikes out boldly 
and without fear. In a little while it can 
feed itself just as well with its eyes shut as 
open, because of the constant repetition of 
the act. In writing, then, and in all depart- 
ments of pen art. that freedom, cose and 
grace of stroke can only come after repeated 
effort at striving with rapid strokes to pro- 
duce standard, graceful fom^s.—Selected. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self -improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Sclf-Instruciiou in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (iu paper 
covers), or |1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleaded with It you may return It, 
and wti will refund the cash by return mall, 



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, '■ '^>X^S xJl'S )| Cwi ■ 111'''', ti^i uiiiur^jassrf milttani ^ciiiuJ uras mtbttl f«r tljf iffenct of (jiunan. 

'^ '-*.■ .., "^ ' ■ v^' -v'^ ■" ' litfrtij cni tb^ prfSciTotion pf its prifHf55 bl^^ings to our ourn ani 5uf- 

^ -■ - -.'•Js^Uj''''' fffMng gfnfroiions; ^s^P^if 6M5<IF41C Iji* majKaniiniti) toiuarli a flmc|uer^^ for 

lues nofrli) (jenri'Dus, aiiHb u/isc ^jtaliuc wurii' ruunibJ tlii' snriTfJ memtfrs of our ffijral i'oSj.onJ rf- 

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comfort of tl: 

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thilt, A. A. Un amtlier pagi he hut favored the readers iiflhe JoiniNAL with a. deacription ofhitjatimeli tmr the Andes and 

(tcrosji iiffittk America on hia passage honu from Chili. 



Some people estimiite tbc aliiiity of a 
jieriodical oud the taleut of its editor by ibe 
(luality of ils original mnlter. It is coni- 
piiratively an easy tjisk for a frothy ■writer 
to string out n rohmiu of words \ipou any 
iindallsubiMN Hi- 1,1, ,- iMiiyflowinone 
weak, \viisli\ ,.;, ,| .ndlbecoin- 

"lauii of hi- ,i,i,ble him to 

string tbeiii ii.rili, 1 iil , inn, l„sof onions. 

and yet his paper may be but a meagre and 
poor concern. Indeed, the mere writing 
part of editing a paper is but a small portion 
of the work. The care, the time employed 
in selecting, is far more important, and the 
fact of a good editor is better shown by his 
selections than anylhiug else; and that, we 
know, is half the battle. But we have said, 
an editor ought to be estimated, his labor 
underslood and appreciated, by the ijenenil 

conduct of bis paper — ils lone, its uniform, 
consistent course, aims, manliness, dignity, 
and its propriety. — Coiiner:7mtrnnl. 

Surety by Mail. 

Parties ordering books or mercbandiae, 
from this olEee, to be sent by mail, would 
do well to add the small sum of 10 cents, to 
the designated price of articles desired, for 
registering same, thereby insuring their safe 


There is observable, throughout the vari- 
ous departments of study or knowledge, a 
close and intimate relation between thfory 
nud pnietiri , httwecn meditation and action, 
between ihc discovery of a law in nature 
iind the application of that law to practical 
purposes ; iu other words, betjveen Science 

It is not always that this relation is duly 
considered, for the adherents to one of 
ihese two departn:ents sometimes depreciate 
those of the other. 

The theorist occasionally looks down 
upon the man who only possesses "common 
sense," as a very mechanical and inferior 
sort of person ; while the practical man not 
unfrequently regards philosophers as beings 
who live in the clouds— almost useless to 
society, and unfitted to rub their way 
through the bustle of everyday life. 

Both parties are wrong ; and the error 
arises from a sort of near-sightedness of the 
mind, which limits the conception within a 
very narrow circle. 

The best way to prove this is to take up 
any one distinct subject, and see how the 
thinkem would get on without the doers, or 
vire versa. Take Navigation, for instance. 
The philosopher finds out the relation which 
the earth bears to the heavenly bodies — the 
mutual bearings which the Equator, the 
Kcliptic, and the Meridians have lo each 
other; the mathematical laws of Spherical 
Geometry, and the application of these to 
the measurement of distances on the earth's 
surface ; the tendency of a magnetized 
piece of metal to point pretty nearly in one 
constant direction, and others of a similar 
kind. But bis thinkings and demonstra- 
tions would do little towards conveying him 
to the Old Worid without the services of the 
practical man or the instrument maker. The 
latter attends to the qualities of various 
kinds of wood, metal and glass ; the work- 
ing up of these into tubes, axes, pivots, 
graduated scales, lenses, retlectors, magnets, 
and numberless other pieces of apparatus ; 
and the establishment of such a complete- 
ness, both iu principle and details, as will 
furnish the means of determining from the 
data supplied by the philosopher, the exact 
position of a ship on the broad ocean when 
nothing but water and sky ore visible. 

It would be nonsense to say that either 
party could do without the services of the 
other, and useless to attempt any determina- 
tion of the relative value of the two, when 
both are indispensable, a contest for chief- 
tainship may dispensed with. 

In all the various subjects of study and 
investigation, a similar interchange of ser- 
vices is observable. In some cases the 
establishment of scientific principles has far 
outrun application in practice ; while in 
others the practical man has to do much be- 
fore he obtains aid from science. In most 
instances, however, the exchange of ser- 
vices is renewed over and over again. 

Science discovers that glass and similar 
transparent bodies are capable of focalizing 
light, when ibcy are properly shaped. Art, 
thereupon, fashions the lenses for this pur- 
pose, and thereby enables Science to discov- 
er new truths in Astronomy or in Optics ; 
these new truths, again, suggest to Art the 
means of making instruments powerful 
enough to explore the depths of space, or 
delicate enough to show myriads of animal- 
culic within a small speck in space. 

Thus the two go on ; each gaining extent 
and value, by giving extent and value to the 

u culUoK I 

tliiet escelleat publlivm -!>iirklea 

with beautiful aiu-inii. |. i l,i|. from 

leading penmen ami ti. i. n.i inBiruc- 

Lluntrlvealn all df|iariTii' < I ' |! i i-iaji Is In- 
valuable to all Willi \M-ii I' II III iM I III II clilro- 
«raphy. It Id upe-eiiiiii- nii\ n-i i. i in-nman's 
paper pubtlahed." '/'/'■ "■- ' ' \ ••-'!■ i 
"Jiid^itii: fruiii iliir inr, I. .11.- iiink.- iiji n_f the 

lilor ,-vldeiitly .., 
iiola to leucli the 
—lAmi Star ftn- 

i of oonipvllttoD. It 

iivlblff, undmaybei 

e»ti-d in peniiinnftliiji wit) Ilral llm 
■ JoDUNAi. JiiHl ihe article. It !<■ Hi* 
I trade paper Iq this country.- T^t 


P.ibli*.h«d Monthly- at »X per Y^ 



The Labor Question. 

The coiiflict between labor and cnpital 
during the pasl few years has grown and 
iuleusilicd until at present, tbe battle seems 
to rage all along the line, and presents au 
issue of paramount interest to all classes of 
sock'ly. since all are more or less affected 
With the honest laborer 
iii'wsliip and sympathy, we 
iiii\ <if labor, and that skill 
-^'iiild be the badge of all 

by the 


but when they seek by forrc and violence 
to deter others from doing that which they 
decline to do, they do a greater wrong than 
is that which they are organized to oppose. 
Thcintereslsof labor and capital are mutual, 
and both thrive best when operating in har- 
mony, neither can annoy or cripple the other 
wilhoul sharing the injury that results. A 
strike or lockout means the loss of wages on 
le one band, and nt production on the otber, 
ad in nearly every instance the loss in dol- 
,rs and cents is greater than the gain to 
therside, while the antagonisms engendered 
re often lifelong and work irreparable in- 
jury to the business and social relations of 
the employer and employed. That differ- 
ences should arise between the employer and 
employee is but in accordance with human 
nature and the circumstances, but when 
they do so arise they should be settled by 
disinterested arbitrators, and it is our hope 
1 belief that the present agitation of the 
labor question will ultimately result in some 
defined method by wbicli all future differ- 
ences will be amicably adjusted by arbitra- 
tion, and that strikes and boycotts will soon 
be things of the past. 

The Convention. 
On another page is given a copy of the 
programme and circular just issued by tbc 
Executive Committee, setting forth the plan 
for the coming convention. So replete is it, 
with all the necessary and desired informa- 
tion that little here need be said. To one or 
two points, however, we wish to invite 
special attention : first, to that portion of 
the programme under the heading of 
"Papers and Discussions," and urge the 
great importance that every member should 
lit once report to the committee the part he 
will desire to take in the convention ; sec- 
ond, who may become members ; all teach- 
ers in good standing who have taught or are 
now teaching commercial branches, and 
authors and publishers of books treating on 
these branches. The indications are that 
there will be a larger number of teachers in 
attendance than at any previous convention ; 
the facilities are ample and no pains will be 
spared on the part of the managers to ren- 
der the convention all that the most san- 
guine attendant may reasonably hope. To 
our Canadian friends especially is extended 
earnest invitation to attend the convention. 
Already several have signified their inten- 
tion to come. We hope the attendance may 
be general. The comparison of ideas and 
the acquaintance that grows out of such as- 
semblies of commercial tcacUcro, can 
scarcely be over estimated in its favorable 
influence upon the business college work of 
the land. Come one, come all. 

what eau he ilo'i should be the question 
rather than how much money has he. or 
who was his father and grandfather ? We 
idso believe in the association of labor for 
the promntiuu of its interests and the asser- 
tion and proteciiou of its rights by every 
legitimate means, and it has been with 
witisfaclion that we have observed from 
jfiir to year the growing organization and 
|niwiT of lalinr. not nidy in this country but 
1hi(nii;h.)ul the civili/cd world, and because 
of mil- iiiltri^l ill :iiid desire for the greatest 
!;iH.(| [.nv-iiiiic lu iiic laborer from such 
orgaiii/.iiliou, we have been pained when- 
ever viv have seen its power misdirected or 
used lis an instrument of oppre-sion and 
wron^'- Great power carries wi"h it great 
rfs|H)n«ibility. and rarely in the annals of 
the piiM has it been so exercised as to al- 
ways ilifcnd the right and do no wrong. 
And it is scarcely to be cxpccled that in the 
tierce contentions between capital and or- 
ganized labor the strict hounds of equity 
should not sonu-times be tmnsceuded. But 

liglils. it should lie most zealous in respect- 
ing ihi- rights nf others. Onee it comes to 
be the instrument of tyranny and wrong, it 
does itself what it assumes to resist, and 
will defeat its own mission. The right of 
Inborers to cea£c to work under any unsatis- 
factory circumstances cannot be questioned, 

Write Plainly. 

In the ordinary affairs of life we dress to 
suit the employment or occasion. Were 
one to attire himself in his "swallow-tail" 
suit and kids to go into the field or work- 
shop, he would soon retire under the jokes 
and ridicule of his more sensible associates, 
upon the other hand were one to present 
himself at church or ball or other fashion- 
able gathering in the customary and proper 
garb of the workshop or farm, he would be 
equally open to disparaging comment. 

So in writing ; we should learn to adapt 
its style to the purpose for which it is to be 
used, for all the ordinary purposes of life it 
should be as simple and plain as possible, it 
should be like the good old quaker yea and line or shade unnecessary to legibility 
should be tolerated, but when we come to 
displayed or professional penmanship it 
may be done up in the true " swallow tail " 
style, and yet even here legibility is not 
to be lost sight of. 

.Tiidd sent a siiiirle club numborini; l.'.G. 
which, added to the present club, makes a 
total of 176 names sent by him within 
three months past. W. A. llarshburgcr, 
Franklin, Neb. sends a club numbering 

The Lesson for June, 
by Prof. Lyman P. Spencer, on Pen Draw- 
ing, will certainly be one of more real value 
to all who arc interested in that department 
of a penman's profession than any that has 
hitherto appeared in the JouttNAi., and any 
penman or lover of the art who misses it 
will lose many times the cost of a year's 

The King Club 

for the past month numbersowr /, ,i itd ml iinS 
twenty Jiiv, and was sent by K. K. Isaacs, of 
the commercial department of the North- 
ern Indiana Normal College. Valp:iruiso. 
Ind. The queenclub numbers tweniy-nus 
and was sent by E. L. Burnett, of the 
Bryant and Stratton Business College, 
Providence, R. I. Clubs numbering each 
twenty names came from W. V. Chambers, 
penman at Cornell College, Mt. Vernon, 
Iowa. Ellis S. Walker. YpsHanti, Mich., 
and F. F. Judd. Souder's Business College. 
Chicago. About two months since Mr. 

Prof. Little's Lesson 

came to hand too late for its appearance in 
this number, but in splendid season for the 
next, which will be mailed the first week of 

Personality In Handwriting. 

" It has been declared that next to seeing 
a distinguished man wc desire to see his 
portrait and, after that, his autograph. In 
perusing the veritable handwriting of a per- 
son we seem to be brought ns it were into 
personal contact with him." In alluding to 
autographs Hawthorne says, "that the 
words may come to us as with the living 
utterance of one speaking to us face to face, 
in friendly communion. Strange," he says, 
"that the mere identity of paper and ink 
should be so powerful. The same thoughts 
might look cold and ineffectual if in a 
printed honk. In truth the original manu- 
script has always something which print 
must inevitably lose. An erasure, even a 
blot, a casual irregularity of hand, and all 
such little imperfections of mechanical ex- 
ecution, bring us close to the writer, and 
perhaps convey some of those subtile intima- 
tions for which language has no shape." 
That handwriting conveys more of its au- 
thor than.any other product of the mjnd or 
hand is above question. Every (|uality of 
mind and body as well as the very enviro- 
ments of the writer, enter into, and help to 
give shape and character to bis writing. 

Not only is this true as regards individu- 
als, but of races and nations. The extensive 
and close observer distinguishes between 
nationalities by their writing as readily aa 
he does by speech, physiognomy or any other 
race peculiarity. Even where one has 
learned to write another than his native 
language, the race distinction, to a percep- 
tible dugrcu, remains. _ TUt^-HXiUng of a 
German, Frenchman or other foreignerwho" " 
has learned to j^pcak and write the English 
language, will retain an idiocratic style as 
perceptible to the expert as will be the brogue 
in his speech ; and the one can no more be 
overcome or avoided than the other. 

Again : Writing, to a marked degree, is 
an index to mce peculiarities. The impul- 
sive and gesticulating Frenchman repro- 
duces himself in his florid and fantastic 
writing, as does the cool phlegmatic Briton 
in bis more deliberate and leas'ornate style. 
There is, too, sometimes, as strong a re- 
semblance in the writing as there is in the 
person and characteristics of different mem- 
bers of the same family, which resemblance 
very naturally results from coincident in- 
struction, example and family traits. These 
family resemblances are occasionally so great 
as to render liable a mistake in the identity, 
of both person and writing, by those of 
limited acquaintance ; but not of either, by 
intimate relatives or associates. In neither 
case can we conceive a complete and perfect 
identity to be possible ; nor are the dis- 
tinctive characteristics by which different 
writings are recognized less marked or more 
uncertain than are those of physiognomy 
and other peculiarities by which persons arc 
distinguished one from another. 

The skilled and observing accountant or 
correspondent will recognize the various 
handwritings of all associates in his house, 
OS well us of his frequent correspondents, as 
readily and unerringly as hu does their per- 
sons; nor can the identity of their hand- 
writing be more effectively concealed by 
disguise than can the persons of the writers. 
It is also an observable fact that original or 
highly eccentric persons usually develop a 
correjipoudingly original and eccentric hand- 
writing. By eccentric writing we do not 
refer to the wl'11 nigh unintelligible hiero- 

glyphics of such newspaper writers as 
Greeley and others, whose essentially bad 
writing has generally resulted more from 
the attempt to force an unskilled pen to per- 
form the utterly impossible task of keeping 
pace with a rushing torrent of thought, 
than from any real eccentricity of charac- 
ter, but to those whimsical, nondescript 
forms, in which the writers utterly ignore 
all system or example, and seem to defy, 
alike, all rules of art and nature by deliber- 
ately introducing forms and combinations 
which may be anything or nothing, accord- 
ing to their position and the context, and 
which constitute as a whole a "hand" as 
grotesque and inimitable as is the character 
of its author, and one which seems to say 
to the beholder, "This is my style," and 
very properly, for certainly it will enter 
into the heart of no other man to conceive of 
anything like it. 

Below we present a few specimens of 
such writing. 

We append a few autographs of noted 
personages, which are certainly sni generis , 
aud in their entire originality and defiance 
of prescribed rules of chirography are typi- 
cal of their respective authors, who. in their 
careers, have been efpuiUy origiual and ir- 
respective of the beaten ways of their grand- 

As another example of the eccentric au 
tograph — certainly its writer bos departed 
widely from the ways of her grandmother 
—we present the following : 

" It is," in the words of another writer, 
" a fine combination of masculine vigorand 
feminine caprice." Authors of such writing 
and autographs as above need have no fear 
of a mistaken identity or of any consider- 
able number of accidental coincidences be- 
tween their and any other "sign manual.' 

As between the writing of persons who 
write less eccentric or original hands, the 
dissemblauce will be much less marked ; 
the more nearly writing remains to the sys- 
tematic style practiced in the school room, 
the more liable it will be to a general 
resemblance and a mistaken identity. 

It is the peculiar eccentricities of habit in 
writing, as it is in the figure, dress, etc., in 
persons, which readily and certainly deter 
mine their identity. 

Persona of the same color, of medium 
stature, regular features, clothed in the pre- 
vailing fasliion, present much the aame ap- 
pearance to the eye of a stranger, and ou a 
slight acquaintance may easily he mistaken 
one for another ; but persons highly excep- 
tional in any of these respects will l>e rec- 
ognized at sight : there can he no mistaking 
a hlack for a white man, a giant for a 
dwarf, or a cripple on crutches for a man on 
sound legs. Persons are iievcr so identical 
in form, features, drcsti, hahit, ctci, as to be 
mistjiken by intimate acquaintances, and 
usually where even a marked peraonal 
resemblance is apparent to strangers, it 
ceases to be observed upon a move intimate 
acquainlance. So. however close the re- 
semblance between the writing of different 
persons may appear to the unfamiliar ob- 
server, the identity of each will not only be 
apparent, at once, to its author and others 
to whom it is familiar, but they will usually 
fail even to note a characteristic resem- 

The handwriting of every adult must in- 
evitably have multitudinous distinctive and 
habitual peculiarities— of many of which 
the writer is himself unconscious : such as 
iuilial and terminal lines, forms and methods 
of constructing letters, combinations, re- 
lative proportions, turns, angles, spacing. 

Answers to Correspondents. 

G. W. C. Grafton, Dak.—" What position 
do you consider best at the desk ii$ we find 
tliem in our public schools, and would you 
advise using the conibmed movement at such 
desk ? " 

Respecting both position and movement 
we should he governed by the circumstances 
of each cose. At the average school desk 
we. should seat (he pupil right-side to the 
desk so that in most cases and especially at 
narrow desks will begiven the bestsupport to 
the arm, Wc should advocateand teach the 
combined movement, as a rule, to all but 
the very lowest gi-ades, i. e. to all having the 
necessary muscular development and tlie 
discretion to understand and intelligently 
practice the movement. 

C. R. J.. Wild Plains. Cal.— "I am much 
pleased with your Guide. Is it intended for 
a complete course, and do you think book- 
keeping a good practice for beginners ?" 

The Guide is designed for a brief course 
of instruction and practice of plain and 
artistic penmanship. It is by no means to 
be regarded as a full course in every depart- 
ment of penmanship as is A.mes' Compen- 
dium which is over four times the size of 
the Guide. The practice of bookkeeping 
may or may not be beneficial to the learner 
of writing according as the manner of the 

F. L. X.. Monu-uoc, 111.—" 1. Can a tele- 
grapher who necessarily must write very 
rapidly and therefore more or less illegibly 
acquire n style of penmanship suitable fur 

It is an old and sensible saying that a Jack 
of many trades is good at none. It is not 
often that a writer can keep his hand so 
traineii as lo write good and Very rapid busi- 
ness writing, and at the same lime write 
graceful and delicate professional writing. 
The essentials of each kind of writing and 
the peculiar training of the hand are so dif- 
ferent as to well nigh preclude their union 
in any degree of perfection in the same 
hand. Wc can prescribe no remc<Iy fdr 
nervousness in writing, except that the more 
completely one uses the forearm movement 
the less nervousno-is will manifest itself in 
writing. Extensive praclice on good move- 
ment exercises will be ^ood. 

L. D. B., Hubnrvillr, i'a. — " I hiul tbiit, a 
continued use I'l" Hi'' i'MhiH'' li.>Mr>i rcmlers 
me incapable of Iniu- _ uil unim.' with ;i 
straight holder ; \sli> ?-liniiii| ii iluiliatv 1 
can write with more ease with the obliipic 
and form my capitals better, but after pro- 
ducing a nicely shaded capital letter I can- 
not gain enough control over nty pen to 
write the small letters of the word lightly, and 
therefore they each and every one are shaded 
too heavily to look nice." 

,>7ioto engraml from an original Jlauruli executed by E. L. Burnett, of tlie B. & S. Buninesa Colkge, Pronidena\ li. I. 

slope, shading (in place and degree), crosses, 
dots, orthography, punctuations, etc., etc. 
These peculiarities are the outgrowth of 
long habit, and come at length to be repro- 
duced by the sheer force of habit— as it 
were, automatically by the hand, its move- 
ments being independent of any direct 
thought or mental guidance. Heing thus 
unconsciously produced, and, in the main, 
unnoted by the writer, they cannot be sue- 
ressfully avoided or simulated through any 
extended piece of writing. To do so. a 
writer would be required to avoid that of 
which he was not conscious, and to copy the 
undiscovered habits of another writer. 

Though writing he changed in its general 
appearance, as it easily may he by altering 
its slope or size, or by using a widely differ- 
ent pen, yet the unconscious habit of the 
writer will remain and be percei)tible in all 
the detiuls of the writing ; and such an effort 
to disguise one's writing could be scarcely 
more snccessfvd than would be an effort to 
disguise the person by a change of dress. 
In either case a close inspection reveals the 
true identity. 

Although it be a fact that writing ulti- 
mately becomes the automatic production of 
the hand, it is equally n fact that it does so 
OS the pupil and agent of the mind ; and in 
the moulding process the peculiar <iualities 

writing upon the books is done. If carefully 
written with the view of improving the wri- 
ting, it will be an aid ; hut if carlessly done, 
so that the writer falls into old style and 
habits, it will be detrimental, as old and bad 
habits will be confirmed rather than over- 
come and supplanted by those new and im- 

J. B. G., Sumner, Textts. — "Does farm- 
ing debar one from becoming a skilled writer, 
or is near-sightedness a hinderance?" 

Neither of the things mentioned are bar- 
riers to a good and skillful use of the pen, In 
fact, farming, if not of loo heavy a sort, 
would develop and strengthen the muscles, 
so as to give greater power and enduronce. 

B. P. B., Morrisville, Tenn — "Is pre- 
pared India ink mentioned in thc.TouHNAi. 
good ? " 

No prepared India ink is as good for very 
fine pen work as that made by grinding the 
ink freshly from the stick, which is invari- 
ably our method. For lettering all work 
not specially delicate in its character prejiared 
ink answersevery purpose. 

C. D. S:, Greenfield, Iowa.— "Will you 
give in some future number of the Jouhnal 
a plan for one year's course in writing in 
graded schools V " 

Will not some of the many special teachers 
of writing in graded schools favor Mr. 8. 
and the other readers of the .Iournai, with 
plans for such a course '! 

In practicing with the oblique holder a 
writer becomes accustomed to turning his 
hand outward from the body too much for 
a good position for a pen in u straight holtler, 
hence the Increased difficulty in' using the 
straight holder after the oblique. The dim- 
cully experienced in writing lightly is from 
the want of sufficient discipline of the hand. 
A liberal and careful practice of light move- 
ment exercises will he the most elTectivt 
means for overcoming the diffleulty. 


"Outlines of Psychology," with special 
reference to the theory of education, by 
James Sully, M. A., Examiner of the Uni- 
versity of Cambridge. Reading club edition 
abridged and edited with appendices, ques- 
tions and references to pedagogical works 
by J. A. Reinhart, Ph.D., Principal of High 
and Normal Training School, Paterson, 
N. J., C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse, N. Y., 
Publisher, So far as we are able to judge 
of the work from a cursory examination, it 
is admirably adapted to the purpose for 
which it is intended, and would be avaluable 
book not only for the class room but for 
private study and reading. Mailed to any 
address for ifl. 

"Ward's Blanks." Letter Writing and 
Business Forms. A. S. Barnes & Co., New 
York, Publishers, The set consists of four 
books. No. 1 gives standard forms for 

letters and bills. No. 2, letters receipts and 
accounts. No. 3, notes, drafts and letters. 
No. 4, business correspondence and review 
of business forms. Examples for each of 
the several forms are first given in elegant 
script, followed with blank spaces for stu- 
dent's copy. The blanks are handsomely 
printed on good paper and deserve, ns they 
no doubt will have, a wide use in the vari- 
ous schools of the land. Every teacher 
should examine them. Price by mail 00 cts. 
"Shaylor's Compendium of Penmanship," 
by II. W. Shaylor, Portland. Me. Price by 
mail %\. This is a aeries of practical copies 
systematically arranged, and in an excellent 
style of writing, and is indeed a valuable aid 
to all learners of writing. As an example 
of good sensible copies, it is in sharp and 
favorable contrast with the more notorious 
Gnskell Compeudium. Either teacher or 
pupil had better pay iJilO for the former than 
to have the laUer as a gift. 


The OJfirc is the title of a new periodical, 
the prospectus of which is at hand, and the 
first issue of which is promised June 1. As 
its title indicates, it is to be devoted to office 
work. It describes itself as "a practical 
journal for accountants, business managers 
and office men." The editorial conduct of 
this paper, which in part enters upon the 
field left vacant by The Bookkeeper, Amen- 
can Couittinff Boom and Treasury, now de- 
funct, is in the hands of a successful jour- 
nalist of widf f\i"Tienre, and at the same 
time a ui;(ii \\ liM j-^ pMii liiiilly familiar with 
all tbc.U'iiiil^ nf ..Wu-r nni-k. Thc publica- 
tion of llir | i,i [ i [ i^ i-iiiiii-d by a company 
specially ur^'uni/ni fm tiic purpose, and the 
resources of which are ample for the under- 
taking. Tfie Office does not propose to con- 
fine itself to bookkeeping and accounts, but 
will discuss every phase of office work, in- 
cluding ofiice equipment and facilities. 
From personal knowledge of the men con- 
cerned in the enterprise, we are led to ex- 
pect an interesting and valuable paper, and 
one that will prove especially serviceable lo 
the vast number of young men who annu- 
ally enter upon office work. At the same 
tiu'ie it will be useful to those who are 
already established. Tlie Office will be pub- 
lished from No. 205 Broadway, the same 
building from which this paper is issued. 

The New England Magazine for April was 
a very interesting number. "A Romance 
of King Philip's War," is an article in which 
every reader will he interested, also " New 
England Maimers," published by the Bay 
State Monthly Company, Boston, Mass., for 

1.00 I 


Thf ]''"if/i ■< r,,i„i,n„i,,n is published by 
Perry, M;i-mii \- i:,, liuston, Mass., for 
$1.75 pel- \i:ii, :iijil i.s mn; of the few clean, 
bright and safe young folk's papers pub- 
li»lied: and beyond doubt it is the most 
popular and widely circulated periodical 
piiiilcd in America. If any of our readers 
have not seen it they should send for a copy. 

T/w Ixme Star Penman is the title of a 
new venture in the line of penmen's papers, 
published by Frank U. Spring, Dallas, 
Texas. It is an y-paged quarto, sprightly 
and interesting. Subscription price $1 a 

The Bochester Cmnmercial Beciew puts in 
its monthly appearance, well dressed and 
well stocked with sensible ideas. 

The fic/ut/u:i-n Bimuac for May closes the 
first volume of the new series most credit- 
ably. The first article is au illustrated story 
hj; Dan. E. O'Sullivan, well told and dram- 
atic in movement and incident. The entire 
number is full of entertiuniug reading 
articles on "war prisons," and Virginia 
Cavaliers are especially interesting, if^ per 
year, or a single copy for 20 cts. B. F. 
Avery & Sons, Louisville, Ky.. publishers. 

Tlie Booster Natundi*t, by A. C. Jones 
& R. B. Trouslot, Valparaiso. Ind., is an 
Illustrated Natural Hi.siory TMjii,'a/.ine, ably 
edited iii.d fnHMr ;,,[, n.f I..'shhicniB of 
that drpiiirin. ni ,.: : ■ M ,il.'d one 

year for ^""i . i m ■ . . |.. ... i>k. 

The y-,:n,<: i ..'. . I.-, M-ivvmOI Ken- 

nedy, Kiti. II' li I I \\.)1 printed, well 
editi'd. .1 : I i In. iitional paper. 
Mailed on. .■ -i i. . ■ ts 

Thi \ I ''nictw, Penton, 

Mi. ii . Miiirigforthedenth 

• ■\ I'l'i - ■ lie popular profes- 

.-i>i-iiiih> 1 ■'■■'; M i. 1. 1.. Ill Normal School. 

\.^i.: ,n.-i \i'- .. 1.-, S. C. and L. M. 
Gnubl, ,Mnn<liistt-r. N. ll,. for *1 per year, 
is always interesting, and the April num- 
ber especially is full of interesting matter. 


^- -^^iwCR^- ■ '-'^^-2 

And School Items. 

'Illi Hr. WllsoD. and liai 
:reet. to No. 7 Bond slrt 
Speaking of Prof G 

o., Pa., Stiperlnteodeiit 

1 skill dMu 
di-ll»eat1oii3 of pinnta. fm i ii„.s, 

and Auimals wou the emliNii-iK uNniraiiiMi oT 
)iIh audience, while liis Lharci>al sk.-l.hes and 
caricatures were greeted with shouts of laujtliter 
and deafening applause. Everybody was delighted 
wUh the entertainment of the evening," 

1). P. Lindsley, author of "Taklgrapliy, or 
Llndaley's Sliorthond," la now located at No. 817 
Kiirty-fifth street, Philadelphia. Pa. 

The Oberlln (Ohio) College WritinK Department, 
<on<iuet«d by Messrs. McKee & Henderson, Is a 
prosperous and popular Institution. Mr. McKee 
Is one of our very best wTllers and teachers. 

Hon. Thos. K. Uill. of Chicago, author of " HlU's 
Manual," and " Hill's Album of Biography of Art, 
etit,," has of late taken a lively Interest In the 
■ eight hour movement " in that dty. 

It. B, Troimlot, Valparaiso. Ind,. sends us a box 
of K. K, Isaac's Ideal Pens, which are iudeed 
ezuellent. Send 26 cents and get a quarter gross 
box and try them, you will fiud it a good inve8^ 

s College, Port- 

: SpL-i 

nesfl Collfge. Washington, 
1 annual i;raduallng exer- 
in Alliau^'h's Qraiid Opera 
f invitation were highly 
lely engraved on steel. We 

■egret* for not being able to be p 

'■<],\p and drawing from the 

■ iitiou. recently held hi the 

Lity Mr. H. W. Lamson. 

I- iiD(l penmanship, lias been 

II ibu special teaching and 

QiL'iit in our schools during 

veation also uienlions Mr. 
: In a hi.:bly complimentary 

ss says : " The 

S. L. Gulnn. Guinn's Commercial College. Te.\as. 

L, D. DloDdln, Hobnevllle. Pa. " 1 eonsldur the 
JouHNAi, the beat penman's paper published In the 
United SUit«B. It has been a good Investnient to 
me ; each nuuil)er Is superior to its predecessor." 

A. B. Blanchard, Romney, Ontario. 

E. L. Ollck, Caledonia, Mich. 

A. C. Cooper, of Cooper Normal College. Dale- 
Tllle, Miss. "Of the eight papers I lake, the 
JounNAL Is first." 

C. M. RoblRHon, Union Business 
Payette, Ind. 

W. J. Kinsley. Shenandoah. Ind. 

O. P. Stnrges, Northwestern Univeralty, Evan- 
ston, III. 

A. A. Ha^elton, Shav 

A, B. Stauffer. Ohio Normal Untrersity, Ada, 

Ira R. Harris, Atlstou, Mass. 

G. W. Allison, Newark (Ohio) HiiBlness College. 

J. A. Weaoo, Lovllla, Iowa. 

N. S. Beardsley, penman. High School. St. 
Paul, Minn. 

W. A. Moulder, Clyde COhlo) Business College. 

H. S. Kneeland, Cadillac, Mich. 

W. J. Elliott, Oiathara (Ontario) Business College 

C. F. WeUman, E. Jaffery. N. H. 

H. J. Putnam, Archibald's Bueineas College, 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

E. tJ. Evans, Burlington, VeiTOont. 

Harshbarger, teacher of writing. FYank- 

a Crook, Corry. 1 

of subscrib- 

tln, Neb. 

Business College. 
J. R. Williams, Pleasant UUl, Mi 

Clark's Buffalo <N. Y.) 

W. G. Christie. 


Business College, 

Look Haven (Pa.) Evmiiit/ Exj. 
Ajiril number of the Pknman's Akt Journal con- 
tains a photo-engraved copy of a letter written to 
the edlUtr of that paper by Prof. Wm. G. Cliplstie. 
Instructor in penmanship at the School of Busl- 
iting upon It the editor says: 'II 

r ph,( 

-iide a 

IT Journal Is rec.igni«d authority on all mut- 

Jte in selecting so worthy a subject for it^ 


\. J. Scarborough, whose lesson appears on tlie 

*i page of this number, closed his leaching In 

i Cedar Rapids (Iowa) Business College on March 

ufion which ocoa^ion the studentaof the college 

ssenttidto him tuliiiuiuiid riuf,' and the follow- 

VB. the Ull(br-L_ ,., , ■■ , ,,i .,, , ,.Ja,. RiinhJs 

awarded prizes for making the greatest Improve- 
ment in thelt tesi>ective departments. Miss Stead- 
niun is evidently Hie right lady lu the right place. 

{Persons sending speolmeus for notice In this 
Jh-^S. ^ ^^^ ^''*' l*"** Ihe paokages containing 
the same are postage paid In full vxUtUr raU4. A 
L'^fi®/El*'P'"'"*'° of &ese packages come short 
^1 . '/*'^*'^™* ranging from two ceiita upward 
which of course wo are obliged to pay, ^hls Is 
wS] * ^®^''^*''*« consideration for u gratuitous 

style I. 

. BU/ttbethtow 


New Mvxloo. 

: "Too much 
lYorof the JorRSAi,. It U the 
ien'8 papere. 1 have taken It 
ire going to be llfc-parlnetB." 
bury, Minn. 

. Marls, Jancisvlllo. Wis, 

School of 

Business. Lock Haven, Pa. In the last number 
of the Journal was ipublished a letter vpritten 
by Mr, Christie, In connection with which he was 
mentioned as the proprietor of the school, which 
was our mistake, as It is his uncle. S. N. Christie, 
who is the proprietor. Mr. W. Q. Christie is a 
pupil of H. W. Flickinger. 

T. A. Leddin. Buamess College. Memphis. Tenu. 

Q. A. .Shaw. Huron. Mich. 

W. W. McClelland 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

D. L. MusseUnan. Gem City Business College. 
Quinoy, 111, 

Locke Thompson. Iowa. "The JoonwALis the 
paper which every boy and girl should have," 

J. W- Sbott,.Am6rlcan Normal College, Loguns- 

Q. H. Sohweinhart. St, Mary's, Ind. 
W. C. Harney, Dovenport (Iowa) Business Col- 
lege and a club of subscribers. 

S. C. Malone, pen artist, Baltimore Md and a 

A. A. Clark, superintendent of wrltli 
public schools of Cleveland, Clilo. "l 
Journal a valuable aid to me." 

A. W, Lowe, Lynn, Mans. 

Albany (N. 

W. P. Morlnp, Chicago, In a good praclicalJiBUd. 

E. W. Burnett, Providence (R. I.) BuslLess Col- 
lege and a club of subscribers, 

J. H. Livingston, teacher of writing, Carey. Ohio. 
LlKirle Stookwell, Milton, Wis. '"I find the Jour- 
nal a great help in my school." 
J, M. Davis, penman and card wTlter, Lincoln. 

O, R. Black, Washington, Iowa. "For real merit 
the Journal leads all publications of Itfi class." 

H, H. Kellogg, Shenandoah, Iowa: "The Jour- 
nal should be in the hands of every penman." 

Thos, Hogg. Chesley, Ontario. 

L Madarasz, card writer. NewiYork, In elegant 

J. C. Walk. Chamberaburg, Pa. 

F, F, .Judd. Souder's Business College. Chicago, 
111,, and a club of twenty subscribers. 

A. D. Small. New Brighton, Pa., aletter nourished 
bird and specimen slips. 

O. H, Chapin. card writer In Assembly Chamber, 
Albany, N. Y.. a letter and cards. 

E. L. Modhn, Excelsior, Minn., a package of 
flourished cards, 

R. W. Ballentine, Ballentiue's Mills, N. C, a let- 
ter and cards in excellent style. He says " I have 
had no instruction except through the Journal." 

U. N. Allen, HuntsvlUe, Texas, a letter, a 
flourished bird and several well 

•I A- Willis, pen artist, Georgetown. N. Y., 
letter and a finely displayed circular, |ihnto-€ 
graved from his own pen-and-ink work. He sa 
"The Journal is a valuable 
nnd fraternity," 

E. H, Burrows. Mendota (III,) Bus 
a flourished bird. 

U. Falardeau, Quebec, Can., a lettu 
graphic copy of a skillfully engraved 

C. D. Slinker. Greenfield. Iowa, a letter and a 
flourished bird, 

P. B. Shinn. a letter and a photograph of a speci- 
men of flourishing and drawing on black card 

L. H, Hansara, Fort Scott, Kan., a letter, cards 
and copy slip, all good for a IC-year-oId. 
p. Fort Totten. Dak., 

College, Detroit, Midi. : Uriiili 
McKee, OberlinfOhio) College ; F. F. Judd, 
Cbicugo. 111. 

We are very sure that the practical infor- 
matiOD that will be presented in the series of 
lessons to be given by such representa- 
tive teachers as are nnnie(3 above will be 
of solid advantage to all teachers and pupils 
of writing. 

Note. — All who have consented to give a 
lesson, arc hereby requested to designate the 
time at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
to any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
nified his purpose to give a lesson, and who 
contemplates doing so. an invitation is 
hereby extended, 

April, 17, ]H 

letter and 


J. P. Burner, Eureka, Nev. 

C. J, Peatt, Shelby, N. Y.. and a club of sub 

William Peller, Canton (Ohio) Buslneiis Cillege, 
II. U. Stutsman, Denver. Col, 

D. R. Young. Mt. Morris, 111. 

F. D. Taylor, Traverse City, Midi. 
A. D. Skeels. Romeo, Mich. 
J. G. Barmlston, Le.\ingtnn, Ky, 
O. W. SluBser. McGaheyaville. Va. 
H. J, Williamson, Pen Art Hall, Itiebmond. Va,. 
lud a club of subscribei-s. Mr. W. says: "Prof 

, Htm 

lught a 

^ ins 

month. We were all delighted wllli the instrLiction 
received from him, and were highly pleased In 
having so distinguished a penman and business 
educator In our midst." 

S. C. Williams. Spalding's Commercial College. 
Kansas city. Mo. He says "The April number 
takes us by storm ; should you double the price of 
the JounwAL we should not complain." 

Geo. Speuoer, Mutual Life Insurance Company, 

Chas, K M. i;.. .„, .-,, :,i ,,hi,,_ 

A, W. Lowe, I.yuu, ."Uu^. 

L, T. Harman, Normal School. York, Pa,, and a 
club of 8Ub.scrlbera: "The Jouhnal leads ail the 
penmen's papers, and Is Improving every month." 

C, L. Martin, Des Moines, Iowa. 

H. W. Klbbe. pen artist, Utlea. N. V., ami 
promises a specimen soon for publication In the 

Thos. P. Bassett. Philadelphia, Pa, 

O. W. Wood, McKeeBport(Pa.) Business College. 

Henry Sykes. teacher of penmanship. Manohes- 
ter. England: "Your compendium received; I 
consider it a perfect gera." 

P. B. stern. Spring Htll. Kan. "Was pleased 

C. H, Klausman, Minneapolis, Minn., a letter 
with several skillful combinations for a signature. 

C. L, Perkins. Norwich, Conn., a letter and 
several specimens of flourishing. 

J, M. Lantz, Emmltsburg, Md,, a letter, flourish, 
and several copy slips. " The Journal leads them 
all. I was duped Into buying a Gaskell Compen- 
dium, but soon discovered my mistake and sold it 
for fifty cents. I came near meeting Mark Check- 

W- T, Lyon, special teacher of writing, Youngs- 
town. Ohio, a letter in excellent style. "The 
Journal pleases me exceedingly and I can heartily 
endorse what Mr. Root says, 'the Journal is the 
best in the world.' I thnugbt of writing up a les- 
son for a future number, but when I read Mr. Far- 
ley's admirable paper in the February number I 
found im Liid auid wbul I wuiiied tosay mu»h bet- 
ter than I could do. I wish everybody could and 
would fully appreciate one point In It : ' When 
studying form you must sucrillce movement, and 
when studying movement you must aaerlfice form.' 

Messrs. Goodyear & Palmer, of the Cedar Rapids 
(Iowa) Business College, several photo-engraved 
specimens of ariistlc penmanship. 

D. A. Grifllths, Capital City Business College. 
Austin, Texas, a letter and several specimeus of 
practical writing, also club of eight subscriliers. 

A. M. Hargls, of the Grand Island (Neb.) Bus. 
Col., a letter and flourislied bird. "April Journal 

splendid, espfiL-lally * Checkup.' If there is any- 

thhig In the Jui 
haajbeen wimt 

I have 

1 pbui 

Compendium,' " 

Lessons In Practical Penman- 

The lesson for June will be given by 
Lyman P. Spencer, upon " Pen Drawing," 
and will be most elegantly illustrated by 
gems of pen art from bis pen. It will be a 
lesson that no lover of pen art can afford to 

The lesson for July will be given b>A. 
W. Lowe, Lynn, Mass. 

W. A. Moulder, of the Clyde (Ohio) 
Business College will give the lesson for 

G. A. Hough, of Port Scott (Kan.) Nor- 
mal College, will give a lesson in the Sep- 
tember number. 

The following named gentlemen have 
already given notice of their acceptance of 
our invitttlioD. and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable : 

H. W. Flickinger, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. J.; W. R. 
Glen, Phila.,Pa.; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
R..I. Magee, New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N..I.; C. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
H. Patrick. Baltimore, Md.; E. Burnett. Bal- 
timore. Md.: H. T, Loomis, Spearerian 

Editor Penman's Art JointNAi. : 

Prof. Tolanrt makes the following aur- 
prising declaration in his lesaon in the la.«t 
number of the Journal, i. e.: "The 
oblique bolder is a nuisance in every sense 
of the word," and goes on to 8ay that 
"those who use and recommend it are. 
with a few noted exceptions, either very in- 
ferior writers or interested in selling it." 
Now, I will venture the assertion that there 
is not a single intelligent and skillful penman 
in this country (with the exception perhaps 
of Prof. Tolnnd). who does not both use 
and^j-ecommeud thg_ obluiue_UflldejL.aiuLit_ 
certainly cannot be supposed that all these 
penmen are either '' very inferior writers " 
or "interested in selling it." The various 
points of superiority which the oblitjue 
holder possesses over any other ever in- 
vented, have been so often commented upon 
in the Journal and all other penmen's 
papers, that they do not need to be revived 
here ; suffice it to say that this holder is 
universally conceded to be fur superior to 
any other for the use of the professional 
penman, while many good business writers 
prefer them on account of the firmness with 
which the pen is held in position, together 
with greater certainty of securing uniform- 
ity of slant and spacing. 

The writer allows bis pupils to use either 
the obli(jue or straight holder as they prefer, 
and invariably finds that those pupils who 
choose the former make the most rapid pro- 
gress, while those who at first tried tlie old- 
fashioned holders soon discard them for the 
more serviceable oblique, and express them- 
selves as much pleased and profited by the 
change. It is to be hoped that this question 
will be thoroughly discu-ssed by the brethren 
at the Convention this summer, and a free 
e.\ t) rest>ion of onii 

. G. PitlNCR. 
Clark's Business College. 

An Odd WilL 

When T was a boy I beard of a lawyer 
who was called out in the middle of a cold 
winter's night to draw up the will of an oI<l 
farmer who lived some three miles away, 
and who was dying. The messengers hud 
brought a cart to convey the lawyer to the 
farm ; and the latter in due time arrived at 
his destination. When be entered the house 
he was immediately ushered into the sick- 
room, and be even requested to be supplied 
wiib pen, ink and paper. There was none 
in tlie liouse ! The lawyer had not brought 
any himself, and what was he to do ? Any 
lead pencil 1 he inquired. No ; they bad 
ntme. The farmer was sinking fast, though 
quite conscious. At last the legal gentlenum 
saw chalked up on the back of the bedroom 
door column upon column of figures in 
chalk. were nnlk "scores" or 
" shots." lie immediately asked for a pie<-e 
of chalk, and then, kneeling on the floor, 
he wrote out concisely upon the smooth 
hearthstone the last will and testament uf 
the dying man. The farmer subsequently 
died. The hearthstone-will was sent to the 
principal registry in London, with special 
affidavits, and was duly proved, the will 
being deposited in the archives of the regis- 
try. I may mention that the law does not 
state upon what substance or with what in- 
strument a will must be written. 

The Writing-Ruler bas bee 

me a standard 

article with tlm'^r wlio^> 

t" have a suil- 

able outfit fnr pi:H-t(r;il \\ Mill 

.' It is to the 

iipiiss is to thi- 

mariner. TL.- W mUm.^ KnI.' 

is a reliable 

penmanship clmrl uml cnrnpt 

ss, sent by the 

JOHRHAL on receipt of 80 cen 



An African New Year's Card. 

Of course nil lioys and girls know wbiU 
tlie cactus is — a greeu, grotesque-looking 
plant, iilmoat covered with sharp spines and 
bearing a most gorgeous tJower ; but I aui 
sure they do not know all of the uses to 
which the cactus can be put, nor do I be- 
lieve that the most ingenious guesnes could 
come near to the truth. 

It is a native of America, but it has been 
taken to Europe and Africa, and now grows 
in the latter country in great profusion. 

But, after all, the oddest use of the cactus 
prevails in Cape Town, South Africa, 
where its leaves are made to serve the-pur- 
pose of visiting-cards. Fancy carrying 
about in your coat pocket a lot of thick 
leaves covered with spines as sharp as 
needles ! But, wait a moment. The leaves 
of the particular kind of cactus so used arc 
not very prickly, and, moreover, they are not 
carried about, but are left growing on the 
plant, which stands at the foot of the front 

When a lady calls she has only to draw 
out one of these ever ready hat pins, with 
which ladies are always provided, and with 
the sharp point scratch her name on the 
glossy, green surface of the leaf. A gentle- 
man generally uses the point of his pen- 
knife. The lines turn silvery white and re- 

C'ollege and Ihc Spencerinii College will be 
at the option of the Convention. 

On Wednesday evening a meeting will be 
held at Chickering Hall to which the public 
will be invited, and which will be addressed 
by representative New Yorkers in a welcome 
to the delegates, and responses miide by 
members nf the Association. 
■ It is also sugiiested that at least one other 
public meeting be had for the discussion of 
some broad educational topic ; and that the 
public be invited to attend the regular sck- 
sious of ihe Convention. 

It is pioposed that Thursday, Saturday, 
Monday, Tuesday and the forenoon of 
Wednesday be given up wholly to the real 
work of the Convention, and that Friday be 
devoted to an excursion and banquet, which 
has been teiuleied lo the members by the 
Packard Alumni Association. 

Suggestions as to hours and meaus of re- 
creation and luisure are given under the 
proper head. 

The daily proceedings are suggested in the 
following schedule : 

Meeting at 1 p. m. for Organization, etc. 
-1. Report of Secretary and Treasurer ; 2. 

committees; 10 lo WMO, BooUkerpiug jd 
adapted to retail busint'ss ; 11:80 to 1, Busi 
ness practice: At what stage of the counn 
shall it begin, and of what shall it consist? 
Afternoon Sessiun, 3 to 4. — Women ii 
o 5, The ethics of business. 

Morning Session, 9 io tO.— Meetings of 
committees; 10 tn 11:30, Penmanship in 
class instruction; 11:80 to 1. Shorthand: 
Methods of teaching, and practical results to 
be accomplished. 

Afternoon Session, 2 to 4. — Social econo. 
my : lis place in a business course, and how 
it may best be taught ; 4 to 5, Commerciaj 
law : Method and extent of instruction. 

Morning Session, 9 lx> 10.— Meeting of 
commitlees ; 10 to 11 :30, Language : How it 
cau best be taught in business schools, an<l 
to what extent; 11:30 to 1, Election and 
general good of the Association. 

The Committee desire to make room for 
all members who have anything to say, and 
wish to say it ; and, In order that proper 
arrangements may be made to this end. It is 
suggested that those who are willing to take 
part, either in the preparation of papers or 
in the discussions, slmll 

Tlie above cut woe photo-en^ra/oad fi-om a letter wi'ttteii by A. D. Hhwls, Teacher of WriUng, Romeo, Mieh. The letter watt tcn'tlen 
in tlie ordiuitry course of corresponilenM, ioithno expectation of iUs being published , and it a good apecimen of practical icriting. 

main on the leaf, clear and distinct, for 
years and years. On New Year's Day, 
these vegetable cards are especially conve- 
nient, and ladies who wish to keep the calls 
of that day apart from those of other days, 
appropriate a branch of the cactus to that 

One gentleman in Cape Town has a cactus 
plant which is nearly fifteen feet high. Its 
great thick leaves are almost all in use as 
visiting curds, so that he hai a complete and 
lasting record of his vinitors. It cannot be 
said that this practice adds to the beauty of 
the plant, but then it is oddity and not 
beauty that is desired in such cases. 

There is one cactus, hot so plentiful bh 
that jusi de=crilii-il, \vbi<b is <.f ,( v.rv !h- 
commodatiug ctiMrMi'ii I ii nut >.iiiv ii:i'. 

smooth leaves, bill I Im ] k ||,^ ,i, ,, 

large and stiff tii;ii ii. ^ , ,n i„ u . .1 j- ]., ,, 
for writing on tljr li.m - —r..,hi,,, ii.:!/.-. 

Eighth Annual Convention of 
the Business Educatois As- 
sociation of America, to be 
held in New York, Wednes- 
day, July 7. to Wednesday. 
July 14. 
The Executive (.'oniniitiee of ilie " Busi- 
ness Educators A.Hsociiition " takes pleasure 
in submiliiiig the following sug^ations a.^ 
lo the coming Convention : 

The Convention will be culled lo ordur 
at Ihe rooms of the Packard College, on 
Wednesday July 7, at 1 p. m., for orgiuiiza- 
tion and listening to ihe Presidcni's addre&s. 
For subsetjuent meetings, boih the Packard 

('hickering Hall, 8 p. M.— 1. Adresaes of 
welcome from eminent citizens : 3. Res- 
ponses by the President and members of the 
Association ; J). Riaicments from the Ex- 
ecutive Conmiittce and uunotmcements of 
the meetings of Ihc Convention. 

Morning Session, 9 to 10. — Meeting of 
committees oi' suclious for the consideration 
of special .subjects; 10 to 11:30, Bookkeep- 
ing: How to introduce the study of accouuis; 
11:30 10 1, Pennmnsblp: The best method nf 
U\i«hiiig ill cuminercial schooLs. 

Mi'ii ^< -i.m. 3 to 4.— School Man- 

' i: : ;.ii.d to the Col- 

1. Ill inn of business colleges 


Morning Session, 9 to 10. — Meeting of 
committees; 10 lo 11:30, Bookkeeping: 
How far and in what direclion shall we go 
in applying the science to business specinl- 
tiesV 11:80 to I, Arithmetic : How to t«ich 
it to secure the best praciical results. 

Afternoon Session, 3 to 4. — Industrial 
education : Its relations to business college 
work and to the educational interests of the 
country ; 4 to 5, Commercial Correspon- 
dence : Tu what extent it may be taught jis 
a special dutyV 


Moi-ning Session. 9 to 10.— Meeling of 

the Chairman of the Committee, before the 
day of meeling. 

It is desired that every discussion .shall be 
opened in a deliberate way, throujib a care- 
fully prepared paper or address, occupying 
not to exceed thirty minutes, lo be followed 
by extemporaneous discussion ; and, while 
every member will be accorded the consti- 
tutional privilege of speaking upon any 
open question, it will very much aid the 
Committee to know in advance, the names 
of those who may be called upon lo speak 
upon the .several topics named. The experi- 
ence of former conventions ban taught us 
that a full hour for discussion of ihe points 
in any prepared paper or address is Jis brief 
a limit as should be set. 

The Commillee are prepared to say. from 
assurances already ut hand, that uom- of the 
topics are likely to go begging. 


The object of devoting the; morning hour, 
from 9 to 10, to "Meetings of the Conuiut- 
tuesund Sections," is to give ample oppor- 
tunity for the penmen, the shorihaiul writers 
and teachers, and all other specialists, in 
confer with each other without restraint, 
iuul thus to promote a better acquaintance 
and more elTective cooperation. A room 
also will be set apart for the exhibiliim of 
books, machines, and appliances of any sort 
appropriate lo the work in hand. 

account of the uncertainly as to the number 
of persons to be provided for on any partic- 
ular route, and the factlUnt very few will 

r the s 

Ihe effort to secure special reductions wouhl 
prove of little avail. They woidd'also call 
attention to the fact that these arc times of 
abnormally low rates on all roads leading to 
New York, and that, through outside ticket 
agents, even these low rates may be dis- 
coiuitcd. It will be the business of the Com- 
mittee to secure all possible favors in these 

New York is a city of hotels and boarding 
houses, and good board can be secured at 
from ten dollars a week to ten dollars n day. 
according to the inclination and the purse of 
the guest. The ordinary price for gor.d 
single rooms, at the best hotels, is from %\ 
to $1.50 a day: double rooms, 12 to $3.60. 
There is no good resisou ior placing the en 
tire coat of lodging and board, in goo<l 
hotels, aaove $3 a day ; and any one who 
desires lo econoniize, can live comfortably 
and respectably on $2.50. Good boarding 
houses can be found, in close proximity to 
the Convention, at a rate not to exceed $10 
a week. Places at hotels or boarding house"* 
will be secured in advance, by addressing 
the Chairman of the Committee. 

The mutter of reduced fare on the railroads 
has been seriously and carefully considered 
by the Commiitec, the result being. Hint on 

A Bureau of Informaiioo will be estab- 
lished, to hold during the Conveniion. from 
which can be obtained all necessary infor 
mation as lo places of recreation and amuse- 
ment ; and it must not be forgotten that 
New York, in summer time, holds out un- 
usual atiraciiuns in this line. Especially is 
it rich in cheap and pleasant excursions to 
the covintry and the sea-side, while the 
numerous theatres and concert balls, ar- 
ranged especially for summer entertainments, 
are all that could be desired. 

In conclusion, the Committee would re- 
spectfully call the attention of members and 
their friends to the fact that this is an im- 
portant time in ihe history of onr Associa- 
tion, and that there are weighty reasons why 
a special effort should be made to properly 
place our work before the public. Many of 
us have been in the field uninterinptedly for 
twenty-five years and more, and others who 
have come into it more recently have the 
same or even greater interests at stake in the 
mailer. Thi-re scfuis to be almost a.s much 
necessity for educaling the public mind now 
us there ha.s bfcn at any time in the pusi, 
Dolwithslanding the growth of onr sprciiilty 
and the missionary efforts of curmtsl and 
proifre-ssive teachers. Those who have fol- 
lowed the iine of progression us advanced 
by our recent fonventioiis. cannot fail to see 
that in this method lies our best avenue to 
the public sense and onr best means of pro- 
moting efficiency in our individual schools. 
The Business Educators Association had its 
birth in New York eight years ago. and 
there are importimt reasons why its return 
to the old ground should be signalized by 
such evidences of solid growth as shall 
impress the public. To this end, it is essen- 
tial that we bring into our discussions the 
best thoughts that are in us. and that we 
leave no doubt in our own minds or in the 
minds of onr friends that we are in the line 
of advancement in educational ideas nod 
processes. It is believed by the Committee 
that the convention of '86 will be in many 
respects the most important that has yet 
been held. Evidences are at hand of a very 
large attendance, and the prompt responses 
which have been made to requests for papers 
and CO operation in other matters give evi- 
dence of unusual zest. It is to be hoped 
that members of the Association will not 
only make an effort to be present them- 
selves, but will use their influence to indue e 
a large attendance of teachers within the 
Hue of their correspondence. Especially do 
the Committee re(|uest suggestions and 
inquiries touching any point of interest. 
They are determined to leave no effort uu 
tried which shall lend to Ibe comfort of 
members or to the advancement of the cause. 
Communications should be addressed to the 
Chairman, who engages 1« render prompt 
re lilies. 
S. S. Packaiid. 805 Broadway. N. Y. 
1). T. Ames. 205 Broadway. N Y. 
I.,, F. Gardnkr. Poughkee|)sie, N. Y. 

Ej-tciittK Vvmmittee. 
New York, May 10. ^f^m. 

;vM.,/ /r.,„ .,vi7.>./; f "-'"'''"^^ --OAV. >.nrutal ut the Ojjia: of the .InuRNAi., and a,r gheu as spcnmcn. ,>/ pen work pracUadly applud for 
dwplaytugthepnnUr s art. Ordenfor similar work prompUy executed at the Office of tlte Journal, and at a moderate cost. 

Discomfited by His Wife. 

sun* rllONOUKCEl) THAT 01''A"f1(ANK, 

It was merely tlie question : " Do you be- 
lieve in nlinracler in Imndwriliiig?" wliicli 
cniiscd the old Frotussor of Ciilligrapliy to 
cease his "([iiips and cranks" aud lo be- 
come sedately meditative. Before tbat query 
bad been addressed lo him bis geniality and 
affable verbosity liad deliglited the ambi- 
tious boy who sat before him. But bis.flow 
of cloiiuence sto|iped suddenly; an expres- 
sion of pained recollection supplanted the 
bland smile which had previously illumi- 
nated bis count^iance; the floodgates of 
mcraniy were opc-ui'il and out rushed a'^ 
siniiui of icMiiiiisciiues with such foreethut 
tliey ovcrwhehintl tlic ambilioua boy. So 
lie sal, (luiutly liown aud made the best he 
couia of them. 

"Tfo I believe iu character in handwrit- 
ing?" echoed the Professor, waving his right 
hand dramatically and placing his left over 
the region physiologically supposed lo cover 
the heart. "To be brief with you, my 
friend, I do not. Why not? Oh, simply 
because, a few yuiu^ ago, I made the read- 
ing of character froui handwriting a spe- 
cialty Iu the far West aud earned my bread 
and butter by the thousands of specimens 
which were Mil.miiled lo mo. and for which 
I charged most satisfaclory rates." 

'I'his astounding announcement brought a 
roseate lingc u> the jiumdiced complexion 
of the Profcss(^. Shame was not eulirely 
dead in him. and he resolved, as he subsc- 
(luently said, to torture himself as much aa 
possible by frank confession. " I owntd a 
little paper," he said, '* the name of which I 
do not onre to reveal, but which you will 
allow me to call ' Character ' when I allude 
to it in my conversaliou with you. It was 
not a stupendous sheet. It merely professed 
to receive specinuus of handwriting for 
analysis— the analysis to be printed in ihe 
form of the character of the sender. I un- 
dertook lo make tins analysis for anybody 
in any city in any country in the world, and 
I advertised myself very considerably. I 
must say lbi« for mvself, that when I started 
the eiiU'i-pri-r I rnilly did believe that I 
from handwriting. I 
—' ■'""";gcd; - ■ 
t of { 

having siglied. and 

exactly thc^amcoui 

"I think my n\i 

mill I .!■ Ml i:i'l fii' iiiilysisof the handwrit- 
i":- li I ii ■ I ' i|' L arranged the de- 
"iiJi'i -! I ■ I'lompaniea by a three 

ni'Mi;;.- -.,.-> I |NL.iii. Into the fourth and 
bust U^.ii. 1 tui^k.-v^ly-tlu'ow. those ■ lettei-s 
which simply rei|uested an analysis of hand- 
writing, unaccompanied by any lucrative iu- 
closure. From that moment I was a changed 
man, I was a charlatan. My sincerity had 
gone. The mania for dollars and cents had 
replaced all my ambitious ardor." 

The Professor drew a handkerchief across 
his perspiring brow, and paused a moment 
before he continued ; "That morning 1 set 
to work to analyze the 40 specimens I had 
just received. Itecollect, I never knew un- 
til afterward that I had lost my earnest- 
ness. 1 first of all analyzed Ihe haudwrit 
iug of those who had iiiclose<l n year's sulj- 
scriptiou money. Theiewcre si\. uf Hil-sl-, 
I remember they all seemed very leiiiaik- 
able iu tlieir vigor. One I set down as 
'clever, thoughtful, and well trained ;' an- 
other ai^' euprceiic, persev^ing, (uid well 
balanced;' a Uiird, 'frank, candid, with 
cool and active judgment ;' a fourth as 
'original aud brilliaut.' The last two were 
the handwritings of ladies, aud X analyzed 
them, respectively, as ' well cultivated and 
self-reliant' and 'gentle and sweet.' Then 
I turned to my second heap, which con- 
tained 12 specimens belonging to those who 
had subscribed for six months to ■ Charac- 
ter.' Strange to say, I found these speci- 
mens far less satisfactory. Among them I 
put such analyses as 'shrewd,' 'scheming,' 
'inclined to be thoughtful," 'prone to er- 
rors of judgment," 'lacking in persever- 
ance,' and so on. Then, iu my analyses of 
the handwritings in my tliird licm., vvldcli 
represented the three months' subscribers, 
I found things lo be still more unsatisfac-- 
tory; one man I discovered to be ' hard 
heartetl,' another had his moral sense some- 
what blunfM,' a third was ■ not too consci- 
entiou.s,' while a lady was ' frivolous and 
not to be relied upon.' Iu the last heap I 
was horrified ai the depravity which the 
handwriting of those who had asked for 
no subscription showed me. I was posi- 
tively shocked at the utter lack of princi- 
ple which these applicants made manifest, 
' Will you kindly analyze my handwriting?' 
said one of these. ' I generally read your 
paper. I borrow it from one o"f my neigh- 
bors.' I analyzed that man's Imndwriting 
very ipdekly. I (liscovercd that he wjis 

anil ijiiril>, l.iikiii- ill imsiiirss skill and 
abililv u, i,ii,ii III, ivi\ ilirnn]j;li rhe world.' 
All,- ilie l'n,f.-xM,r, st.^Uwg. "I remem- 
ber now Hull 1 wrote ibai analysis while I 
was very angry. 1 never stopped to ask 
myself why 1 was angry. It surely ought 
not to have made any difference to me 
whether the applicant was honorable or the 
contrary. However, I never asked myself 
if I were inrtial or impartial." 

The ambitious boy smiled. He fancied 
he saw a smile on the Professor's face. He 
was mistaken. It was an embryo frown. 

i.Hiionihnco continued to in- 

"' Ni. I'rofe.'tsor. "in a dis- 

"i[]t-i-. But in less than 

ti ii I no more read the 

iits from their hand- 



.ny minds ,t '' Tbea'npeliwi'u'.y t'ttCR! 
1 here were 40 of them, and 1 had never re- 
ceived such a bu<li,'<'l before t jwortcd them 
carefully. Iiitn om- lirjiii I i.ui it.,.. .:,.i. 

\\liii li Wu-y ^lll(:k ou their postage stamps. 
I I"' uiN linwd and crafty. I had received 

'Mill ■ Miiipiiiinta from correspondents. 

I'll! \ »■ II- m.istly from vt-nrlv »iiil.s. rili.T*« 

who accused me of "iviii u i h ii 

'toffy.' While of con r- h. ,. hi- 

ed lo receive such saii.-i.i .11- jt 

seemed to them, they ,^;iji| iImi iI,. i.miHc- 
accorded was a trifle loo uni|u;ilitl. tl to be 
true, so I adopted other methods. 1 knew 
very well that, though these gentlemen pro- 
fessed to be displeased at iny unqualified 
praise, if I were to venture any very un- 

pleasant remark they would still be more 
irate. Ob! I knew and I know still the in- 
wardness of human nature. My nieihod for 
the future was to be less lavish of praise, 
with A trifle of non-piuiuifittg-censitre. Mere 
is one of the analyses I sent : 

"'There is energy in this handwriting, 
but the writer is too prone to rely upon his 
own brilliancy. This lias produced laziness.' 
No one could fail to feel anything but pleas- 
ure at such censure as that. Another ran 
something in this style : ' This is a lady's 
hand. She is too effusive and demonstra- 
tive, which is the result of a kindly, loving 
disposition not properly controlled. She is 
much admired by the gentlemen, however, 
who — perhaps, wrongly— foster the effusive 
and demonstrative features 1 have mention- 
ed.' Nine out of ten girls would chuckle 
the receipt of such un analy 

directed to 'X. Y. Z.. Box 2,222 General 

i that. Then again -. 

' The \ 


liicb I detect 
friends in this manner, but fie also makes 
enemies. His heart is in the right place, but 
he lacks judgment. Would you object to 
such a character as that?" 

"No, indeed," said the ambitious boy, 
"lavish generosity implies that you have 
something of which you can be lavishly gen- 
erous. 1 would that such a condition of 
things were mine." 

" Well," continued the Professor, unheed- 
ing the flippancy of the last remark, "my 
twelve-months' subscribers enjoyed this kind 
of thing very nmcb, and I managed the six- 
months' crowd in the same manner. Nu- 
merous complaints, however, reached me 
from llirce-moulbs' subscribers, wlnle tiiose 
who merely sent the unaccompanied specP 
mens of handwriting, whicli I so hated to 
see, openly attacked me in the newspapers 
ns a.charlatan. Even my wife turned upon 
me in a most unwifely manner. One morn- 
ing as I was seated at my desk, the servant 
brought me in a letter. It was written in a 
strange handwriting — I mean to say a hand- 
writing which was something far from ordi- 
nary. It ran as follows : 

"'I enclose you #3 as subscription to 
your papers for two years. Kindly analyze 
this handwriting.' I had never received 

subscription for 
this letter to X, Y. 
Post Ottice,' were 
very pleased. It Si 
owner of the band w 
ing. In fact, it ^in 
writing itself wns |i;i 



Z., Box 2,322 General 
the directions. I was 
?emed lo me that the 

wrote the follow 

?entleman'8 haudwriliuy. Tiif wiiier is 
rank, original, courteous, clever, thought- 
ful, and refined. He is so general a favor- 
ite that his few enemies are traced to that 
fact alone. ' You see I said he had a few 
enemies, so that the praise should not be tou 
unqualified. I sent the letter to X. Y. Z. 
Box No. 2,222 General Post Ofllee. Then I 
thought no more tibout ibe matter. Tlie 
next day I went t(. pav ii bill iuci. muting to 
$5U. 1 had put bills h> Muit rnixunit in my 
pocketbook. Win n I rciu li.d iht store 1 
discovered that I bin! (inly .>-l7 with me. So 
I of course supposed lliat I bail made a mis- 
take when I counted the bills previous 
to placing them in the book, and set the 
matter right by returning for more money 
I also forgot that occurrence. A few days 
later while I was working, my wife said to 
me : ' You've never told me what you 
thought of my handwriting.' 1 replied thai 
I couldn't be disturbed, aud only analyzed 

handwritingwhich I remembered had struck 
me once before, though when and where I 
could not recollect. ' What do you think 
of that?' she asked. I was rather angry, 
aud replied, ' It's not cultivated, not origi- 
nal, and not refined. The writer. I coifld 
bet in a moment, is a woman." My wife 
laughed, drew from her pocket an envelope 

Post Oflice.' Then she 
where I kept the specimei 
selected that from ilie_stini 

that fi>' 
thoughtful ai 

I bad analyzed, 
i gerwho had in- 
rocumeut Defore 
ou miss$:l?' she 

in anguish. The 
Mif, She had 

■ittrr ttiis 

d, lelit 

a favorite that his few 
to that fact alone.' Half 
three months' subscribers c 

to the papers, w l . 
only too deligliii .i i 
ences. The nm-i ,. , : ,! 
tliat I declined im 
wife, my iuaWlii\ . .i 

handwriting. li 
given up the lm>ii , >; 

mitted the fact il 
that when 


question, I lost it entirely when 1 tooli 
"ngmy daily bread." 



" Some infernal old idiot has put my pen 
where I can't fiud it." growled old Asperity 
this morning as he rooted about his ottice 
desk. "Ah— aw— yes; I thought so,"" he 
coutiuued, in a milder tone, as he hauled 
the writing utensil from out behind his ear. 
— Cliiia gu TtU'oram. 

It is said that the autograph fiend is again 
actively engaged in the pursuit of his 
nefarious industry. One of them wrote to 
General Sherman Ihe other day for his 
autograph and a lock of his hair. He 
promptly received the following answer : 
"I regret to state that, as my orderly is 
bald, and as the num who formerly wrote 
my autographs has been dismissed, I cannot 
comply with your request," No signature 
was appended. 

The Lancaster Intelligencer takes the 
PhihMlelphia liecord to task for writing 
"hare-brained" with a "hair." and Ihe 
liecord falls back on Shakespeare as its 
authority. William wrote of " hair-brained 
slaves." But we do not know whether a 
man who spelled his name in a dozen differ- 
ent ways is entitled to be considered as 
authority in orthography. 

Customer— "Aren't vmi ;Ui;iiil In leave 
all these clothes Imiiiliu- mui ,.u thr side- 
walk with Uobodv Im ^^,ll, l. Hm m I sjidilld 

think ■\ 

poem bad i 


nppearetl m n. 

"Youi II ,N h I ,, i.cautifuI.HO per- 

fectly S|i. m II I III - M.i ( m1. Snort "thai il 
would be il |>ity In i)ut lliat poem iu print- 
Keep it just as it is. Don't profane it by 
putting iiiu type." 

Superior Pens. 

/?/8rivcfMr(/— a new lot uf "Ames" Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens." made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we bcHcve we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
ceuw. regular price. 30 cents. Try them. 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

tlian to pay |1 for the Joounal one year, and 
the '-Guidt; to Self-Instruction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper cOTers), and $1, hand 
somely bound. 

Siim .loiies thus poeliciilly i-lassifies 

4 Ihu 

(ochiircli to tak< 
In cliurcb tulaut 
hi oburcU to sleep 

cliurcb tu laugh and talk, 
blp Ood,"' 


Idk. a Hpiendld oi>ei)inc for i 


Tlio following coiirseitnf study van be pursued 


Comm^roial Course, 
r Phonographio Course and Typewritlug, 
I Business Penmanshtp Course, 

Tdaohcrs' Coarae-ia Plaiu Fentn&tiBhIp. 
Teaoliers' Course in Plai" n»d ()rntii»pt>t«l I'pn 
Thorough tuatruotloa given hi Phouography and 
Penmaneuip by Mall. 

Bpeoimens of Plain Writing !Bo. 

Sppclmens of Plalu and '^ '"' 

^ ALL FOR $1.00. 



Printer and Stationer, 



2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1 . 

New Masonic Building. 

Course of Study, 


other schools. 

Send for Catulogue with full partlculari to 

A. J. RIDER, Principal, 

8-13 Masoulo Temple, Trenton. N. J. 


The first number will be issued about Dec. 15, 
1885, and will be mailed for 50 cents a year, to any 
one who subscribes before January 1, 188U. 

The American Penman will be a large S-page 
journal, well filled with everytblng pertaining to 
the Biibjeot of Penmanship. Subtcribe now. 

fl@- SO "®a 

Lessons by Mail 

fl@" Sl-50.-©a 

those preparing to teach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(All copies frech from the pen.) 

(2) A Coui'se of 50 Lessons in 

(Ml (■>iiies fresh from the pen.) 
Tilt' Ml ivHsnTii 'nurse in Writing consists of a 

, embracing nil 
1, Sentence Copies. Itiisjuesti 

I, the standard small a 

Jusincss Capitals, variety of Fancy Capitals, scr 
>f Muscular Combination £xerclses, st-rics 
.Vholearm Combination Sxercises, Business liiil 
nniblnations, Fancy Initial Corabbiations, ei 
ngether with the name of the person jiurchas, 
istlc combinutiouf 

^P~AII of these copies a 

fancy wnting, are Illcstkated PniNTEDlKSTBUo- 

g each 60-Lesson Course in plain and 

m, ^land and pen and position at desk. Also 
:plloit directions with regard to movements; and 

& chart showing the 

pies, proportions, sla „. 

analysis of all the standard letters and figures. 

L spacing, classification and 

in one portfolio packaf^e. 

The 50-Lesson Course in Flourishing consists of 
the Exercises or Principles, and a superb collection 
of the most elegant Quill, Scroll aou Bird Designs 



untalning 1001 practical questions and a 

These are positively the only question 1 
)ublished that are complete enough on a i 
iranch to be of any help to teachers c 

r for reviewing pupils 

■■ 1001 Questions with Answers on ARITHME- 
TIC," including nearly 300 test examples with an- 
swers and solutions. Besides treating thoroughly 

scope of 

irom 111 lo 30 test 6! 

tions under each subject, the solutions being placed 


t examples with a 

g Descriptive, Physicaland Mathe- 

iiy. The (iesoriptive ((uestlons are 
■-icrl r|h"-^ir,ii ^i-iiarately, thus en- 



ido easy by the ] 
fingers. Nuinerf/u 
tieach book, "It 

, 0. Priie, postpaid. » 

iXLKR'B Pbh Art Institute, 
Smithville, Ohio. 

Pkop. G. BIXLBR, Pi-ln. 


PLE CARDS. With your i 
I 5 styles, onlv 30 cents 

I front rank."— 2> 


Tenn. Population £ 

□ for 21 years under tl 

■ and is well advertised, it lias 


ands the patronage of 

on. There are no Hal: 

against the school. No scholarships 

1 liabllilles 


" inst th _ _ 

for selling is I have 

above statement can be verified by any 
■ Mempliis, Terms cash. 

Addres s : T. A. LEDDIN, 

pwopie, especially ror eaucated 
dforolr'lar. W.G. CHAFFKK, 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

uitishlp. by Prof, E. K. ISAACS, and Plain 
Finslilp, by S. D. FORBES. Bookkcepii 

"■'"■' "■■-'— -w articles by ' 

r Vear, with „ ^..^,^^ 
5 Dictionary, 

'.etc. SOc. pi 

idlowing Premiu„.„ .„,,„,.„ ^.^^.^u^,,. 
of best Pens and Patent Oblique 

■. Subscribe now, and receive" back numbers 

Altoona, Pa. 

. . „... .,, ™ c*,.erlenced Teacher of Pen- 

laiiBbip. a position to teach the art in some 

" Isjiuaimed to teach Bookkeephig 

> Federal Street, Port- 

Shading T Square 

ipeaiuUy, C. li. 

Designer and Draftsman, Am. Bauk Nuio Co., N.Y. 
New York, Sept. 0. 1880. 


T-he only Instru- 
ment that will 
make an exact 
Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 
A Cliild 13 years of 

Copy, smaller nr larger 
than tho original of a 
Picture, Photograph. 
Map, or design of any 
description by foUow- 
Ingthc printed Instruc- 
tions. .Specially adapt- 
ed for Copying Music. 

OWIFT'S HAND-BOOK ..r 100 vahiiibl 

sending me 61 for iliis pupcr Jor one ycar.'^'^ 
Subscriptions received for nil Periodicals. 
Catalogues, etf.. free. 

131;; WELLS W. SWIFT, Marionville, 



^^jVau' ^wi iv>i>j >7:^:^=^ 




A(h|Jliil for USL Willi ..r willi.>iil T.xlH.iok, 

aud th(; only set recnmiurmicd tu 



Bryant & Stratton 

Counting- House-Book keeping." 

'iilleges &nd Public aud I*rfVBte Schools for iul 
luotlou and use. Descriptive List now rca 



1194 121 Wllam St N Y 

Penmen s and Artists Supplies 

(n receipt of the prices annexed we wl_ fo 

e fo lowing I t 
patrons can re y not only 
or article but uix>n dolnc 

n of Om 1 Penraansblp $5 01 


y express 

pe < 

Bla k Br St I B ,ir 1 h db pe 

'>lx80 26 3 
26X40 65 7 
aixB2 I 75 30 

1000 by ex - 

a Ink Stick 1 

iPe ver> fine 
and Pa Ivard 

K encrav ul n 
fits stf 1 
e orw k 



L sliurt. simple. practic-Hl met 
N, I'rlnnipal of fjacrament 
College. Sacramento, Cal. By mail, si 


in Every Town in Amer 

and artistic pcumansliip. 

The followtne Is a list of the 1 
offer for sale, wllli tlic imbli^hers' 

\" . - , - . -I. ■ . ;.i,-xorcl.-iuS. .. 

UHrlioldMcmoriftl. 10x84..! 

l^rd'* Prarer.l9xSl 

Bounding Stjvg. atx3S ... 

Kioorished Kajile. «x%i. 

Centennial Pictiire of Pr-.'.Tt— = -j-Jy',"! 

OrDaiuental and Fl<iiiilvii. . I ,, . kiI'-u-h- 
new.orlfriDalaiiil iirii-i.> p. i i l. !. i -■« 

100. by mall 

500. " ^ 

1000. " ^150; by ^x|.u-^> 1 

Live ngenU can. and <lo, make money, by tak 
subeirrribcn for the JoraKAi^ and selling the ah' 
works. Send for our Spoelal Rates to ARents 
n. T. AMKS. 

7-t( a06 Broadway, New York 

Cuid 1'' n look 

to iDStruction nnd 
neirly equal cost is now bef 
the penman s ait as will this 

1 nnt pics nd exampl for fi | 

covers 75 cents h indsomely bo nd u it if o trt. |;1 O 
f ill bound ( n stiff covers) for $1 21 Live agents wai ter 
Botb tl e loTTRNAT and bonk re tl ntr*! tl at take everywhei 
anj other p hi a i n th h II 

lualitj of line plate paper and is devott 1 
tifc We arc sure tl at no other work of 
ber 01 leaner in 11 the dei rl ncnls f 

fw plftVn-Wnling - gjmrtn^m p^l^pR to Ihl. 

j k K and monogram Pi (e bv mail in laptr 

^n 1 iptrj i, premium with the Joi n^AI ont yc r for |l 
every town n America to whom lilernl discounts will Ic givet 
W tl them aeents can make more money w th lc<is eff rt than w Ih 

(^ry^,(7 _£Dllf-liifiM 

Rl E^i VR\ 

n receipt of S2 



A arge phot 
pa t o lars sent f i 
oular Capitals 

<ipec mens of Wr ng and F 


orld wide repatst on for ori^na artist o des gnlng and excel 

3 requ red 


handsome Jobs a 
good h 7ed paper ^\ e g e two from c 
C A BUSH Ph ade i b 

ua i th 8 country JOHN L\> 


e nc or Card W r t ng at BO cents per 1( 
; or 1 io r shiug for yo r Soraj Book for II 

'^^ Kf f^lTlH:^: 



ticnt In unpUcBte 

'..'lu, Ojn- pint or llio liL-Kt .lapan Ink for Card Wviting and 

iniplete seta of the CHIROGRAPHIC (iUARTEHLY, whioh is 
inilBomely Illustrated and valuable penman's paper yet pub- 

ENOBA^•I^■< :. 

We prepare designs for Letter and I'.ii" ii i- 

I moderate prices. The outs in this adv-rn ■ i 

>iiy. The tinting is free hand work \\ ■ > - , 

uliar. We respectfully solicit your onliis, i-l ^111111,1.. v 
rocure, Address, 


, and furnish Eii^avings 
vings made from our pen 
for fractional part« of a 


Shorthand Writing 

TinniiHGiiLv T.vmirr nv mail 

Thoiuiigli iustruL-tion In the best syalem ; terras 
low; satisfaction Kiiaranteed. 

Young men have only to master Shortband to 
make it a sure source of prolit. Stenographers 
receive better salaries than are paid in any other 
clerical positl«ii. 

Send stamp forspei.lnien of wi'iting and circulars 

W. VL, HIJI.TON, BteDOcnkphcr. 




Gives the best Inetructiou in all the Business 
Branches, and the finest coarse of 


Also, OmamentuI Penmanship. Telegraphy, Shorl- 

F. W. ELLIS. ; 

', RITNER. Pbb( 

e prepaid. 

omntrr, Ills writing 
whtle hlB cards are .—^ 
Inrice baBiness In his line 

rarely excelled. He is d>>] 

Given in plain Penmanship 

Over iOO Pupils 

now taking this coiinie, and all expressiii 

their sallsfaut 

on It Is fBsl hf coining known that 

an elegant ha 



Pay $101 to at 

IncM CoUeco or «n Intll 

m you can receive just as 

for only $3. Do Dot think 

lieHP tliat it lias no merit. 

required lu o 


will be varied 

liy scit 

""."""m''',"' Il'f '™° 

dent. If yon 

London, Onta 

'•' '■'■^ I"""- 't'" 

Before taking the cmi 







AflPi' Uiking 




on skill diRplaied in your cop es is i 
llfll Fe t Mt \lotorv Ob o says 


Steel Peiib 

ed by Blip e Ilebettii Mse 

Good Black Ink 

An Unparalleled Offer 

In rdert | lace my w ik t 11 ehan Isof pmi 
r ader of th s 1 aper IwlllhLiid on receipt of |n 

liakin F. Card Ink Horjpe } nic V) 

Thirteen SlKnatuvpB (any name) ■' Xv 

A Specimen of Flourishing " aic 

Samples of Cards •■ hi,. 

Total worth $2 n 

The above will all be exewuted with care, audi 
yon are not more than pleaaed yrmr money will Ih 
returned. Samples of Curd Work sent for 10 i.-t^ 
Circulars of my speclaltieH sent free. All order 
promptly and carefully filled. Send Hills. " 
'■• - I. P. O. Money C * " ' " 

nsroAAT -sij~Eii^TyT . 





Willi Two Supplementary Rooks. 



sv*;l.&niiitiy.e and U-acli wi'itiiig in iiccoi'dance witli the usages of the hest 
writers in tlie business world. 

giiisiiiiig feiitnres of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of fron) 1.5 to 25 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A S'lniide Set, containing all niiinbcis sent for e\iniination on icceipt 
ot %\ on 

1 nil I)tSLiipti\e ( itnlllstui ou le pli'^t to in^ a Idiess 

Ivison, Blakemaii, Tavloi^ & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York 412 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Coi, 


26 John Street, New York. 


The fine«t flourlsbtn^ erer sent out by any pen- 
man will not equal the marrelouN npeciniens I ciui 
send you, 8 for 60 cents. Executed by W. B. Den- 
nis, who In tills line has no e<iuat. To he had only 
hy addressing L. Hadarasz, Box 2116, New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

Tftf undfrHffntd, who hat/oUowed thf proffjution (tf 
carft wrllinij/or the p<ut seven years, ami hat yH to 
Uam af thejtret instance whfrrin AM icork has faiUd 
toffive entire aati^actitm, talxx pUiwirs in caUing 
your attention to the wmpltte Urn qf icritlen vitittng 
curds, whieh are (^trt'l fit rntes eonsisttnt with the 
quality of cards and innmanthiji. Orden promptly 
niUd. All pelt paid. 

^?~ With every 4 packafies onlerod at. one time 
at) extra package of Oilt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on, Willi a little 
effort you can easily induce several of your friends 

Kuinher of Cards iu each packaee : 18 36 
Sty'.a h.—Ptnin If'SW^. good quality.... J0.88 J0.75 

■' R. Wt'hling Brittol.vevY boat 40 .77 

" (■ nut Edge, assorted 14 .84 

■' li- Dctl Gilt Edge, the finest 50 ' .08 

" V..-Brvels of CrramandWhitt ... .53 1.00 

" O.— Silk and Satin BeeeU K 1.05 

" U.—MHght-ply Bevels, asuoTted 57 MO 

•* I.-EliUi, the latest styles 00 1.15 

Address Lines— ejLtra ,16 .30 

If you order cards you wliould liavo a curd case 
to keep Ihem clean and neal. 


No. 1— iiWMio /^aWfT. 1 pockets $n,'j.3 

No. a- '* 4 •• . . .STi 

No. 4— i/fMTOCtW, best quality .W 

No. 6-Cff//. extra frond .. .80 

No. 8-,'l«lj70/or MiH, very fine 1,50 

No. »- •■ very best 2.00 


Assorted designs birds, scrolls, riuills, etc., ex- 
ecuted wilh lasteand skill. Tu students who wisli 
good models of FlourioliiTii; to practice from, these 
will be found to be " the thlnji." rrii'c, SO cents 
per package of 13. 


An unsurpa.sBed Specimen of bold business writ- 
ing in the shape of a letter, and any question 
answered, on the 6noi>t quality of unruled paper. 

r name written iu assorted styles 
s, send 51 cent.s, and thehand- 
n possibly write will be sent you. 

T-hiind flourishing, suoh 

be tlie most spirited work 
'I, Price. 2A cents each; 


world. Each 25 cents; 
3 set* (difTereut), 88cent« 
in or ornamental styles. 


black ink, arrangements have been completed for 
sending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
..f the country. Price perquart,$l.80. Bydllntlng 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is the best), 
more than Ihree quarts of good Ink may bo had 
from a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
In all my work. See samples. Itvclpe for its 
manufacture, 30 cents. 



elasticity W 
just what y< 


fine air line combined v 
being scratthy, I can 

It h great 
send you 

The Favorite 

..per box, 40 


OSS, $1.10 

Card Writing, 


.. ■' 50 


r full II 

in overy letter you send. Make ynur remit 
by Postal Notes or Registered Letter, a 
that all letters are carefully sealed i 
plainly. If you don't hear from me in 
due time, dropmoapwstul and I will sue what h 
the matter. 

New Yoi'k Citv. 




Aiithur of Nolson'B Mercantile Arillunetic nnd 

Nelson's Bonkkeeplni;. Parti; and President 

of the Nelson Itunmcss CoIIakb Coiupony 

of Cincinnati and SprlngQeld, Ohio. 

Ffin Pf*. n. ir, JiTOWn.of lite JarktoiivUU. II'., 

"XMllunil (jiiatint'iiilun vour work is the niimt 

reouiniiiund ll ^i 
Prln. UtiB. Doi>t 

booka lioretorm 

Frvin Ihr BryatU, .^hulUm A .i.di../ Coii..'j^; iiaili 

"It oon'taini' a fund of valualilc Infnnnatloi 
doine you greul credit, and no doubt will prove i 
deeded aiiccess. • • • The OaBliy style in whiol 
yonr bindor has done bi» work, In my omulon, doei 
yon great injustice. The Inside is far better tlmt 
the outside, and books of bucIi showy extcri'n 
Bonerally fail as regards llielr contents, but ll ii 

Moort'g Southern Bu^ntt$ T7ni 

propr«SB, with I 
wiln any of ih.- < 

iraratu compan; 
mauafaotnrtni;, i 

r oflioe and by o 

mis and oniletK^H belne fnrn 


Tl. OHIO. 

Reporter uud Teacher of the Artshuitld bem 
■ , entitled. ONE llliN 

/ALUABLB Bl-Gdl " 


MichtKau, Ann . 

f lilKhcst I 

1 Teacher of 

low work, e 
HAND 8TUDBNT8. by Ski.hv A. Mouan. Prln 
pal of the Stenographic Institute, Unlvcniity 
**' •* - . Ann Arbor- 

> have examined the work have spok 

For cxpcrl-. and ciireful \Vrll«rB. Samples for trial on application. Ask for Card N". I, 
IVISON, BLA.KEMAN, TAYLOR & CO., 753 &. 755 Broadway, New York' 


<;," being a orltlral review of the latest English work on the Science 
IRES," a review of the aystem proposed by Capt. Metcalfe foradoptlon 

ICE 'Is comprised In several leading departments. Tlie "Day Dook " 
i:i'aphs on cun-ent topics of Interest to nfllce men : " The OfAee Mall Bac" 
editor's oorrespondence; "The Hit and Miss of Advertising," discuBei-s 
art of advertlsinff, with iUuatrationa of suceessfurand unsucreisfMl 
.1 experience: " Office B<iuipments " contains Illustrations and carefully 
Lieslisefttl liibffloe worli.r-3lUeaB dfig2i:|Elloua m-O jy-^red in the iutcrcat 

u com mil ul cation v 

soriber to THE OFI'ICR is entitled to use lis fret 
ohtalnliiuhclp. Headers of the Pkm 
t desirable mcilinm for brlnKiiig then 















1 Capital Lette: 
1 Abbreviations 
1 Forming Sent 
1 Punctuation. 
1 Spelling, 
I English, 




Exercises in Writing Adverl 
Exercises in Writing Business Pape 
Exercises in Writing Circulars, 
The Form and Structure of Letters, 
Sample Letter Headings, 
Sample Envelope Addresses, 
Sample Social Letters, 
Numerous Sample Business Letters, 
Numerous Full page Engraved Specin 
Numerous Hints and Helps, 
Many Valuable Suggestions, 
Exercises in Social Correspondence, 

I Bu. 

■ed Sample 


TV to teaeh Pemuamhip i 
liiiHliivss Writing a specialty; 
given. Address, 

iviiln. Iowa. 

- A flr8t.olas8 Tt*aclicr of 

Plain and Ornamental Penmanship is wanted ; 
111 of experleni-e and one versed in 
: pn-fcrred : write immediately with 
n<l rcfcnmceH. stjitini; Halary wished 
beeln. Address. (iEOIlOK W- KKD- 

1. Plain aof 
u youDK tut 


Mii->li , .v.\ Ai'i-lii iiui.iiionu and inforuiailon 

It Is hardly necessary to say that the need for a thoroughly practical text-book on this vi 
iinperlant subject lias been felt by thousands of teachers. It is only a. few weeks since the Ii 
annouucement of thhi new text-book was made. Notwithstandliig this fact, letters o( iiiriairy a 
advance orders Imvo been received from nearly every State and Province, The greatest care 1 
been taken in the preparation of the work, in the engraving, and In the general typography n 
binding, and wo feel confident that we are now placing upon the markc>t a tiwdl text-lniok. 


hools and the trade whim ordered In qnantitli's. Ordii-s by mall inoiiiij 

THE SUPPLEMENT CO., Buffalo, N. Y., 

Ii or, CONNOR ODEA, Toronto, Canada. 


ITaclieiiig r 

lanship. II. Corresooii<lont:( 
k'. Combining Capitul^. V. 
1 Penmanship generally. 


iliude easier. 

} T^entA in st» 

Jt B. TKODSLOT. Sols ; 


kteoictjk:, io"w-^, 

Thv I'tirrrritm Si,strm of I'eit- 

iuans/iip. ami I'eirrr/s I'/lilo- 

suph irtf/ 'I'rrntisr of 


. Membership i 
, .J $10.00. 
. The total expense i 

larim ' ' 

•Itb, No 

is $10.00. 

__. Thetotal _., ._. 

similar institutions in large cities. 

Penmanship Ilepart- 

vnttianship, with 

improved, per- 

i.ady. Sample 

By the dozen, 

lit Penmanship 
111 nowrctnilB at 
er, it is the only 

flth. The h 


10th. My I 

11^ when ready. 
. nt.s each, or SI 
>i Mtanufacturc), 


Keokuk, Iowa. 

lent Patrc^'H _BuBlne*H rolLeite. andSlU'eriii- 
IcDt of J'unmanship CetnTlhiciitTAlOkuk— 

American Pen Art Halt 

T y La( y ard 



eacher as well as students. 

r lixTuess urder, or Currency by j 
lerfil Letter. 


81 Stat« Street, Chicago, 



Published Monthly 
, 205 Broadmay. N. Y. for $1 per ye 


Entered at the Post Office of New York, 
N.Y., as Second-Class Mail Matter. 

«:r;«Ti\v.t:.rrE"i;:;'°'- new york, june, isso. 

Eiilrrid tuixtnlin^ to Act of Coii^rejis. in t/ie year 188C, tnj Daniel T, Ames, in tlir Office of the Librarian qf Coiigrais, Washington, D. C. 

Vol. X.— No. 6. 

As tin instrument for drawing, tlie pen is 
iiurivftlledfor the production of sbarp, clear, 
(U'liiiite lines ; it can also, with extra time 
ttud care, almost rival the softness of the 
pencil and the brush. Its aptnei^s at imitat- 
ing the styles of engraving has brought it 
into large requisition of late in conocctioD 
with the phuto-proccssGS of that art ; and 
its sphere in that direction seems to be 
riipidly extending. 

The pen has been strongly recommended 
In beginners in drawing. The difficulty of 
changing or erasing its lines enforces a 
thoughtful attention to the work in band 
not to be expected where an instrument is 
used whose errors can be remedied in an 
iostiint by a crumb of bread or piece of rub- 
ber. The point of the pen, also, is comi 
paratively constnot, reliable, while that of 
the pencil is continually changing, by wear- 
ing away, and requires frequent reshaping. 

Many drawings extant of eminent artists 
show that they had frequent recourse to the 
pen in their work; making use of it iu htisty 
sketches and in studies, sometimes atone, 
and sometimes with tints of shade laid in 
with the brvisb or stump. In the latter style, 
the sharp, definite lines of the pen form a 
striking contrast with the broad soft tones 
of the brush. 

The main principles of drawing are simi- 
lar whether the instrument be pen. pencil or 
charcoal, and a like knowledge, training of 
rye. and discipline of hand into subjection 
to the eye aad mind, are required in each. 
Instruction in the practice of drawing in 
general is not, however, within the scope of 
this work, but rather the offering of such 
)iints as may prove useful where the instru- 
ment to be employed is the pen. 

* Good papers for pen drawing arc be- 
coming plentiful, but there is still probably 
none belter than the Whatman, except for 
pUoto-engraving, which needs a perfectly 
smooth, level, whi(« surface, more satisfac 
torily found iu the Bristol and some other 
card boards. The Whatman papers are 
made with two varieties of surface—the 
smooth, known as " hot pressed," and the 
ri-.ugh. designated " cold-pressed." The 
former is the one best suited for pen draw- 
ing, the latter being more especially for 
brush work. The following are the names 
of the different sizes of sheets, with their 
proportions in inches ; — 

Imperial ^x80 

Columbler 23x34 

Atlas 28x34 

Uouhle Elephant. 37x40 
Antiquarian 81x53 

Super Royal I9xJK 

Elephant 23xS) 

In addition to the paper to receive the 
drawing, some thin, Lanspn rent paper for 
tracing and transfc^ig — to he mentioned 
further on— is requisite ; also blotting paper 
to take up any truant drops of ink falling 
where not wanted. 

A good knife eraser and one of rubber 
nught also to be at hand to remove marks 
of pen and pencil when desired. 

The pens to be chosen for pen drawing 

* For points lierg and there In this article wo 
nre iti(k'bteit U> tli« pnimu ^r \\r iliiM.. xi. 
Ilannnerton. itnd I'rofs. 
Maxton. In the piirU 
lihoto-engnivhiB we have pruflted by 
tlons Issued by the Moss I'h ' ~ 
Bddlliuu to oar own experioai 

(trawjn^ for 
EugntvUig Co. In 

should be of the best make, with smooth, 

nicely-finished points, and of a t1 

that of tiie delicate 

Pen, and Spence 

through the coarser grades, as rtdai)ted to 

the work in hand. 

takes upon itself a skin which has a metallic 

from I appearance. It Hows easily from the pen, 

quill, Lithographic even at a low temperature, and when it has 

upward dried on the paper a brush charged with 

passes over it without disturbing it, 

properly is very remarkable, for the 

The new oblique-clasp pen-hoIder> 
shown iu Fig. 73, will be found gen- 
erally preferable to the common 
straight holder for pen drawing, 
as it brings the points of the pen 
more equally to the paper and favors 
smoothness of line in drawing as well as 

When straighUinc tinting is 
to be done with the aid of the 
ruler, it is better to use a drafts- 
man's drawing pen instead of 
the ordinary steel pens. Fig. 74 
shows such 11 pen, c.xchisivc of 
upper end of holder. The regu- 
lating screw opens and shuts the 
jaws of the pen, so as to make 
the line tine or coarse at plea- 
sure. The ink should be intro- 
duced between the points with 
a brush or writing pen, so as to 
leave the outside dry and clean ; 
but the pen may be dipped into 

the ink. if i 


/ards wiped before using. Select 
the pen with care in purchasing, and keep 
the point iu good order, using in it only 
India ink, as the acids of writing inks will 
be likely soon to roughen it. Hold the pen 
nearly vertical in use, and, pressing lightly, 
move it from left to right. 

Indui Ink.—'WiQ only ink that can be re- 
commended for anything more than the 
most ordinary pen drawing, is the India or 
Chinese ink. It is fadeless, and attains the 
moment it is dry the color and depth of 
shade it will always retain ; so that the artist 
using it k»ows just what he is doing. Of 
this ink, which is probably the most ancient 
of all the materials employed about writing 
or drawing, Mr. Ilamerton says :— 

"Indian ink, of good quality, must al- 
ways be esteemed as one of the nio'*t success- 
ful inventions amongst the material arts. 
Human ingenuity has seldom atiaincd ita 
object so completely as the Chinese inventore 
attained theirs when they tried to present 
the black smoke of lamps in such a form 
that it might be cleanly and portable, and 
convenient both for writing, for linear 
drawing, and for the most delicate shading. 
It ia one of the very few things in which 
absolute perfection has been attained. It 
lasts forever." 

In the last sentence he probahly refers to 
the inks never changing in color or depth, 
cither on the stick or upou pa4)cr. 

The qualities by which good India ink 
may be known are quoted by the same au- 
thor from Merimi-e ; and we can hardly do 
better than to repeat his description here. 
It is as follows-.— "When broken its frac- 
ture (that of India ink) is black and shiny. 
The substance is fine in texture and per- 
fectly homogenious When you rub it with 
water you do not feel the slightest grit, and 
if you mix it with a great deal of water there 
will be no sediment. In drying, its surface 

same ink, dried upon marble or 
ivory, gives way as soon as it is 
wetted, which proves that an indel- 
ible combination is formed by the 
ink and the paper impregnated with 

Signs by which to know a good quality of 
the ink before use have been suggested : 
such as, that it should be scented with musk 
or campher, that the slick should be nicely 
moulded and finished, and the characters or 
ornaments upon itshould be finely executed. 
Such indications doubtless increase the prob- 
ability of the inks being good, but without 
making it certain. It is very unlikely that 
any fine quality of ink would be offered to 
the puhlic with a coarse and unfinished ex- 
terior appearance; so that in rejecting such, 
one could hardly go amiss. But when all 
the exterior signs are favorable, it is still 
admitted that the only certain test of the 
ink is in its use. 

To prepare the ink. place a teaspoonful 
or so of pure water into a small saucer- 
dean and free from dust — and dipping the 
end of ihc stick into the water, rub it about 
in the dish, until the liquid reaches the re- 
quired blackness ; which can be best told by 
trying it upon paper with a pen. In grind- 
ing rub the cake of ink partly in the water 
and partly out of it to prevent its absorbing 
too much of the water and cracking. Do 
not press too hard upon the stick or rub too 
vigorously as it tends to make the ink de- 
la(!h in larger particles, and so produce a 
fluid not so fine as obtained by gentler 

A better arrangement than the saucer for 
preparing ink, is the tile of porcelain or slate, 
specially devised for the purpose, with a 
slant for grinding the ink and a well for re- 
taining it. The form of tile with the circu- 
lar grinding slant and well in the middle,, is 
considered rather preferable to that with an 
oblong slant and well at the end. The 
covers often provided with the tiles, help to 
preserve the ink from dust and evaporation. 

India ink should be freshly mixe^ every 
day. when needed, to lie at its best 

A sponge— the softer and cleaner the 
bcttcr^heldin a teacup or sponge glass, and 
charged with water, is needed to wipe the 
pen upon occasionally to keep it clean and 
promote the flow of ink. The sponge ia 
particularly necessary when the ink must be 
used very black, and therefore rather thick; 
but care must be taken, in that case, lest the 
pen retain so much water, from its eonuict 
with the sponge, as to reduce materially the 
shade of the ink. 

A drop of ox gall added to the India ink 
is said to make it flow more freely ; the ox- 
gall, of a refined quality, is to be had of 
deiders iu water colors. 

There are several liquid preparations of 
India ink that may be purchased in small 
bottles ready for use. These inks are not 
80 satisfactory, however, as that fresh 

ground from a good stick, as above ex- 
plained ; but they will often answer and are 
therefore convenient to have at hand. 


To promote accuracy and steadiness in 
outlining, the going over, with pen and black 
ink, of circles, squares, triangles and other 
regular geometrical figures first drawn in 
pencil with ruler and compasses, is to be 
recommended. The tracing also, in pen and 
ink, of such figures, or of symmetrically- 
formed ornaments, upou transparent paper 
placed over them, would be similarly useful. 
Try to reproduce exactly the forms inked or 
traced. Hold the pen much as iu writing. 
It is prudent, when the line is a difficult 
one to execute, to sweep the pen over it 
first without touching — so as to he sure that 
the hand is in a position to command it. 
Then, placing the pen to the paper, execute 
as much of the line as can be done with 
certainty, when the hand and pen can be 
readjusted and the next section drawn in 
like manner. 

A little practice will show that the pen 
produces the most satisfactory line when 
drawn downwards — or in the direction.. of 
its hollow side— as in making the down 
strokes in writing. When, tlireforc, it is 
desired to have every line smooth and per- 
fect, it is best to turn the paper or the hand 
so that the lines can be all executed in that 

It is generally best to ink the left side of 
a figure first, so that the side completed 
may not be hidden by the hand, but remain 
in sight while the other is in course of ex- 
After outlining, the matter of shading Is 
to be attended to. Shades may be either 
fiat or graded, the former being of one uni- 
form depth throughout, and the latter in- 
creasing or decreasing, more or Icssgradu- 

The shades of nature are mostly graded, and 
to a perfection that no hand can match, 
and therein lies much of their beauty. Flat 
tints are to shading what the straight line is 
to form, and the graded shades correspond 
to the curve. 

The uneducated eye is blind to the finer 
shades, but abstract exercises, like those to 
be suggested, tend to improve the capacity 
to see and appreciate them. Connuon writ- 
ing paper and ordinary black ink will 
answer iu this elementary practice. 

Begin with flat shading, by enclosing 
squares, a half inch or more in height, with 
the pencil, and filling them evenly with pen 
lines. It does not matter so much at firf^ 
how the lines are made or in what tlirection 
they run, as that the tint produced be even 
throughout. When the square is filled in 
nearly aright, if a spot in it looks too light, 
the linescan be carefully strengtheued there, 
or additional lines or dotH stipj}led in be- 
tween ; and a place found too dark may be 
reduced by slightly erasing with the point 
of a sharp pen-knife, until at last each part 
will be as dark as every other, and no 
darker. Take care not to work over the 
same place again till the lines laid there 
before are quite dry. A piece of flat-tinted 
cloth or paper placed beside the shaded 
square will help to make its impcrfectiong 
apparent by the contrast with a standard 
approaching something like perfection. 
The lighter and more delicate these first 
essays can be made, and preserre their 
the better the discipliuc for the 




eye. To secure such dclicjicy take Utile ink 
ill the pen and carry it lightly over the 

of finish, instead of lit 
i^ an example of one 

;. The sphere below 
style of stipple sha- 

FI?. 75. 

Al first, as siud above, little attention its 
to bow the lines arc made is advised, in 
order tbnt the entire thought may be given 
to securing evenness of shade. But after 
some practice in that way has begun to 
awaken the eye to the perception of even- 
ness and unevenness. the quality, distanc- 
ing and direction of the lines may be taken 
more into consideration and systematic 
lioiDg be done like that, for example, 
shown in Fig. 75, above. Fine or open lin- 
ing, or both, secures lightness of tint ; while 
lints arc darkened by making the lines 
heavier, closer, and by adding one or more 
series of cross lines. In the latter case, the 
iliflfcrcnt scries of crossing lines, whether 
straight or curved, should have some 
orderly delation to each other, to produce 
the best results. Cuts 1!, C and D, of Fig. 
75, for example, show the courses of lines 
related to each other like the diagonals, and 
also like the sides nnd diagonals of a square. 
The figures in connection with the exercises 
on graded shading illustrate the same or a 
similar idea. 

Some skill having been attained in mak- 
ing shades flat and even, one is prepared to 
try bis hand at grading them. For this 
purpose enclose with the pencil some oblong 
spaces— say a half inch high by one and a 
half to two inches in length, and grade 
these with pen Hue shading from white at 
one end to black at the other. Aim to make 
the shade increase in regular degrees 
throughout the strip. It is best so in the 
first exercises, though in nature the degree 
of increase often accelerates towards the 
darker. When the grading of a strip is 
nearly complete, points too light or too dark 
may be corrected in the same manner as 
suggested in the flat shading. In this, and 
also in the previous exercise, two or more 
squares or strips may bo in progress at once, 
the ink being given lime to dry upon one 
while engaged ujiou iiuothtT 

At the beginning of till- .\rniM> uh' ;iiin 
should be accuracy of gradation, without 
much care as to other points. Afterwards 
more systematic work can be undertaken— 
something as shown in Fig. 76, the quaiity, 
si)aciug, and direction of the lines being 
more attended to. In these exercises it is 
well to cover with the first series of lines the 
entire strip, except the part to be left white; 
then let the second course cover the first, ex- 
cept a small portion near the light end, and 
so on with the third and each successive 

If these different courses of Hues have an 
angle to each other somewhat as indicated in 
Fig. 70, and in B., C. and D. of Fig. 75, the 
crossings will be more likely lo be clean and 
sharp and the shading cleiuer. 

Figure 77 shows in the left group the 
crossing of curved lines in shading in a 
manner similar to that just mentioned in 
respect to straight lines. It will be noticed 
that in the group on the left in the figure, 
the different series of curves, have to each 
other a relation, in respi-ct to direction. like 
tlie diagonals and sides of a square; while in 
the other group the relation is like the sides 
of a triangle. The formal outlines given to 
the groups of lines in the cut was intended 
10 make their peculiar relation more appa- 

All the exercises here recommended con 
of course be done iu stipple or other styles 


Excellent ad- 
ditional practice 
will be found in 
outlining and 
shading cylinders 
and spheres. Ex- 
amples of such 
cxercisesareBhown in Figures 78 and 79. In 
the former the highest light is a long strip 
form which the 
shades grade to the 
right and left;wbile 
the highest light in 
the sphere is of 
circular or oval 
form, from which 
the shades increase 
* '^' ' ■ outwards in every 

direction. If the learner can have before 
him copies in 
piaster, or in 
wood painted 
white, of the ^ 
solids mention- 
ed or others, 
and study and 

copy them in '''^' 

different lights and positions, it will material, 
ly aid him in mastering the subject of shad- 
ing. In Infitating the shades of such 
objects or those of nature or engravings, 
notice first the lightest and darkest points 
of the entire subject, and then of each part 
in succession, observing also the relative 
strength both of the extreme lights and of 
the shades of the different portions. 

Sometimes it makes a good beginning for 
a pen drawing, after the outline is secured, 
to cover the entire piece with a fine close 
lined tint, except only the highest light. 
This first tint may be followed by another 
similar, leaving this time not only the 
highest light, but the one ne.\t to it in 
brightness. The process may be carried 
still further with additional courses of tints 
and furnishes an admirable groundwork for 
an attractive drawing. For work that must 
be entirely in quite black ink, this method 
would not be so well adapted. 

The outline for a pen drawing may be 
drawn free hand, or it may be transferred 
to the desired place from a previously pre- 
pared drawing, or from other copy, by a 
more mechanical process. In preparing a 
free hand, outline use a medium graded 
pencil and avoid as much as possible the 
making of heavy lines, as well as roughen- 
ing the surface of the paper by a too free 
use of the rubber, and thus unfitting it for 
the reception of ink. 

There are various methods of transferring. 
The outlines may be drawn upon a separate 
piece of paper ; which is afterwards black- 
ened upon the back with a soft pencil along 
the course of the lines, and held with 
weights or pins in the place where the draw 
ing is to go. the lines being then followed 
with the point of a bard pencil or a smooth 
*vory or metal point, with rather firm press- 
ure, will he transferred upon the sheet be- 
neath. The outlines of an engraving or 
unmounted photograph can be copied iu the 
same way. But, as that process injures the 
copy, where it is desired lo preserve the lat- 
ter in good condition, methods like the fol- 
lowing should be employed. 

Place thin* transparent paper over the 
work lo be reproduced, nnd trace upon it 
the outlines with a rather hard pencil. Re- 
moving the tracing so made, and placing it 
face downward, go over the lines upon the 
other side with a softer pencil., Then, ad- 
justing it to the place the drawing is to oc- 
cupy, go over the lines again firmly with a 
hard smooth point, or with a burnisher, and 
a good transfer should be the result. Two 
or more additional transfers, though fainter 
—may also be made from the same tracing 
without relining. Instead of going over the 
Hues upon the other side of tracing with 
pencil, a piece of transfer paper— which is 

• Traclnp paper may ho made of ordlnury white 
tisRiie paper, by applying to It with a spouRe or 
broud brush a mixture of boiled oil tmd turpentine. 
In the proportion of one part of the fonner to five 
of the latter. One coat only Is required and that 
not too thk'k; the paper Is then hang upon astrlnir 
to dry. and Ib ready for use when the clear oily 
marks have entirely disappeared. 

thin paper rubbed evenly over one side with 
black lead or a soft pencil — can be used. 
After the tracing is in position this transfer 
paper is placed beneath it with its blacked 
side down ; when a tracing point "going 
again firmly over the lines, as in the other 
method, impresses a copy of them upon the 
sheet beneath. 

When the outlines of a picture to be copied 
are obscure as is generally the case in a pho- 
tograph, sheets of prepared gelatine, on ac- 
count of their almost perfect transparency 
are preferable to ordinary tracing paper. 
The lines are to be traced upon the gelatine 
with a keen steel point, like that of a well- 
sharpened darning or etching needle. The 
point must cut into the gelatine so as to leave 
a Httle furrow ; which being afterwards filled 
witli pencil dust, and the gelatine turned 
face down and rubbed with a burnisher, im- 
parts a clear impression to the paper beneath. 
The impression as made, however, will re- 
verse the position of the original. If this is 
not desired, the first Impression from the 
gelatine may be made upon separate paper, 
which being turned face downward at the 
I)rnper place and its back rubbed with firm 
pressure, will yield a second transfer in cor- 
rect position. On the same end can be se- 
cured by again tracing the lines— after filling 
them with pencil dust to make them distinct 
— with the steel point upon the other side of 
the gelatine. An impression taken as before 
from this retracing, will be in the position of 
the original. 

The gelatine process of transferring is a 
favorite with engravers. The sheets should 
not be exposed lo sunshine or to moisture, 
and are best kept covered with clean paper 
and placed between the pages of a large 

The outline to serve n'; Ilir hn^i^; for a pen 
drawing is often Mrum! :ihn l>y photo- 
graphic process. A riiiiiii"i iir-riy used in 
the production of worl^ inj [,|i,,i,, , ngraving, 
is lo line in the design with the pen directly 
upon an unfixed photographic print. The 
photo-color is then bleached away leaving 
the pen lines standing. This bleaching is 
done by flowing over the print a solution of 
bi-chlorate of mercury (corrosive sublimate) 
in alcohol— the proportions of the solution 
being one ounce of the former to one (juart 
of the latter ingredient. 

Drawings made with the pen may be 
broadly separated into two classes— the free 
and the systematic. The latter are generally 
made after some consideralion and prepara- 
tion, upon an outline previously sketched in 
pencil, transferred or otherwise obtaiucd . 
while the former are done off hand upon the 
spur of the moment. The pen drawings of 
artists are more after the free style, and ful] 
of interest, revealing at times Ihe budding 
of those ideas whose full flower and fruitage 
are their finished works. It is hardly in 
place, however, to attempt to teach that 
style of drawing, it being better left to be 
formed by and be an expression of the in- 
dividual taste and temperament. 

Systematic pen drawing which gives more 
attention to accuracy, finish, and the lay of 
the lines, has drawn its lessons largely from 
the engravers and etchers ; but is likely to 
deviate more and more from them, and per- 
haps form a distinct style of its own, 

In respect to finish pen drawings are of 
many sorts, varying both in their degree and 
in their style. By degree of finish we mean 
the stage at which the drawing is left and 
considered complete ; as firat. and simplest 
—outline only ; second, outline with principal 
shades and shadows ; third, the last men- 
tioned with addition of middle tints ; fourth 
and last, a combination of the three lower 
stages with such additional fine touches* as 
may produce an imitation of nature as com- 
plete and perfect as pen and ink in the style 
of finish chosen can achieve. The fourth 
and full degree of finish is more within the 
province of the brush, and pen draftsmen 
very wisely do not often attempt it, further 
than perhaps in the more central or interest- 
ing portions of their work. 

A number of the leading styles of regular 
or systematic finish are illustrated in the 
group of drawings, numbered from 1 to 7, 
upon page 88. The drawfng numbered 2 
is an example of pure outHne. No. 1 
is an accentuated outline ; while of the 
shaded drawings. No. 5 is finished entirely 
with Hues ; No. 3, with stipple work or dots; 

No. 4, with lines and stipple ; and Nos. 6 
and 7 are outlines shaded very simply with 
little more than a flat tint laid with parallel 

There is another style of drawing with the 
pen that oufiht to be here mentioned ; which, 
instead of u.sin- bluck ink only, employs 
several litrbi-r -U:,.],'-- in ;Ml-h'lion. The dif- 
ferent sliii.h. :,i, |.r. ,aT..| ill separate dishes, 
the darki-r m,,.^ Immil' ni;ule so by longer 
grinding. Tin xc or four tints will be'sufB- 
cient, graded from the black downward, 
lighter and lighter, tcf a delicate shade. 
Further range of lint is obtained by having 
a cup of water at hand, to dip the pen in and 
thusrcduce, when required, the shade of the 
ink with which it is charged. This mode of 
pen drawing favors^ much nearer approach 
to the finish of nature than Ibe exclusively 
black ink styles, and is capable of rivalling 
in softness and beauty the finest engravings 
and photographs. It is not adapted however 
to produciiig work for photo-engraving. 


Photography offers a ready and accurate 
method for securing enlarged or reduced 
copies of drawings, and is often employed. 
But there are other ways, both graphic and 
mechanical, for doing this, that may some- 
times be of use. The time honored method is 
to divide the work to be copied, or a tracing 
of it, into squares, and the space it is to 
occupy in the reproduction into the same 
number of squares. The portion of the de- 
sign in each square of the original is then 
JO be drawn free hand into the corresponding 
one of the enlarged or reduced copy. 

Another method is illustrated iu Fig. 81, 
and consists in drawing from a common 
point, selected at pleasure, lines of indefinite 
length through the principal points of the 
figure to be copied. I'pon those, lines at a 
distance from their common point propor- 
tional lo the change of size required, the 
corresponding principal points of the figuie 

FIG 81 

sought will be found. For example, sup- 
pose the series of curves between A and II, 
in Fig. 81, is to be reduced one-half. From 
any point, as O, draw lines O A. O II, (> V, 
etc., through each of the principal points, 
A, B, C, etc., of the curve. Then find upon 
those diverging lines the points 1. 2, 3. etc., 
midway between the point O and the points 
A, B. C, etc., and they will be the principal 
points of the reduced curves sought. If the 
curves were to be reduced to one-third or 
oue-fourth original size, the points 1, 2. 3, 
etc., of the new curve would be at one-third 
or one-fourth of the way from the point O 
to the points A, B, C, etc. If the work is to 
be ei larged— for instance, if the small series 
of c'lrves from 1 to 8, is to be doubled in 
size— the distances measured upon the di- 
verging lines to find the points A. B, C, etc.. 
of the curves required, will each be double 
that to the corresponding points 1, 2, 3. etc., 
of the smaller curve. To enlarge the same 
curves three times, four times, etc., the 
points A. B, C, etc., would each need to be 
carried out upon the radiating lines to dis- 
tances three times, four times, etc.. as great 
as the points 1, 2, 3, elc, are from the centre 
of divergence, O. 

A mechanical method for enlarging and 
reducing drawings is furnished by the pan- 


Care should be taken lo have a clean piece 
of paper under the hand, lo piotect the 
drawing while engaged upon it ; and it is 
well especially if the design be large, to kccj' 
the portions covered which are not being 
worked upon. The process of restoring the 
surface of a much tarnished piece is Hkely lo 
injure the delicate parts of the work ; and it 
is hence advisable lo keep it in the best con- 
dition possible. Still, with the utmost cjire, 
the drawing will probably become aulli- 

'"^^' ^ - ^^'^^^^^^ 1 ^ 


L, P. Srt 

See Page '< 

cipDtly soiled lo neud some reuovaling when 
done. For such general cleaning, bread, 
somewbat stale, is the best article. Sponge 
rubber, and also the old-fashioned black India 
rubber, when of good quality, may likewise 
be employed. These appliances must be 
used i,'eutly upon the drawing where the work 
is tine. Very fine sand or glass paper can 
be used to clean the margins, where much 
soiled, as also to make erasures too cxteusive 
for other means. 

A piece <if good bloltiug paper ought al- 
ways to be at bund, with which to remove 
as nmch as possible of any chance blot be- 
fore it is dry. For erasing what the blotter 
may leave of such mishaps, or others which 
dry untouched, as well as for taking out er- 
roneous ink lines, u knife eraser is generally 
used ; which needs to have a very keen edge 
to do its work well. The misplaced ink 
should be removed gradually, moving the 
eraser quickly and lightly in one direction 
for 11 time and then in another. This care 
may preserve the surface in good conditicm. 
Afler the ink is thus removed it is best lorub 
the part gently with a piece of rubber ink 
eraser, and then burnish it with a bit of 
smooth ivory or bone. In re-drawing over 
the spot where the erasure occurred, carry 
the hand lightly and use little ink in the pen. 
Another method for making such erasures is 
111 placL- over the part to he corrected a piece 
of tirrn drawing paper with a hole in it ex- 
posiiiii just what is lo be ei-ased ; which is 
iben washed out e irefully with a clean soft 
sponge or a stiff brush dampened in pure 

A "Glazing Pencil" has recently been in- 
vinted which restores surface of writingand 
drawing paper, and tracing linen after era- 
sures when applied with light friction. 


For the convenience of those who nuiy 
wish to mount their paper upon cloth, either 
before or after the drawing is made, we ap- 
peuil direeiious by which it may be done. 

Select white cotton or linen cloth, and 

stretch it tightly upon a frame, table, or 
other suitable place, fastening the edges wiih 
tacks driven half way in and close together. 
The paste should be cold, rather stiff, free 
from lumps, and be applied evenly to the 
back of the paper— a large brush being best 
for that purpose. The paper is then laid, 
paste side down, upon ibe cloth, and made 
to adhere in the middle first, and gently 
smoothed down with the hands thence out- 
ward. Then press the paper down to close 
adherence with a clean soft cloth, and leave 
it till thoroughly dry before taking up. 
Maxton recommends dampening the back of 
the paper before pasting. This would pro- 
bably be good for a drawing made entirely 
with India ink, but one containing ordinary 
writing ink would need to he kept as dry as 
possible in the process of mounting, to pre- 
vent tbe lines from running. It is iidvisabie 
also in mounting drawings containing work 
in common ink, to have tbe paste us dry and 
stiff as can well be worked. 

The photo-engraving processes now offer 
a wide and tempting field lo those who are 
masters of the pen as an instrument for 

Designs to be reproduced by this method, 
should be upon tbe whitest of paper, with a 
surface smooth, firm and level. The Bristol 
boards and other similar papers arc there- 
fore best suited for the purpose. There is 
also an enamelled board, furnished by photo- 
engravers, upon which both black lines and 
white can be prodviced— the former being 
dniwn with the pen, and the latter with a 
steel point upon the black tines or masses 
previously laid with pen or brush. The ink 
for the enamelled board is improved by the 
addition of a little glycerine. White lines 
may also be drawn with the pen across black 
lines and masses upon other papers, by using 
tbe water color whites. For lines to be thus 
crossed with white, the ink should be well 
sized : but neither white nor black lines 
should be crossed by others or retouched 
until perfectly diy. 

The lines for photo-engraving may he fine, 
but to obtain clear sharp work upon the 
plates— ought always to he j)erfectly black, 
the ink being of the best quality, and ground 
until it attains its deepest shade, though no 
longer, lest its flowing qualities be impaired. 
A drop or so of ox-gall may be added to 
the ink, as before recommended to improve 
its fluidity. The photo drawing ink, which 
is similar to the India and to be mixed in the 
same way, is a dead black, quite free from 
gloss and esteemed by some as better for its 
purpose than any other ink. 

Pencil lines should be removed from a 
drawing intended for photo engraving.when 
complete, but with soft rubber and very 
carefully to prevent impairing the pen lines. 
Ruling for script to be photo-engraved is 
sometimes done with faint blue ink lines. 
These do not reproduce in the process, and 
so do not need to be erased. 

The drawings are not to be in reverse, as 
sometimes reciuired for other engraving, but 
should be made as they are to appear when 
printed. And it is best to have them at least 
double the size (that is. twice the height and 
twice the width) the engraving is to be. The 
reduction necessary for tbe engraving makes 
the lines finer and smoother, and so helps to 
counteract whatever opposite tendency may 
arise from tbe imperfections of the process. 

For tlie photographic method of securing 
a basis for a pen drawing, see under head of 
" Securing an Outline." 

[The foregoing artick in an extract from the 
ktter-prcsg insiructioiui to api)mr in ike bound 
edition of t/te Speiicerian Nmd Compendium.^ 

Fine Specimen of Penmanship. 

There are a few copies of the Blaine and 
Logan campaign pieces left, which we will 
now mail at 20c. each, or by tbe dozen JI.25. 
These pieces are not, nor have tbey been, 
offered for any other purpose than as speci- 
mens of artistic penmanship, and, as such,' 
are ricldy worth the price named. The copies 
are handsomely priuted on plate paper. 

"Toilers of the Pen." 

The expression is a familiar one—" toilers 
of the pen " — and is commonly used to indi- 
cate those who make a living by their 
brains — authors, journalists, correspond- 
ents and the like. But it niii;ht be, 
and sometimes is, used in a more literal 
sense, as applied to those who earn their 
bread by what is often called " tbe drudgery 
of the pen," that is. the labor attendant 
upon the mere mecbauicnl use of that 
instrument. Thus, Ilie type writer manu- 
facturers tell us that we can avoid "the 
drudgery of the pen " by buying their 
instruments. The copyist " toils over end- 
less pages of manuscript," and the school- 
boy ■ ' labors at his pot-hooks. " 

All these expressions tend to convey the 
idea that penmanship — writing with a pen — 
is a peculiarly laborious and wearisome ex- 
ercise ; something old-fasbioned and crude, 
to be done away with by labor-saving con- 

Now every accomplished and practiced 
penman, who has learned his trade artisti- 
cally, scientifically, according to tbe true 
method, knows that this impression is false 
and misleading. In fact, there is no me- 
chanical exercise so easy, so graceful, so 
far from being drudgery, as practical pen- 
manship — what is commonly known as tbe 
■■running " or business baud. 

Penmanship is drudgery only when it is 
unformed and uncultivated. Take the 
laborious and illegible band of the nipid 
thinker whose mechanical powers of ex- 
pression have never been trained to keep 
pace with his racing brain. No wonder 
that the muscles of band and arm ache and 
stiffen. No wonder that " writer's palsy " 
and ' writer's cramp" cry bait to such 
abuse of the over-driven and undisciplined 
muscles. These are the men who may 
justly he sjioken of as " toilers of the pen." 
Suppose a man should set out to become 
an orator, and having written a glowing 
production of logic, imagination, fancy, 

wil, nnd slioiiUi step upon the platform with 
tiJK uutraincd voice, liis clumsy bunds, liis 
iiiiinauiigcable feet, and attempt to do jtis- 
ticc to thai prodncUon of his brain. What 
would be the result V lie would make a 
inijterable failure and retire from the etfort 
!i physical wreck. And just bo long as he 
persisted in dcclaimiDg without knowing 
bow to declaim, nnd gesturing without 
knowing how to gesture, be would find 
onitory up-hill work, " nioisl work "— 
drudgery, in fact. 

Why should it not be likewise in the 
mutter of brain and, pen work t Here are 
these same untrained, unskilled muscles 
trying to draw the liery churiot of this 
fame imperious brain. The result is, un- 
ctjual and over-exertion, a rcvoltof muscular 
tissue against brain tissue, and liually a 
'■ .strike" of the over-worked muscles, and 
pen paralysis. 

Did you ever know a professional pen- 
man, who has thoroughly learned the scicu* 
litic muscular movement, to have pen- 
puralysiB ? Did you ever know the trained 
iirator to break down and come olT the stage 
a plo'sicid wreck? What is the difference 
between the man who docs tliese things 
c'lsily and the man who does them -with 
dilHculty 1 It is no difference of native 
pDWcr, or adaptability, or the genius of 
Itcrseverence. Itiis a difference of method. 
'I'bis man talks easily, gracefully, with 
sustjiined clearness and power, because he 
has learned how to talk. He has, in fact, 
learned how to breathe, how to articuUtte. 
how to control and regulate all his vocal 
resources. This other man, who writes 
easily, gracefully, with sustained force, with 
an unvarying, unwearying movement, has 
learned how to write. He has, in fact, 
learned bow to control and apply the mus- 
cular power of the entire arm, from the 
shoulder down. His muscles are like 
trained steeds. The brain may be a fiery 
<barioleer, but it drives fiery horses. No 
one can watch the sustained, smooth, rapid 
action of a good business writer, without 
l)eing impressed with the fact that "every- 
thing depends upon knowing how." 

There are no " toilers of the pen" who 
understand the pen. Those who write 
laboriously arc those who write without 
system, regularity or training. ■ Their 
Urhnique is all a bungling. They use 
fingers instead of forearm ; they wear their 
pens out as a man wears the heels of his 
shoes— all on one side. It is a case of man's 
brain working with boy's hands. 

Andrew J. Rider. 

Andrew J. Rider, President for the cur- 
rent year of the Business Educators' Asso- 
ciation is forty-three years old, having been 
born in Geneva, Livingston County Mich 
igan, March 13, 1643. He is pimtijial and 
proprietor of the Trenton Ilii^iii ( II i_ 
and is one of the best kiinwii I. I i lii 

country. He has been f"i Mm pi i i \ i 
the etHcient Secretary and 'Vwim iiiii 1 iIil 
Association, and was elected to his picbcnt 
position at the Jacksonville meeting by the 
unanimous vote of his fellow worktis who 
recognized in bim the qualities requisite for 
the place. 

Mr. Rider is a representative uiin in the 
broadest and best sense. He not only has 
exalted views of the work which he has 
chosen, but has the faculty, po stsstd by 
few.of attaching his pupils to him pel oually 
He is constantly working for thur ^ood not 

joint proprietor of the Trenton Business 
College, succeeding to the full proprietorship 
in 1867. 

In 1878, he became interested in an jinter- 
priae in Southern New Jcraey, which, claim- 
ing his entire attention, he withdrew from 
the college which was then a( the height of 
its prosperity 

He was sent from his district to the Stale 
Legislature the nomination coming to him 
without premonition, and his election being 
almost bv acclamation, and wholly out-side 
of party lines Some of the reasons underr 
lying this lesult maybe gathered from the 
following extiact tal en from a New Jersey 

h- Hi<ln). was 
u South 
ii iicber, 

■, which 

The Limit Reached. 


For sonic lime past expert penmen have 
been vieiug with each other to see how small 
lhi-:^pare in which they can write the Lord's 
I'niyci'. (Ill Siilurday mention was made of 
the wuik i.r IMnVk M,.iris, of England, who 

SIHvrrilnl in uilii,,: i( l.,il,lv in English 

tc\i 111 A < n, .. .1, , ■ . ., , ,,, i;ii^,|ish shil- 
1'"- ^'' ' " ■ ■^l \ : >f IheMan- 

Clu>lrl illillu,,^ ( ■, , I Ml. i|i,a lliis by wi-ii. 

ing the prayer in a circle described by a 
silver dime. The writing of both these 
specimens of penmanship is legible to the 
naked eye. and when viewed through a 
m!it:iiifyiiij;.;;lns8 it seems to be perfect. The 
palm, Imwever, must by awai-ded to work 
.lone nearly foity-fivu years ago. by Jos. R. 
Neilson. a resident of this city, who was u 
twu'ber of penmanship and a clerk on a 
steamlmat. In tliose days diamond-pointed 
'""'""'" I" "- "' II unknown, and quills 
"■" ' "' ' ■ ' 1^ Mr. Neilson wrote 

"" '' ' li three eighths of an 

''"'' '" '' '' ' I'i'l bis work, after the 

lapse uf su muuy years, is legible to the 
naked eye. This wonderful piece is now in 
the possession of Mr. J. Mooi-c, of McClin- 
tock & Co., luid WHS given to bis mother by 
Mr. Neilson. who at that time resided on 
Lojniu street. The writing is as fine as can 
be made unless microscopic eyes are pro 
vided.— y»/«*6Mi^ I'drgrap/i. 

The Writing-Ruler has become a sUmdard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
JooiiNAL on receipt of 30 cents. 

only in the class room or as pertains to their 
progress in study, but after they leave bim 
and enter upon their life work. There is, in 
fact no class of instiludons where better op- 
portunities for the practical and helpful 
fealty are afforded, than the business col- 
leges, and Mr. Rider is one of those wise men 
who have found out this truth and know 
just how to act upon it. 

Mr. Rider has bad a varied and valuable 
education. After spending the usual time 
at the district schools, and receiving a finish- 
ing touch at a school for teachers under the 
direction of Jfrs. Dayfoots, who was a sister 
of the faihous Miss Lyons, of Holyoke Sem- 
inary, he began to teach at the age of sixteen, 
teaching in winter and attending seminary 
in the spring and autumn. He was graduated 
from the seminary first, in a class of twenty, 
being the valedictorian of the class, and af 
terwards spent a year at Hillsdale College, 
He took a commercial course at Bryant's 
Business College, Chicago, in 1865, after 
which he came to Newark, N. J., and en- 
gaged in leaching at Bryant, Stratton &, 
Wiiitney's College. In tsm, he went to 
Trenton, and in the following year became 

as a rose. He advanced money from his 
private funds to build a school house, and 
'^PMf'l nn tMiif nor pains to give the people 

'I " I' ■' iHiOii everyadvantage forlhc 

<■'■'■■ ' iiiir clrildren. He has won 

i; n people in that locality. To 
I 111 l:iiiiii ill ' 1 1 1. 1 II he has always'shown him- 
self a friend, AVhen others reduced wages 
from $1 to 90 cents he continued to pay 
$1.25, believing that to be as small an 
amount as would support their families." 

We cannot say whether this is the theory 
of business Mr. Rider teaches in bis sciiool, 
but it makes a pretty fair record for any 
man who believes that the world was made 
for all the people in it, and not for a fe\v 
who happen to get to the top. 

Mr. Rider is deservedly popular with the 
members of his profession, and is a man of 
great public spirit. He has an assured busi- 
ness and social position in bis own city, tind 

should make bim n 
done ; and that (In I 
sociation of Amcii. i 
President, as it basdu 

The Muscular Bugaboo. 


If reasoning from cause to effect is essen- 
tial to the proper understanding of other 
arts and sciences it is equally so « hen ap- 
plied to writing. They must be recognized, 
because in all mechanics the effects are from 
causes known or unknown ; if known, pro- 
gress is intelligent, if unknown, progiess, if 
possible, is unsatisfactory and somewhat 

Earnestness, courage, grit, determination, 
pluck, enthusiasm— all these forces, either 
natural or acquired, are needed to success- 
fully continue the onward march, yet we 
cannot shut our eyes to effects as we see 
them without knowing their cause if wo 
care to make the march progressive as well 
as pleasant and profitable. 

To give character and expression to small 
writing the loop letters arc made three, four 
and more times the height of the short let- 
ters. This is simply the effect of a certain 
cause, and the knowledge of it adds another 
de-rceof iutelliyenee to a list that must he 

in the possession of every one ■ 
any part in the play. If I desire to strengthen 
a capital letter, and at the same time give it 
an artistic appearance, I must know the 
cause that will produce the desired effect, 
or if by any process I find an effect not in 
keeping with good taste, I must change it 
by substituting the proper cause. The ob- 
ject of capital lettere is to secure strength 
and give character and expression to writ- 
ing. If they he made contrary to all artistic 
effect and too small they fail to meet the 
the requirements and are but little better 
than small letters. If I make the capital 
" G " with a very small loop at the lop, say 
half a space in length, then follow with the 
stem part five spaces in length, ending with 
a little oval about a space in height, I pro- 
duce a monstrosity ; that is the effect of 
violating well known rules which govern 
form. If I join the top of a capital P to 
the stem, make it very small and almost 
straight, the stem long and curved with a 
short hook, and a line <lrawn diagonally 
across the centre of stem with a short heavy 

line to represent a dot, 1 have disregarded 
all artistic effect and violated the rules that 
should always conform to the best taste, 
that in turn is detenuincd by systematic de- 
velopment and training of the muscles which 
invariably produce rcsiiMs in proportion to 
tbeintelli-i TH.^n |.I:i>.<I in their manipula- 



belimiteil ii. Hur -... ii..i. 

Writleii < liiini. I- IS ni:iy have been discov- 
ered at a very caily date, yet I hope that I 
am correct in the statement that the creation 
of muscles antedates that period. 

Whatever may have been the design of 
the original artist in giving form to the (53) 
fifty-two letters now employed we have no 
reason to believe that he or she contemplated 
theirexecution with the muscular movement. 
If he or she did not consider this idea of 
paramoiiiit importance or even at all, should 
not the advocaics of a purely tuutciilnr move- 
ment be indeed gmlcful to an allwisc Prov- 
idence for such a harmonious effect 1 It is 
fair to presume that the form of the (52) fifty- 
two letters are not adapted to any one set of 
muscles. I would be glad were it so, be 
cause all difHculties now encountered would 
never have been known and learning to 
write would have been a very easy matter. 

It may be true that the forearm is suscep- 
tible of producing the greater amount of 
work imposed in the execution of writing, 
but that would not be conceding more than 
accepting the statement that bread is made 
principally from flour. I deem it wrong to 
say that writing is executed entirely with 
the forearm, at least as erroneous as the 
statement that bread is made entirely from 
flour. If one is true the other is likewise. 
If the latter is lacking in truth with con- 
noisseurs the former is doomed when prop- 
erly interpreted by critics. Loose, unquali- 
fied statements may sound pleasing and 
truthful to the many, hut when tested must 
go by default. If bread is not all flour what 
else is in it ? If writing is not executed en- 
tirely with the forearm (muscular) move- 
ment what other power is present ? What 
ingredients, as well as muscular power, are 
necessary to produce the staff ? What 
muscles, as well as the method of their con- 
trol, are necessary to produce good writing 1 

Cause and effect are inseparable, and we 
must insist upon the advocates of the great 


to prove by some reasonable argument the 
reiterated claims in favor of it before it has 
been ridden to death. 

Genius of India Ink. 


honor to ink. As there are divinities to pre- 
side over almost every object the instru- 
ments of literature do not hick their super- 
natural guardians, and their places and 
precedence arc settled by strict rules of 
eti(iuelle. The "Prefect of the Black Fer- 
fiiiiic" islheolllcial name of the ink deity. 
:iiii| ill rani.- iiiL;licr than (he "Guardian 
■-I'ii ii "I Uii r Mrii ," while on a still lower 
!i M I -iidhI iIk ■ (Junius of Paper." One 
il.i_\ uiieii llii. l.jiqieror IMuantsong. of the 
Tang dynasty, was at work in his study, 
suddenly there popped out from a stick of 
ink that lay upon his table a quaint figure 
no larger than a fly, but having all the 
npiiearanee of a Taoist priest. The startled 
monarch was soon reassured by the words 
of the apparition, " Behold," it said, "The 
Genius of the Ink. My title is the Envoy of 
the Black Fir, and I have to announce to 
you that henceforth, when a man of true 
learning or genius writes, the Twelve Deities 
uf Ink have remained invLsihlc. although 
many centuries have passed away." 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respecting 
back numbers. The following we can send, 
and no others : All numbers for 1870, ex- 
cept Jnnuary, May and November; all 
numbeiu for 1880, except July, Hop- 
temher and November; all numbers for 
1881, e.\cept December; all for 1883, except 
June; all for 1883, but January; ail for 
1884. all for 1885. AU the 75 numbers, back 
of 1886, will he mailed for |(J. or any of the 
numbers at 10 cents each. 

Remember, you can gel the Journal one 
year, and a 75-cent book free, for $1 ; or a 
$1 hook and the Journal for $1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

The Varieties and Processes of 


Wlu'ii thecorrectionsarc fiually eoiuplctcd 
the proper book- form is given to the type 
(if it li»(I not been done before). The com- 
positor JH provided with ft number of pieces 
of rtppnnitns by uliidi Ii. U i nililiil lo 
we<IgetIu-lypcstoi:H!M-,-.,, I. -,!.., -f,,l„,ir 

the anion of ttjcprniiiriL' |.m - :i, lijno. 

In the lirsl instanci-, iill. i h. !i;is iiau-lurml 
lis much type from (he " composing sticlt*' 
lo the " frniley " a." wiU fill one page, the 
compositor binds this group round with n 
string. Then, when he has na many of these 
groups as will fill one side of a sheet of 
paper, he arranges tbeni in proper order on 
a bench called the " imposing stoue;" he 
surrounds each page full of type with pieces 
of wood called "furniture," in order to keep 
them at the proper distance apart. If there 
are sixteen pages in a sheet, as for octavo, 
there are eight on a side, and therefore eight 
are arranged in this way. so that the num- 
ber of pages thus collected depends on the 
size in which the book is printed. The 
whole of the pages, with the "furniture" 
between them are then wedged tightly lo 
gether in a stout iron frame called a "chase. ' 
and this frame, with its contents fixed im- 
movably iu it. constitutes a "form." An- 
other " form" is built up in a similar way 
containing the pages which are to print the 
other side of the sheet ; so that the sheet of 
paper, after being printed by one of tbe-ne 
forms may undergo a second printing by 
the other. 

As a proof of the care with which tliese 
operations must be conducted it may he 
stated that a form sometimes contains a 
hundred thousand types and separate pieces 
of metal or wood, not one of which must 
shift from its place throughout the whole 
process of printing. 

In common type printing the form is 
carefully examined to see that all the lettei-s 
are on one general level, and that the ink- 
ing is not stronger at one point than an 
other ; after this the printing proceeds. 

But in modern times a great feature has 
been introduced, under the name of " stereo 
typiug." by which the printing is not ef 
fected from the types lhems«lves, but from 
•a cast from these tj'pca. 

Let us suppose, us an illustration of the 
object of the "stereotype" process, that a 
publisher is pretty sure of a sale of one 
thousand copies of a new work ; that he is 
doul)tful as to a greater number, hut that ii 
^ireater number is actually called for by the 
publisher. He proceed in one of three 
ways. In the first, he prints off only a 
thousand copies, aud agrees with the printer 
that the "forms" of all the sheets shall re- 
main standing until it is found whether 
more copies are wnnled, the publisher pay- 
ing to the printer a sum of money equiva- 
lent to the loss of capital incurred by allow- 
ing the forms to remain idle. In the second 
method, when the thousand copies are sold 
and a demand still continues, the publisher 
prepares a "second edition," for which he 
has to incur the expenditure of money and 
of time sutlieieut to re compose and re-make 
the book just as at first. In the third 
method, after the form of types has been 
finally corrected, a cast is taken from it and 
the printing is conducted from this cast ; so 
that the cast itself can be preserved as a 
fund from whence future copies of the work 
may be printed as wanted, while the types 
in llie form can be separated, to be applied 
lo some other use. This constitutes the 
stereotype proeeM, which is found to be 
very advantageous for periodiciU works 
having large hut at the same time fluctuat- 
ing and uncertain sales, since it gives a 
power to the publisher of adapting his ar- 
rangements to the demand at any particular 


Return if not Satisfactory. 
Remember, that if you order cither our 
" New ComiMJudimn of Pnictical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 

An Old Copy Book. 

To my way of thinking, an ancient time- 
worn copy book always possesses an inter- 
est peculiarly its own. The leaves discolored 
with age. aud covered with old fashioned 
characters, bring vividly before my mind's 
eye the image of the bright-eyed child for 
whose benefit it was written, and that of the 
master who trained his hand in the cunning 
of our beautiful art. And if this is the 
case with those copy books, of which so 
many were engraved in the I7th and 18th 
centuries, how much more so' must it be 
when a copy book like the one I am about 
to describe, is in the handwriting of the 
master and bears his autograph and "posey" 
(as the inevitable flourish that accompanied 
it was called). I have before me two copy 
books, the production of John de Bau- 
chesne, a description of which will, no 
doubt, be interesting as they are tlie only 
examples still in existence of the works of 
a very worthy member of our craft. The 
one containing 28 leaves out of 45. which it 
had originally, was printed from wooden 
blocks in 1602 by Richard Field in London. 

Besides the ornate initial letters which are 
really beautiful, it contains specimens of 
the various bands then in vogue, the very 

the master nothing is known. As this book 
was written in 1610, de Beauchcsne must 
have lived to an advanced age, for. in a copy 
book engraved by Judocus Hondius at Am- 
sierdam in 1614. there are five pages con- 
tributed by him. I send you a page I have 
copied from this book which will perhaps 
interest you, as showing the fashion of that 
time. I cannot close this letter without ex- 
pressing my regret that in bis time there 
was no publication like the Penman's Aut 
Journal to rescue the name of de Beau- 
chesne from oblivion. 

Yes, Give Us Fair Play. 

Editor Penman's Art Jourkai, : 

You will have to pardon my audacity in 
claiming space for the following ; but as 
the compendium question has now reached 
a stage where they call for " fair play," why 
I'm there also, and don't you forget it i I 
am one of the old compendium writers my- 
self, and can say, as you have to Prof. 
Ferris, the best part of my writing is what 
I did not learn from the compendium, and 
what little is left of the compendium I hope 
to obliterate in due time. Some five years 
ago, before I became the owner of Gaskell's 
Compendium, I wrote a fair business hand 
which I had acquired at one of our colleges ; 
but after practicing from the compendium 

result ? In nine cases out of ten. system is 
never thought of by the scholar, and m he 
is not told what systematic writing is. how 
should he know ? Rapidity, legibility, 
and beauty, Prof. Ferris says Gaskell 
claims ; very well, wo will see how the 
scholar succeeds. As rapidity is the first, 
that must be acquired. After devoting 
some time to that, the scholar thinks he has 
got that down fine, and of course it is Icgi- 
hle. Now the main thing is bcavity. which 
can only be acquired by making as many 
different letters with as many flourishes 
as possible, and behold you have a full- 
fledged peumnn! Yes, but what kind of n 
penman ¥ I could say more, but it woidd 
require too much space. Gaskell's Com- 
pendium was put on the market and ad- 
vertised shrewdly to sell, and it did sell. 
I have seen ignorant boys discard the Spen- 
cerian slips because there was not enough 
flourishing in them, but I have seen 
them regret it. Gaskell was undoubtedly a 
fine writer, but if so his compendium is a 
poor specimen of his skill. I say go on ; 
show it up, until it is driven from the field. 
We have enough works more meritorious. 
Then why should the public be duped 
longer into buying such trash? Gaskell 
was a shrewd advertiser, and in that way 
succeeded in selling the compendium, and 

s 2>lio(t}'fh{] raved fi 

BoimiU, of the Carpenter B. & fi. 

I Collifjf, St. I.i, 

names of which are unknown to modern 
penmen. There are the Secretary, Small 
Secretary, Bast^ird Secretary, the Set hand 
in the Common Place, Ilalique, Romaine 
letters, and othera. But of still more im- 
portance are the master's instructions for 
plain writing. Like Prof. Ames he seemed 
to have had an aversion for flourishes being 
interspersed with ordinary writing. We 
will let our author speak for himself : 

To wi-ite very fair your peu let be new, 
Di»Ii-(lash long-tailed flie false wrltinR escliew. 
Neatly and cleanly yuur band for to Crame 
StroDK stalked pen use, best of a raven. 
And comely to write and dve a trriod grace. 


The other copy book is a small oblong 
volume bound in calf with beautifully 
tooled and gilt back and edges. Everything 
about it bespeaks refinement, and one can 
sec at a glance before opening it that it be- 
longed to no ordinary person. The book 
consists of 19 leaves of vellum and 5 of 
paper and is elegantly written in scvend 
styles ; the initials arc executed iu burnished 
gold. This is the identical copy book used 
by the Princess Elizabeth, only daughter of 
James I. This lady, commonly known as 
the Queen of Bohemia, was one of the most 
charming, talented, as well as the most un- 
fortunate women of her time ; the copy 
book is dedicated to her in French verse, 
and on the last leaf is the inscription. " Je- 
han de Beauchcsne. iEta. Sua, 721. Of 
the pupil volumes have been written, but of 

a while, I acquired a style of writing which 
I thought for a time was leading me on 
to fame, but a year or so later I became a 
subscriber to the Jotjknai,. and in compar- 
ing my work and the pretty, systematic 
copies of the Spencers. Ilinman. and others. 
I found I was on the wrong track. I could 
make large capitals, but oh, what kind of 
capitals ? BIy writing was loose, sprawly— 
in fact, a regidar Mark Checkup style— and 
it reipiired months to overcome many of my 
faults ; and for what is good in my writing 
to-day, I am indebted to the Art Journal 
and Ames' Compendium. 

That Gaskell's Compendium inspired me 
with a love for the work I am willing lo 
admit, for, like a great many othci-s. I had 
never seen anything of the kind published, 
and having always had a love for penman- 
ship, how could it be otherwise ? That is 
all the good I can say for it. To the begin- 
ner it is fascinating to the extreme. By 
placing* such an endless variety of work 
before the novice it cannot be otherwise, 
and, of course, with the laudation and 
praise bestowed upon it, and the many flat- 
tering testimonials of those who have 
extolled it, it inspires the aspirant for cali- 
graphic fame, with such an admiration for 
the copies before him that he, in his wild 
race to become a penman, forgets what the 
author himself has forgotten— proper sys- 
tem, accuracy In form, height, space, and 
shade— the most essential parts of a half- 
way good hand, he has ^ot become 
acquainted with, and very few even attain, 
any good movement. Now, by practicing 
from these mnny-variegated and compli- 
cated slips, what kind of a writing is the 

there are many to day who can be duped by 
a liberal display of cuts. etc.. into investing 
their spare dollars. I believe in giving 
honor to whom honor is due, aud I think 
Gaskell received about as much of it as he 
was entitled to. 1. for one. would- not 
have anything I say construed in such n 
manner as to appear as a slur on Gaskell's 
memory, for nothing is more distant in my 
mind than that, but I would not. aud could 
not. conscientiously recommend Gaskell's 
Compendium us being " without an equal," 
and I'd like to know if Prof. Ferris would ? 
Now have not any of the old compendium 
writers the courage to acknowledge that the 
compendium did not make them the writers 
they are to day V Will they show some of 
their work while practicing from the com- 
pendium, and then submit it, with some of 
their present work, to the readers of the 
Journal to decide how many write like 
the compendium slips. I, for ouc, have a 
few scraps which I am really ashamed to 
show, but in vindication of the abovel 
would allow its publication. Let us hear 
from those who have "been there." and if 
they will disprove my statements. I am 
willing to make proper amends. I'nti! then. 
I remain fratornaHy yours, 


2754(frr9t..St. Louis, Mo. 

Mr. Yogel is a pen artist of imte, and is 
certainly competent to apeak respecting the 
compendium matter. His voice is certainly 
ouc of many. 

In one year the people of this country use 
about 150.U00.U0U Steel pens. If placed in 
line the pens would reach from New York 
to LiverpooL 

((■ni.)rlj.lired IKMil by J II Bmiwu ) 
It is necessory to understand homething 
of ilie priDcipks of light and slinde m the 
rcprcsentntion of object** for it is onl) by 
tlH^ judicious mnangemciit of li^ht and 
sliiidc that an appearance of rotundity re 
lief and projection can be given to them 
Shades iiud Hliaddws may be made by a 
i:rciit mail} motliods bj washing wUb n 
imi-ih in some siii^U tint or color like India 
ink. 8ej>iii et< by the stamp with graphite 
or'cniyon or with tht pencil or pen 

said to have of vacuity. To obviate this 
defect even in the smallest surfaces, it is 
easy to suppose something of reflections. 

If the surface is one vanishing or retreat- 
ing then the ligbt or shade is to be modi- 
fied to convey this impression. The light 
on the side towards the light will be dimin 
isbed correspondingly to the diminution of 
si/e The shade on tbe shaded side will be 
gradually diminished in the same way. 

The shading of plain surfaces, when done 
by a linear process can be easily managed to 
represent the peculiar character of the sur- 
face whether it is a smooth one like glass 
or polished wood or metals, or rough like 

The last instrument will be treated of 
most especially. Graduation is a very im 
portant tiuality in shading. It is said, 
auihnrilatively. that unity and variety are 
necessary to constitute the beautiful, also 
graduation and radiation. These facts 
must be considered in the management of 
light and shade. It may be generally sup- 
posed that a vertical plane resting upon a 
horizontal line. like the front face of a cube, 
might have a uniform tint or degree of 
shade, but it seems as if nature bad nearly 
as great an abhommce of monotony as it is 


Special Penegram fro 

For obvious reasons 1 will state that I am 
II penman, and inconnec'lion with this state- 
ment it is important that I deny, positively, 
being** the best in the world ;*' however, I 
am gradually being educated up to the point 
where my modesty will allow me '■ to own 
up," at which time due notice of same will 
be given through the columns of the Aut 
JdUHNAi,. aud tbe usual liberality displayed 
in offering a reward for a man fbat can beat 
■' my capitals." 

I have just received a letter from Boston, 
written in two colors, which reads as fol- 
lows : "Send me 25 cents and receive by 
letiirn mail an elegant eollcctioa of orna- 
mi-ntal penmausbip fresh from the pen of a 
fc'raduate penman." Said letter, according 
lo my occular observations, is a horrible 

mass of illegibilities. Dear Mr. 11 , your 

letter should have read this way : Being an 
amateur in penmausbip I desire to exchange 
crom' ne»t« with you, and should also be 
pleased to receive a few plain copies. Stamp 
enclosed for reply. This would have re- 
ceived my immediate attention. I have also 
received numerous letters from penmen who 
vend their autograph for "5 cents." This 
is banl on the profession ; tbe idea of a man 
selling his name for a nickel ! History fails 
to record but one insUince equal to it, uainely, 
thill of the New York aldermen. 

Aside— O. ye scribes, listen; what think 
ye t A certain pharisee. whose name is her* 
■withheld, arrived in Austin some time since 
and spread bis eagle over the unsuspecting 
■ Jerusidem, Jeru 

populace, crying aloud 

some stone surf-ites In tbe representation 
of curved surfaces like a cylinder sphere, 
scroll etc The lines of shading must con- 
form somewhat to the direction of curva- 
ture.; and the peculiar character of surface 
as it regards roughness or smoothness may 
be treated according to its character. It is 
proper tbe student should undei-stand the 
difference between shade and shadow. 
Shade is tbe side or portion of an object 
turned from tbe ligbt and the shadow is 
that portion of surface adjacent lo it from 
which tbe light is intercepted by the object 

under my wings, etc., and ye would not !" 
— because — well because he displayed a set 
of Prof. W. E. Dennis' capitals on his cir- 
cular and forgot (?) to explain that they 
were not executed by himself. Well, Mr. 

K . bang out your own goods and sell 

according to your sample, in other words do 
honest compttition and we shall welcome 
you. Remember that even in Texas wc oc- 
casionally get hold of the Penman's Aht 
Journal, iVcA. Judge. Harper'sand Leslie's 
publications, etc., etc.. and that isn't all. we 
have operas, street-cars, baseball, daily 
papers, and the finest ami toyv/par state capitol 
in the United States— yes, the largest, for 
I've been to Chicago, and therefore know 
what I am talking about— yes, indeed. 

The Penman's Aht Jouknal is far ahead 
of all papers of similar purport. Prof. 
Ames deserves much credit and more money 
for the good he is doing. May he continue 
to live, for I've just renewed my subscription. 

D. A. GltlFITTS, 

Secretary Capital Busine-ss College. 

Ames' Compendium restored to 
its regular price $5.00. 
It should be observed that the price of 
Ames' large Compendium of Artistic Pen- 
manship has been restored to Its re^jular 
price of ^5.00, at which it will hereafter be 

Agent for Canada. 

We have commissioned A. J. Small 13 
Grand Opem House, Toronto. Canada (P O 
Box 634), to act as agent fur the Jouknal 
10 Canada. Ilfc will take subscriptions ad- 
vertisements, and supply our oublicationsat 
tbe regular rates. We trust that our Cana- 

The Secret Service Bureau. 

One of the most interesting places to visit 
in Washington is the Secret Service Bureau 
in tlie Treasury Department. In its rooms 
may be seen the photographs of nearly all 
the noted "gangs" who find it profitable 
lo spend their time in counterfeiting the 
currency of their country. The groups of 
pictures bung around the walls contain 
every imaginable type of countenance, from 
the most repulsive-looking individual to the 
handsome young man and most beautiful of 
tbe fair sex. Here are exposed for Ibe bene- 
fit of tbe public the pictures of girls, young 
mothers with babes in their arms, old 
women, young and old men. and even the 
innocent but industrious Chinese, who have 
sought to defraud the Government by 
counterfeiting tbe national currency. Tbe 
tools, dies, money, bonds, etc., which have 
been captured from the counterfeiters, are 
kept in an iron safe at night and displayed 
in cases to the public gaze during the day. 
lu this museum the Government will soon 
have a varied collection constituting a 
second Patent Office for the exhibition of 
American genius. Inquiry of Chief Brooks 
reveals the fact that counterfeiters are most 
numerous through the North and West, 
and instead of prosecution crushing them 
out, it only seems to serve to give them 
renewed life and increased vigor. Nationid 
bank notes are much more counterfeited 
than U. S. notes and certificates. Coins of 
all kinds and of every denomination have 
been counterfeited. The most dangerous 
counterfeits are those struck from a steel 
die, and are principally imitations of the 
gold coins. Moulds of various kinds are 
extensively .used in counterfeiting gold, 
silver and other coins, but these counterfeits 
are much inferior to those made from dies. 
The principal metals used are platinum, 
silver, copper, brass, antimony, zinc, type 
metal, and their numerous compounds. 
The standard silver dollars are extensively 
counterfeited, and are composed of anti- 
mony aud lead, heavily silverplated. Tbe 
5 cent nickel coin is a very dangerous 
counterfeit. It is struck from a die, and is 
made of the same metal as is used by the 
mint. The cent, made of copper, nickel 
and bronze is counterfeited to a small ex- 
tent, principally to fill cabinets of numis- 
matics, particularly the old dates. Such in- 
formation as the above is given by the 
obliging attendant in charge of these valu- 
ables, and instead of tiring in telling to the 
visitors tbe history of each counterfeit and 
the ingeniously -contrived tools on exhibi- 
tion, he seems to become enthused on tbe 
subject and lo call to mind some " blood- 
thrilling" event omitted by inadvertence in 
relating the story to some person who has 
left the room jusl before y<m entered. If 
you want to spend two or three days in 
listening to thrilling stories, don't fail to 
visit the museum of the Secret Ser 
Bureau when you are in Washington. H. 

A Word on Handwriting. 

■' Writes badly, does he 'I Ob, that doesn't 
matter ; I've generally found that boys who 
could write well were little good at anything 

So spoke the bead master of a large pub- 
lic school, when discussing the penmanship 
of a favorite pupil, who was a prodigy in 
the matter of Latin verses and Greek roots 
but whose writing would have been unwor- 
thy of a smalt boy in a preparatory school 
What with letters of all shapes and sizes 
some sloping to the right, some tumbling 
over one another lo the left— his exercises 
looked very much as though a spider had 
contrived to fall into the ink-pot aud then 

I ill' li 

oft would I have gatbere'd you f^. ^"'"'^ ^'" ^''*= ^"^ "^ "'^•"^' ^^''^^ 

hoy pa 


sscd from school t 
to professionalism. He liad boi.., 
to consider bad writing a sign of 

and the result was, he wrote plenty 

T letters aud essays, which no one 

self could decipher. 

is not this typical of hundreds and 

fis of rases at the present day ? 

,i...ii,-.. h:!!nfwriiing is not taught .so 

' ' ■ i>y- 

Examples in Drawing. 

(CopyriRlited Ijy Geortte E. LlHte.) 

In the present lesson Prof. Little presents 
another familiar object ; yet bow many can 
readily reproduce Uie copy, certainly no one 
could fail from want of familiarity with it. 
They could war.t only the proper training 
of the eye and hand. The sketches given 
here would be reproduced by Prof. Little 
upon the blackboard in a space of less than 
three minutes, and in the space of an bnnr 
he would represent from fifty to one liini- 
dred sketches of similar objects. 


The diflference between him and our read- 
ers is, first, that he has so disciplined his 
eye and judgment that a glance at an object 
conveys to him a perfect conception of its 
form and proportion, while those untrniuod 
get no accurate, well-defined conception of 
what they really see, and second, they have 
not the properly trained hand to enalile 
Ihem to produce it. One of the beauties 
of art training is that tbe eye is made 
to become as it were a camera that ac- ■ 
tually photographs and retains an object 

I'i:;,";™;;,':,"".' -■ ''*»'^ "p"'«^"^^^^^ irv,, ,„.... „.,„,„,.. 

may^ccomValmost'ns mMra''lo8?"n°rf !,^ ""^ "" P™°''i"-'i upun'the btackboa'rd'wirb 
letter writing.— Ca»rtc, Magazine. "' ' crayon, or with pen or pencil upon paper or 

Educational Notes. 

[CODintunicatluns fortliU Department may I 
iressed to B. P. Kbllet, Office of the Pbni 
Art Journaih No, 2ai Broadway, New 
Brief educational Items solicited.] 

There are thirty colored sludeuls in the 
Freshman class at Yale. 

The Oxford University, the largest in the 
world, has iwenly-one colleges and five 
halls, and was a seat of learning as early as 

Cornell, Michigan and Virginia universi- 
ties have adopted the principle of voluntary 
chapel attendance. 

The principal schools in Alaska are still 
those sustained by the Presbyterian Church 
and situated in the soutleastcrn portion of 
the Territory. 

doctrines of the id 

President Eliot, of Harvard, is reported 
as saying, in substance, that it were a great 
•loss to the country if the ten bright boys in 
a school were kept back by the ninety dull 

The maximum of daily school work in 
Prussia is seven hours for children eleven 
years of age, up to nine hours for those six- 
teen years and upward. The standard is 
still higher in Denmark. 

The University of Michigan has instructed 
twenty presidents of colleges and seventy- 
four college professors. 

In one Pennsylvania county school teach- 
ers receive !|;12.50 per month, and are com- 
pelled to chanL'c their boarding places every 

In the Vniu il States every two-hundredth 
uiiiu lakes a tollege course; in England, 
every live-bundredth ; in Scotlnud. every 


Prof. AV, I! ITarp.r li:i<; accepted the new 
chair of Ori. nhil iniLinij.-^ ;it Yalc. When 
a son iff tiM (hii [iHV ;iloiig the pro- 
fessor tiiii 1 .' ill In III 1(1 :niy tonguc hc likcs 

Tweuty years ago there were not 15,000 
colored people in the Southwho could read, 
and now 1,UOO,000 colored children are in 
the public schools of the South. There are 
16,000 colored teachers, and niore than 
eighty newspapers owned and edited by 
colored men. Over 100 schools for higher 
education are now in successful operation. 
In fact, in the history of education nothing 
can compare with the present work among 
the colored people.— Jieligiove Herald. 

Germany has eight schools of forestry, 
where five years' training is required of those 
who seek positions under the government, 
ftltbough a course of study half as long may 
be taken by amateurs, France supports a 
single school at Nancy. 

[In every 

Educational Famcieb. 

of any Item 

._ ;iro per credit 

courtesy from othera will oe appre- 

used In this department is known, the proper credit 
Ifl^ven- ■ '" ■-— ' •<- ■" 

A soft spell— D-ud-c. 

" Does my question puzzle you '(" asked a 
professor to a pupil, " Not at all," was the 
bright reply; "It is the answer that is a 
slicker." — Jiockester Daily ExprfM." 

" Charley, do you like to go to school ?" 
kindly inquired a gentleman of a nine year 
old boy. "I like goin" well enough," re- 
plied the young hopeful, "but I don't like 
staying after I get there." 

Professor in mechanics : " Master Wiltse, 
caayuu give me an example of lost motion V" 
Master Willse, after a moment's delibera- 
tion : "Well, professor, a woman with a 
paralyzed jaw." — Indianapolis Herald. 

Christopher Columbus teaches school in 
Tabor, Iowa. He is very particular to im- 
press upon the minds of his scholars that 
the world is round, not Hat — Puck. 

Ponsonby. — "Education I Don't tell me t 
America is far behind Europe. Why, sir, 
look at France, for instance." Bagley. — 
"Well, what of France?" Ponsonby.— 
"Well, sir, even the little children there 
can speak French." — Detroit Free Pre**, 

Fred's uncle visited his nephew's school 
one morning, and at dinner said : " I liked 
your teacher, Fred ; she struck me very 
favorably." " H'm ! you ought to see how 
she struck me after you left." 

Little Millie (at the dinner table to her 
fother, who had given her the smallest piece 
of pie on the plate)— " Papa, why is my 
piece of pie like Europe 't" Papa (thought- 
fully)^" Like Europe V Indeed, I don't 

First small boy. — " Say, Johnnie, where 
arc you in Sunday school V" Second small 
hoy. — " Oh, we're in the middle of original 
sin." First small boy: — "That ain't much ; 
we're past redemption." 

"I see father," said Rono,""tbat two 
hoys in Maine were frozen to death while 
going to school." " Quite likely, my sou," 
replied Hollo's father, "quite likely ; a 
thing that is liable to happeu anywhere, 
even in July. But you never heard of a 
boy freezing to death while coming from 
school. Never, my son." And that gave 
Hollo something to think about all the morn- 
ing.— S/wAiy/i Sagle, 

A whole Sunday school was demoralized 
and thrown into convulsion by a precocious 
youth when a distinguished visitor was in- 
terrogating the school, and asked: "What 
was the forbidden fruit ?" Up jumped the 
p. y., and said: "I know." " Well, what 
was it ?" inquired the stranger. "Pickles," 
shouted the boy in a stentorian tone. 

One Sunday Deacon Bucrag, a good man, 
but rather a crude talker, addressed the 
Sunday school. " Dear children,"he began, 
plunging at once into the subject, "Jesus 
said, ' Suffer little children to come unto 
me, for of such is the kingdom of Heaven.' 
Now, dear children, the little ones came to 
him in large numbers, and in — in their 
mothers' arms, and he took them and— and, 
now can any of you tell me what Jesus did 
with all of thosedear little children ?" " lie 
took them to the circus," vociferated a small 
boy near the door. 

Just for Fun. 

The call to arms — "John, take the baby." 
Smith. — "If you were stung by hornets, 
lones, what would you do first ?" Jones.— 

Bob Ingcrsoll confesses that one thing i 
created to be eternally lost — au unibrella.- 
Chicngo lA'dger. 

admitted to the b'a 

A man named Benjamin F. Butler has 
committed suicide. It is not known whether 
there was any other reason for the rash act. 
— New Jlaren News. 

The Indians originally owned America, 
and would still own it if they had gone into 
the liquor business when the first white men 
arrived here. — Philadelphia Herald. 

Clara— " Have you heard the good news V" 
Ethel— "No; what is it." Clara (triumph- 
antly)— ' ' Papa has been bitten by a mad dog, 
and we are all going to Paris."' — New York 

A Steubenville woman who left homo 
dressed in a suit of her husband's clothes 
is adjudged insane. We publish this merely 
as a hint to husbands whose wives want to 
" wear the trousers." — Pitttburg Leader. 

Why does a young man embracing his 
girl at the garden gate just as the old man 
approaches remind you of a love scene at 
the theatre ? Because he is hug'dng bis girl 
before the foot lights. — Pacijic Jester. 

auditor at Ihe close of a lecture. " Oh," re- 
plied the lecturer, with a laugh, " I used to 
work in a barber shop." 

A Chicago editor, absent on a trip to 
Washington, writes that be has been all 
through the national capital and considerable 

" Madam, "saidashiveringtramp, "w-will 
y-you give a p poor fellow a ch-cbance to 
get w warm ?" "Certainly." replied the 
woman, kindly ; ' ■ you can carry in that ton 
of coal, but don't burn yourself." 

' ■ Have you found religion yet, my friend ?" 
the Rev. Sam Jones inquired of one of bis 
hearers. "No," was the reply. " What is 
your occupation, may I ask f "I am a 
detective." " H'm I" observed the great re-, "that accounts for \\.."^ Wicked 

seat and lutlered toward the door. 
He. was, however, stopped by the conductor, 
who said; "Your fare, please." "I paid 
my fare." " When ¥ I don't remember it." 
" Why. I paid you when I pot on Ihe cur." 
"Where did you get on ¥" "At Fair 
Haven." "That won't do." said the con- 
ductor ; " when I left Fair Haven there was 
only a little boy on the < ' 

Complimentary to the Journal, 

The Grant Memorial is a very tine pen- 
and-ink picture, and accompanies Ihe prince 
of penmen's journals as a premium. — The 
Guide to Shorthand. 

We cannot speak too highly of the Pen- 
man's Art JotniNAL as a valuable medium 
to penmanship instruction. It is deeply in- 
teresting and full of practical suggestions 

.Every person intcresi 
should take the Penma 
It is without doubt the l 
lishcd on the subject u 
the coat is really nothing 
which is given 

nth it i 


the price of the paper. We have received a 
copy of the "Guide for Self -Instruction," 
which is given as a premium ; it is truly a 
valuable work. The other premium, Grant's 
Memorial, is one of the finest productions of 
the pen we ever saw. — Vnimi BunneM Col- 
lege Journal, Lafayette. Ind 

Thk Penman - \i.i i-i !.■, m lim - i-Dn- 
student of peiiin . . i ( ■ ' . h. jih- 

schooling in pen ■'\- -i ■! 'Hi-'in- 

can be obtaini-'-l Un.'ujii Um. ].[.- miIi- 
scribe for it at only one doliiir per jfiir. 
You will have no cause to regret it.— A'(. 
Joseph Commercial Jtevicuj. 




Pnbliwhed MontMj- at »1 per Y» 




(md Aitl^oPeuiDMiBUp/'or/oi 

Self-luBtructloD ' in oloth, uid 
imltUiiff tl, a choice »( either ofthe'aUow- 
jiihed Ea«lu, - ' ■ Ux» 


New Yokk. June, 1880. 

Exact vs. Inexact Copies. 

Tlie tenciency of all hmuiin invention and 
discovery, from tlie earliest dawn of time 
to the present, has been from crudoness 
toward perfection— from the lower to a 
higher order— and aecording to the modern 
idea of evolution, man, and even the uui- 
verse of life and mailer, arc the resvills of 
an unfolding progression. 

Naked, man has clothed himself with com- 
fort and elegunee ; unsheltered, he has pro- 
vided 11 home, {onnnodious and stately in 
its architc'tturc; unarmed, he now wields 
the deadly \Vin<-hestcr rifle; a precarious 
subsistence from hunting, he has rtmlcred 
more reliable by agriculture; intolurmi 
and meagre speech be has transforiiud in ;i 
language, systematic and so abuuduut as tu 
readily convey every shade of bis thought 
and feeling, and in place of scarcely intel- 
ligible pictures and hiroglyphics he now re. 
cords his tbovights and acts in systemalic 
writing, or by the aid of the press, iiud his 
lightning messengers send them flying to 
every quarter of the globe; slow and lire, 
some of foot, he has harnessed the elemenls 
to his chariot, which outstrips the wind in 
the ease and rapidity of its flight; bis 
knowledge be has classified, and its several 
tleparlments he has resolved into us many 

lu its long line of progress from primeval 
ti udeness to its present stage of perfection, 
every department of thought and discovery 
has been compelled to fight its way against 
the opposition of cnvilers ami vested inler- 
ests, and not infaquenlly, under the law 
that might made right, has wrong been the 
apparent victor, and truth been thrown 
backward in defeat, but throughout all the 
long march the grand aggregate has been a 
triumph for progress, and of nolhing 1ms 
this been more true tluin of writing. 

Although it miybl. and doubtless would. 

be interesting to trace and illustrate its sluw 
and tedious advance from infancy to its 
present high estate, we shall, for the pres- 
ent, at least, refrain from doing so. and 
confine what we have to say to its progress 
during a little more than the tost quarter of 
a century. 

About 1857, P. U. Spencer issued his com. 
pendium of practical writing, and soon 
after the first series of bis copy-hooks. 
When the compendium was issued the age 
of the quill pen was not yet post, for in 
it appears elaborate inslrurtion, with illus. 
tration, for pen making — the latter is here- 

t'ornis presented in his copies, pupils, under 
his inspiring genius, became skilled writers, 
and went forth devoted missionaries for the 
Spencerian. But these were the days of un- 
graded and unclassified schools, and when, a 
few years later, the same style of copies, 
published in a series of copy-books, (see 
cuts for examples), were introduced into 
the public schools, although welcomed as a 
desirable substitute for the well-nigh hiero- 
glyphic scrawls written as copies by the aver- 
age schoolmaster of those times, the defects 
of these new copies soon became apparent to 
the more discerning teachers, as well as to 

porated, until now Ibe several leadhig sys- 
tems of copy-books present the most or- 
derly, systematic, and easily constructed 
copies that the aggregate teaching experi- 
ence of over a quarter of a century can 
devise. Not only have the copies been sim- 
plified and systematized, but tbey have been 
graded and adapted to a nicety to the vari- 
ous grades of schools. Thus, the instruc- 
tion of a teacher and the practice of a pupil 
in one school, or another grade of the same 
school, is in harmony with the teaching and 
practice of other schools and other grades ; 
hence the progress of the pupil is unimpeded 




/^^^n^y-u^^io-n^ yii^^^^^ 


(^^^/S (Z^cS^ ^^ (24'^^t.^i(^^^^m^@^/f /34^^/r 

&^rce/ &i/(a) ^ 

The pen part of the above cut 
ript part is a facsimile reproductic 

fas reproduced from i 
of copies given i 

illustration of the first specimen Compendium published in ISfl?. 
( of tlie first series of Spencerian copy books publislied in 1859. 

will be seen the variety and style of which Gaskcirs Compendium is only a poor imitation. The authors and publishers of these 
copy books lesnied wisdom by experience and have several times revised their books, thereby suiting them to the experiences and 
demands of the times, but the author and publisher of the Compendium like Rip Van Winkle have slumbered, and now oblivious 
01 the fact Ihat the world has been moving, actually present their antiquated, played out, shifting sprawls, as copies •• without an 
equal or a second for learners of writing. They not only do not discard from the Compendium copies lliose features that have 
long since been stamped by Ibe best learliing and business experience of the land a.i pernicious bul actually now vaunt the deferls 
as so many specific merits. 

In the above cut is presented a specimen of orderly and systematic writing upon the basis of the approved standard for copy 
ing— compare it willi old tSpcncerhm and the Gaskellian. ' '■* 

with reproduced. The compendium was 
bailed with delight by the penmen of the 
land, and at once became their vade mccum, 
and that it was tretutured by some, at least, 
is very obvious, from the appearance of 
other and later compcndiunis. a prolific- 
crop of which has been produced. The 
compendium abounded in the grace, beauty, 
and never-ending variety of form and sliade 
that characterized the original Spencerian. 
Prof. Spencer possessed the genius of teach- 
ing as well as of writing, and in spite of 
this embarrassing variety and intricacy of 

Prof. Spencer himself, and the copies were 
soon revised and rendered far more simple, 
uniform and systematic in their construc- 
tion, and more definite rules were formu- 
lated for the guidance of teacher and pupil 
in their instruction and practice, and during 
the nearly a quarter of a century that has 
intervened these copies have been subjected 
to the ordcjil of criticism by teachers, 
agents and competing authors, which has 
resulted in repeated revisions, in which 
faults made manifest by experience Lave 
been eliminated and desired qualities incor- 

as he passes from grade to grade llirough 
his course of study. Were the copies 
otherwise, there could be no concerted 
teaching or practice. A pupil in a new 
grade, or under the tuition of a new 
teacher, would very likely work as indus- 
triously to undo what had been previously ac- 
quired as he bad done to learn it. We should 
add that this method of teaching and prac- 
ticing writing aualylically. from uniform 
and systematic copies, is universally ap- 
proved by teachers of experience and recog- 
nized ability throughout the land. It Is true 



thnt DOW and then there appenrs some Rip 
Vnn Winkle, awakiDg from a tweuty years* 
slumber, or a bumptious fledgeling, bitting 
upon some aneient idea nud imagining it to 
be new, who becomes a roaring advocate of 
Ilia " new goasyou-please belter-skelter sys- 
tem of rapid writing from tbe st»rt;" but these 
. are, as it were, simply the little excrescences 
that attach, like mud, to the wheels of the 
car of progress, and impede, to the extent 
of their weight and power, its advance. 
But the car rolls right on, and after a few 
revolutions of its wheels these excrescences 
arc dislodged and thrown ofl", to constitute 
a portion of tbe wreckage that lias strew 
the pathway of progress. 

The Convention. 

lu just about one monlli (on July 7) the 
Convention of tbe Business Educators and 
Penmen of America will assemble in this 
city, and according to the present indica- 
tions it will be the largest and most tbnr- 
ougbly representative body of teachers in 
this special department of education thnt 
has ever come together, ^ Tbe importance of 
such annual meetings to the general course 
of business education can scarcely be over- 
esliniatcd. The interchange of ideas re- 
specting the system and method, together 

leges and over 1 .000 teachers— to s 
of the hundreds of penmen not 
colleges, there bas never been 100 present as 
members in any ronvention. Cer»ainly a 
convention in which less than one-tenth of 
tbe working force of its class is present can- 
not impress the press and public to tbe full 
extent of the importance of its cause. 
Every teacher in these specialties should 
regard himself as, to a certain extent, a joint 
slockholder, and that his presence and 
efforts are necessary to elevate his own and 
tbe general stock to par. We trust that in 
the coming convention there will be present 
numbers and quality sufficient to give an 
impressive representation of the fraternity. 

We Don't! Don'tl! Don't!!! 

deal in any kind of fluid inks. This we 
have said over and over, yet scarcely a mail 
comes that docs not bring requests for some 
special kind of ink by return of mail. 
Readers should know and remember {and 
by doing so will save themselves and us 
from much annoyance) that no fluid of any 
kind is allowed in tbe maih, hence we cannot 
mail inks, and as wc do not deal in inks— to 
go out. bunt up, purchase, box and ship by 
express any special kind of ink subjects us 
to an intolerable amount of trouble, ond be- 
sides subjects tbe purchaser, by paying 

be bits been recognized by all competent 
judges as the " American Master " of ex- 
quisitely beautiful, practical and faultlessly 
correct penmanship, Tbe new Spencer- 
ian Compendium, of which the present 
article is a part of the explanatory mat- 
ter, is beyond (piestion the most faultless 
exemplification of the entire art of pen- 
manship that the world bas ever seen. No 
penman, or artist in any sense, but could 
afford to pay the price of several subscrip- 
tions to the JonKNAi. for this single article. 

They Don't Reply. 

In a late number of the Jourkai. we re- 
quested the editor of the Compendinm Qazette 
who wrote the Gaskell Compendium up 
as "without an equal or a second," to favor 
us with tbe grounds for this extraordinary 
claim, and also to explain why be thought 
it better for a learner to practice upon from 
five to ten different and crudely made forms 
for each capital letter of tbe alphabet, such 
as are given in the compendium rather than 
to practice upon one or two really good 
forms for each letter. We also put tbe same 
question to Mr. Ferris, who sought to defend 
the compendium, but neither have favored 
us with tbe information. We still indulge 
the hope that they will yet do so, else we 
fear that some of our readers will do them 

c^-y-:/ Lyu^-^, 

^^^p^ ^-U^rz-i^'^^g^.^l^^^^^^ .^^%^i<^;^/-W^^:^^4ir%/<*5^lJ!/^-^ 

^,../. 1/ / 



\ ^M-U'.^U^^. 

s phoU).n,{imml from a hlUr in-iUen by )V. II. Putrkk, Panman at the Sitdler B. £■ S. BminesH College. 
f/. Am a model of miimhU-. jmictictd writing, it in commended to the Gaedte editor who wivte that t/ie 
Gmkrll C'ompeiuHnm was "vnthoul an equal or a second." 

with tbe acquaintance and fellowsliip that 
grows out of such gatherings tend power- 
fully towards a unity of efforts for the im- 
provement and upbuilding of the general 
plan of business education. Whatever tends 
to generally improve and popularize busi- 
ness education, adds to tbe dignity, popu- 
larity and success of each individual. Why, 
then, should not every one in any way in- 
terested in business education lend his pres- 
ence and efforts as a eontrUMition to help to 
make tbe convention of the teachers of bis 
specialty as numerous, auspicious and popu- 
lar as is the convention of teachers in any 
other department of education. Certainly 
none of the previous conventions liave fur- 
nished any adequate representation of the 
teaching force engaged in this department of 
education. Out of about 300 business col- 

special expressage. to an exorbitant outlay. 
Remember, please, that we will not All 
orders for any kind of ink except India ink 
in stick. We are daily asked, - What kind 
of ink do you use ?" we answer, In all our 
artistic work, India ink freshly ground from 
the stick; for the ordinary office work. 
Maynard A Noyes black ink. A mixture of 
any good Japan ink and Arnold's writing 
fluid will make a good card ink, but is not 
good for photo engraving. 

Prof. Spencer's Lesson. 

Seldom has any periodical presented to its 
readers as interesting and useful an orticle, 
pertaining to any specialty, as that which 
is contributed to this number of the Jotnt- 
NAi. by Mr. Lyman P. Spencer, For years 

tbe injustice (?) to believe that they are 
without such reasons to give. 

Again will not tbe editors of the OasetU 
publish in its columns one or two specimen 
pages of the Compendium copies that its 
readers may see its Amj/C^ and know its ci-- 
cdlence before remitting ifl for It, also that 
they may observe the admirttble harmony 
between its style and the really excellent 
copies presented in the Qazette by Prof 
Wells. This they can do without exjiense, 
for we will donate to them the cuts free of 
charge. Speak gentlemen, please. 


— We have received from 
Messrs. Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co. 
samples of the famous Speucerian pen No. 
1, which write splendidly. They cannot 
fail to give satisfaction. If y<iu have not 
tried tbcm you should do so. 

Living at Small Cost— Positions 

Tbe cost of room and board to members 
attending the convention in New York from 
July 7ih to 10th, need not necessarily ex- 
ceed $10. Students attending the business, 
medical and law colleges secure board and 
rooms at |5. $6. and $7 per week. Their 
absence from the city during July leaves 
vacant rooms which strangers can occupy at 
small cost. Instructors desiring positions 
for tlie coming year in colleges or commer- 
cial department of common schools should 
become members of the convention to meet 
their friends and parties needing to secure 
associates and commercial teachers. Quite 
a number of college men desire to effect 


The King Club 

for this month numbers one hvndred. and 
was sent by W. II. Patrick, tbe well known 
and popular teacher of penmanship at 
Sadler's B. & S. Business College, Baltimore, 
Md. Considering tbe season of the year 
this is a club of unusual s-\zc. 

The Queen Club numbers twelve, and was 
sent by A. J. Small, Toronto, Canada. 

■Several letters addressed to "A," care of 
the JouiiNAi,. remain in our charge, owing 
to the fact of having failed to observe tbe 
address we made no note of tbe name and 
address of the advertiser. Will Mr, "A" 
furnish tbe same and get his letters. 

to Correspondents. 

C. II., K., Pbiladelpbia, Pa.— "Can any 
one not a member attend the convention ?'* 

The convention will be open to all who 
choose to be present, but only those who 
become members can take part in the pro- 
ceedings, unless specially invited to do so. 
The membership fee is only %h, and it is to 
be hoped that all engaged in teaching busi- 
ness branches will become members. 

II. J. M., New York.—" Can you tell me 
what has become of Xha Ntrnnal Penman, for 
which I subscribed and have received but a 
single copy 't Is it published V" 

No ; it bas been discontinued." 

W. L. B.. Zumbrota. Mi 

nn,— '* If you 

send an order for goods ca 

n a firm send 

other goods than those ordei 

ed and oblige 

you to take them, or. in oMic 

\v<>rds, if you 

send an order fnr ^ m 1 nn h 

1. Irs. ;md tbe 

firm bas not the -i - ■ 

1 Ml do not 

wL-htosendthc h . 1 

can they send ynu .^ihi 1 -■■^^ 

- Ill |»ioce of 

those ordered and i)l)]i;;f ymi 

<i keep Ihem ? 

If goods arc returned when 
should pay the return charges ¥ Are you 
entitled to your money if you return goods 
as stated V" 

If a dealer cannot supply such goods as 
are ordered he should communicate the fact 
and await advice before shipping ; but it 
often happens that a dealer may have goods 
so close in quality and style as to lead blm 
to believe that they would be acceptable in 
place of those ordered, in which cise be 
sends at bis own risk. A man is under no 
legal obligation to receive or pay for that 
which be does not order, and if returned 
the seller .should pay all charges and refund 
the purchase money. 

B. L. S.. Boston.— "Are not all physical 
movements muscuhir, in writing as in other 
bodily employments ?" 

Yes. All writing movements involve 
muscular action, and have been so taught 
for generations past, but thai name is often 
erroneously applied to distinguish Ibc well- 
known movements of tbe aim from the Sub- 
ordinate action of the hand and lingers in 
writing. Tbe action of the arm, hand and 
fingers should be blended to give easy and 
proper articulation to all classes of chiro- 
graphic fonns, 

J. C. A., Cincinnati. — "Has any system 
been published in Ibis country advocating 
slow writing ¥" 

No. Tbe whole scheme of American 
writing as distinguished from old English 
round-baml is one of expeditious writing, 
consistent wilh legibility and gooil form. 

Eight Pages for July. 

Owing to our desire to mail tbe paper 
before the Fourth of July and tbe great 
amount of labor incidental to the conven- 
_wc have to ask indulgence of tbe 
readers for the issue of an eight page paper. 



^^^ m ^"-^"'''^^^^ 

J. M. Harkliis. pentnnii 
le^p, MliiiienpiilK hus lat«ly 
'iperatlc line. In a aomewhat extended press re- 
port or nn utnutciir rendering of tlie "Sorcerer." 
Mr. Hnrkina la mid to have mnde Ihc bit of tlie 

Among t)iv names of tlie fnculty of the SumioGr 
School of (jiilticy Uettiods iil NiRieura Falls, we are 
picaaod to mite the names of L. L. WllllamB and F- 
E. Rogers of the BoolieBtor (N. V.), BuBlness Uui- 

8 R. Ilophlnain taking a Biiionier vacation at the 
I'cquod Houae. New London, Conn. 

C. B. Cady condiiotA a commercial department at 
the summer school at Newport, R. I. 

Wm. H. Duff, of Dnff's Commercial Colleite, Pitts- 
burgh. Pa., lately spent several days In New York, 
and of course paid bis compliments to the sanctum 
of the JounKAL. 

Seymour Eaton, A.M., editor of irmu and S:fiool 
SupjtlrmtTU, Toronto, Canada, will be associated 
with the Niagara Falls Summer School of Methods. 

A. J. Steadmau. penman at the Toledo (Ohio), 
Bualneas College, favors us with a copy of the an- 
nual announcement of that Institution. 

Mr. I.yman ]'. Spencer now has an oHlce in New 
York with his brother Havvoy A. Spencer, at the 
Sponcorian Business College, SO East 14th Street, 
Union Square, where he devotes his time to the 
authorship work of the Speacerian publioatioos. 

O. B. Jonea, tea<.'her of penmanship in the Batavia 
pulilin schonta, la spending a few weeks with II. 
W. Kll.he. UUra, N. Y. He will spend the summer 
in New Vtnk, to still further perfect himself In 

At the nfth anniversary of iheHockford (111-) Busi- 
ness College lately held, the Rev. P. H. Swift deliv- 
ered a very able and practical address upon " The 
pathway to victory," we quote the following from 
the Rookford Register in which It waa published : 

( that I 

eby a di^termlned 

"lenes came to ue tu 
sin spile of the fai 

will. Demosthenes c 


'•i-ed I 

W. C. Sandy, accountant and principal of the 
Commercial Depurtmeut of the Newark, N. J.. 
Public High Sohool,has]aid upon our table a unique 
text book tin boukkeeptng.of which he isautbor.and 
which ts used us the basis of his instruction !n book- 
keeping. The work consists of 11(1 quarto pages, 
all printed from the professor's own manuscript 
copy.wvltten witli an electric pen, the manual exe- 
cution la a model of uniform neatness and legi- 
hlllty, ond so far as we are able to judge of its lit- 
erary and scientific merit as a text book on book- 
keeping it Is highly creditable. 

N. A. Miller, of Elmirn, N. Y., has purcliased the 
Allen Business College, luid will call il the Khnira 
School of 



AS TMh is 
a gratuitous 

I^tti-rs the Btyle of which were worthy of note 

J. II »iyaiit.spencerittn Business CoIlege.CleTe- 
land, Olilo, ami aolub. 

F, 1„ (lirislopher, Waahlngton Life Ina. Co.. Clil- 
tago. 111. 

H. O. \Valdron, Proapect, Pa. 

11. 8. Welnhelmer, teacher of penmnnsliip, Nurib 
Tonawanda (N. Y.) Higli School. 

It. S, Bonsall, B. A S. Business College. St. Louis. 

(i. A. Hough. Fort Scott. Kans. Ho says : " You 
bavemyhearlyaupport in all you nay respecting 
the Qiutkell Compendium." 

Frankle Steadmau, special teacher of writing 
and drawing in the public schools of BlcCounola- 
Mile, Oiilo. 

0. B. Jones, special teacher of writing in public 
si'luiols, Batavia. N. Y. 

W. N. Ferris, Big Rapids (Mich.) Industrial 

v.- M. McVoy, Loulavlllc. Ky. 

O. E. Kretdimer, Cleveland, Ohio. 

J. K. nfcketts, Saco. Me. 

II, W. Flieklnger, College of Commerce. Philadel- 
Pn.. In matob(eaB style. We 

iVilaon, Montrose, Col. 
nallett. MlUerton, Pa. "The JoirnNAt Is 
aid to teachers, and no similar publi- 
cation has done ao much to elevate the standard 
of Itinerant penmen." 

Geo. W. Wood, McKeeaport, Pa. 

W. ^. Cayne. Ix)ns<Iale, R. I. 

W. R. Glen, B. & S. Business College. Phlladcl- 
phla, Pa. 

W. n. Patrick, Sadler's B. & S. Business College, 
Baltimore. Md. It appears on another page, 

K. Suhworm, Ottumwa, Iowa. 

,T. D. Brlunt, Rouma, La. " I am delighted with 
the Grant Memorial." 

E, E. Stevens,TTi8tltute of Penmanship and Short- 
hand, Wauseon, Ohio. 

£. Miguel, Spring Rill College, Mobile, Ala. 

C. II. Kerr, Stockton (Cal,) Normal Institute and 
Commercial College. lie aays: " I have read your 
articles on GaskoU's Compendium with great in- 

D. 11. Farley, teacher of writing and bookkeep- 
ing at the State Normal School, Trenton, N. J, 

H, n. Stutsman, Denver. Col. lie says: "The 
Jot'RVAi, deserves the hlgliest praise; one might 
exclaim mvltmn In parvo." 

F. G. ' 

, R. L "T ( 

isidor r 

n, C. Senn. Oshkosb, Wis. " I am much pteaaed 
with the JouKNAi. and your detei-mlned stand 
against the so-called Compendiun). I have been a 
reader of tlie Pmman's fiazrt<€, but I think the 
JoORNM. nun:h more practical and far superior to 

L, Madaras/., card writer. New York. 

C. E. lloltgreve. East Portland, Oregon, and a 

L. H. Caldwell. Lumberton, N. 0. 
R. S. Morton. Portland, Me. 

F. S. Heath, Epsom, N. II. " I am much pleased 
with tlie specimens of practical writing you are 
giving In the Jouunai.. Rope they may continue. 
We hope so, and that Mr. H. will furnish one. 

S. W. v.. Great Amsterdam. N. Y.. and a club of 

Uriah McKee, commercial department of Oberlin 
(Ohio) College, and a club of six name3, 

G. W. Hootinan, Valparaiso. Ind. "TheJonnKAi, 
is surely the best penman's paper 1 have ever 

Lyman P. Spencer. New York, In Lyman's 
" atyle," which is the model of America." 

W, W. Bennett, Cleveland. Ohio. 

J.W. Patton. penman at Alfred Unlverslty.Alfred 
Centre, N. Y. 

W. A. Moulder. Clyde (Ohio) Businesa College. 

W. A. Raymond, Eastern Normal School, Colum- 
bus Junction. Iowa. 

A. O. Hoftman, Milwaukee, Wis. 

A. J. Newlands. Kingston, Ontario 

J, S. Cooley, Windsor Locks. Conn. 

r. M. Smith, Cbioago. Rl. 

W. H. Klbbe, arttat penman and teacher. Utica, 
N. Y. 

J. M. Lant7., Emmltsburg, Md. 

D, A. Griffiths. Capital Business College. Austin. 

■^ \ \M tel uae, East Boston, Mass. 

V C Hammler Burlington, Iowa, a letter and 

Jas W W McClelland. New Brighton, Pa., a let- 
ter Ho rlshed bird, and aeveralcopy slips. 

II W Qualntance, Fulton. III., a letter, a flour- 
ish ib I and several copy Blips. 

Marc BlI F X New York, a letter and several 
sp ImenS of tiouiishlng and drawing. 

N S Bcardsley, artist penman and teacher. St. 
Paul. Minn., u letter and photographs of three 
patres of a Memorial Album of iho late Vice-Presi- 
dent of tlw United States, engrossed by Mr. B. 
The deBlgUB are artistic and well executed. Copies 
may be procured upon terms mentioned in an ad- 
vertisement by Mr. B. in another column. 

R. B, Capen. Dlrigo Business College, Augusta. 
Me., a letter and flourlehed bird— the latter vrill 
probably appear In the next Issue of the Jouhnal- 

C. I! Kimmig, pen artist, Philadelphia, Pa., a let- 

specimen of italic r 

aun niuKe a guou cliit* in tlir tall when my classes 

A. D. niucB, Gap Creek, Tenn., a letter and 

J. A. Duell. Urbona, lU., a letter, a nourished bird 
and several bIIim of practical writing. "I am a 
■trong advocate of the Journal. 

Lock Thompson. Templcton, Pft„ a lelter and 
copysllpa. In aformer mention our printer located 
Mr. T. ill lowB, to which he very properly demurs, 
we therefore give him free transport«ilou borne to 

Messra. MeKee A Ilenderaon.Oberlin (Ohio) Busi- 
ness College, sends a package of specimens written 
by 8. I. Bartow. G. II. Schultz. D. K. Campbell. 
Samuel B. Jeffrey. L. I. Nelson. D. M. Knauff, .1 V. 
Medsger.T. H. Plilllipa, and Mlsa JorIc M. Piatt, 
pupils at the institution. Tlie specimens are all of 
a high order of merit, several would do honor to 
some of our professionals. It la probable that some 
of them will appear In a future Issue of the 

E. K. Salisbury, Phenlx. R. I., a letter and two 
aetB of gracefully executed capitHls. 

C. M. Immel. Millersbnrg, Pa,, a letter, also speci- 
mens of flourishing such as are given as prizes to 
meritorious pupils. 

U.F. Vogel.pen artist, St. Louis, Mo., aletter and 
a photograph of a memorial picture of Gen. Grant, 
designed and executed with a pen by Mr. Vogel, 
which as far as we can judge from so small a plate 
is a highly artistic piece of work, also a flourished 
bird design. 


"White's Pro^easive Art Studies— Ligltt 
and Shade, and Landscape." By George G. 
White. Ivison, Blakenmn, Taylor & Co., 
New York, publishers. Price by mail, 13. 
This is a large quarto-book, and is a work of 
rare value to every student or teacher of art. 
It not only explains fully the method of design 
and the power and effecl of light and shade, 
but furnishes a multitude of effective and 
instnictive examples for study and practice, 
both of objects and landscape. Mr. White, 
the author, is one of the most skilled and 
popular artists of this city, and in this work 
he has employed his skill with rare good 
taste and judgment. 

■'Sheldon's Complete Arithmetic," by 
Sheldou & Co., 734 Broadway, New York, 
is a new and practical work just issued. It 
has been prepared with great pains by the 
combined efforts of several experienced 
teaebers and authors. It is concise, clear in 
its stalemeols and illustrations, while its 
problems are abundant and practical. In- 
deed, we see no reason why it should not 
prove a popular publication. Copies for 
examination mailed for 40 cents. 

"Joint Stock Companies" is the title of 
a small pamphlet, containing an address 
lately delivered by .1. W. Johnson, F.C.A., 
Principal of Ontario Business College, 
Belleville, Ontario, explanatory of the na- 
ture of stock companies and the manner of 
their organization and conduct. It is a 
clear and comprehensive treatment of its 
subject. Price not mentioned. 

"llow to Teach Penmanghip in Public 
Schools," is a pamphlet of 62 12nio pages 
and chart, by J. L. Barrett, and published by 
C. W. Bardeen, Syracuse. N, Y. Mailed 
for 60 cents. The work will be a good in- 
vestment for any teacher or even pupil of 

"One Hundred Valuable Suggestions to 
Shorthand Students," by Shelby A. Morau, 
conductor of the Phonographic Institute of 
the University of Michigan, at Ann Arbor. 
As far as we arc able to judge from our 
limited knowledge of the subject of which 
it treats, it is a book that will be of solid 
service to a vast number of aspiring stu- 
dents of shorthand. 

" Labor Laws of America," is the title of 
a 230 page pamphlet, written by Henry A. 
Haigbt, counselor at law, Detroit, Mich., 
and published by the Co-operative Publish- 
ing Company, 58 Congress Street West, 
Detroit. The work is a plain, coneise and 
clear statement of the laws relating to labor. 
The subject just now, in these times of 
labor agitation, is one of special interest 
and importance to all classes. 

"Modern Languages in Education," by 
Geo. F. Comfort. Dean of the College* of 
Fine Arts, and Professor of Modern Lan- 
guages in Syracuse University, 16mo, 40 
pages. Published by C. W. Bardeen. Syra- 
cuse, N. Y. Price 25 cents. This is the 
paper read before the Auierlean Philological 
Association in 1872. and afterward pub 
lished in Serifmer's Monthly, but which bus 
been for some lime unattainable. 

The following named little publications, 
entitled " Unity Leaflets," are by the Cole- 
grove Book Co., 135 Wabash Ave., Chicago: 

"Outline Studies in Holmes, Bryant, 
Whitticr," their Poems. 18mo, paper, 32 
pages. Price 10 cents. Topics, tjueslions 
and hints to aid In home or club study of 

the poets. Prepared by W. C. Gannett with 
the help of members of the St. Paul Uully 

Outline Studies iii .lames Russell 
Lowell," his Poetry and Prose. By Mrs. 
Susan B. Heals. i8mo, paper; 31 pages. 
Price 10 cents. Similar in plan and execu- 
tion to the preceeding. Mr. Lowell says of 

"The little book both interested ami 
astonished me. * » * The author is far 

; familiar with my works than I can 
pretend to be." 

Seed TbougbtB for the Growing Life." 
From Robert Browning and others. Selected 
and arranged by Mary E. Burt. I8mo, m 
pages. Price 20 cents. A handbook uf 
brief selections of ethical value. Dainily 
printed, with illustrated cover from a design 
by the author. 

Ten Great Novels." Suggestions for 
Clubs and Private Reading. ISmo. paper, 
23 pages. Price 10 cents. 


Owing to the superabundance of matter 
demanding a place .in this issue, we have to 
ask the indulgence of our numerous friends 
for omitting to do honor to their editorial 
geniiu* according to their respective merits. 
We love them all, and greet them with our 
heartiest wish that their shekels and honors 
may come, in overflowing abundance. Per- 
haps we should say that the "Shug" Ad- 
vocate is not on our exchange list. 

7'/i« Fountain, York, Pa., for June has an 
interesting article on " Penmanship," by J. 
M. Smith. The publishers announce that 
the price of the magazine, beginning with 
September nest, will be $1 for the school 
year of ten months. 

" Tfie Office." announced in the last issue 
of the JouRNAi. to make its appearance on 
Junel. was on hand, and proved to be a 
right promising youngster. Sixteen pages, 
elegantly printed, and filled with sound, 
sensible matter, and a cover of four pages 
containingits prospectus and advertisements. 
We are confident that no person engaged in 
any kind of office duties, whether as prin- 
cipal or assistant, can fail to find #1 paid feu- 
this publication for one year a good invest- 
ment, and this is equally true of those who 
are teaching any of the business brunches. 

Institute of Chartered Account- 
ants of Ontario. 

The above is the title of an association lo- 
cated in Toronto, incorporated by the legis- 
lature of the Province of Ontario, its object 
being to raise the status of accounting. A 
course of lectures is delivered in Toronto 
during the fall and winter of each year. 
The institute is not a teaching body ; it 
simply places its stamp upon those who pass 
its severe examinations. It grants a diploma, 
which, by the authority of its act of incor- 
poration, entitles the recipient fo use the 
distinguishing leltersF. C. A. (Fellow of the 
Chartered Accountants). To the examina- 
tion for this degree only those are admitted 
who " have known standing and estabJitihed 
reputation as an accountant, or who hold a 
responsible position ina financial or other 
corporation." It also grants first and second 
class certificates to bookkeepers. The 
diplomas and certificales won at the recent 
examinations were publicly presented in the 
Board of Trade rooms of Toronto, by Mayt r 
Howland, a few days ago to the following 
gentlemen : 

Diploma and degree of F. C. A.— J. W. 
Johnson. Principal Ontario Business Col- 
lege, Belleville ; W. MeCabe, Managing 
Director North American Life Insurance 
Company, Toronto ; E. R. C. Clarkson. 
Public Aceounlnnt. Toronto ; G. F. Jewell, 
Public Accountant, London. 

First-class Certificate as Bookkeeper — 
Chas. G. Bcgg, Toronto. 

Second-class Certificate as Bookkeeper — 
0. T. Smyth Cummings, Illinois, U. s! ; 
Henry Derby. Hamilton. Ont. 

Superior Pens. 

,/utit reca'tfit~~fi new kil of "Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dien 
and with extra care. Every effort bus bun 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have buc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular price, 30 cents, Try them, 

^*'^^'''^'^^:^i^ ^'J 4^^^ 

Lessons in Practical Penman- 

Tlif lesson for July will be given by A. 
W. Lowe. Lynn, Mass. 

W. A. Mo!ilder. of the Clyde (Ohio) 
niisincsa College will give the lesson for 


O. A. Hougb, of Fort Scott (Kan.) Nor- 
mal College, will give n lesson in tbe Sep- 
tember number. 

The following named gentlemen bave 
alrendy given notice of Iheir acccpiancc "of 
our invitation, and will give lessons at such 
times as will be mutually acceptable : 

ir. \V. Flickiuger, Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. .J. Stewart, Trenton. N. J.; W. R. 

Fbakklin, Neu., June 1, 1880. 
Editor Penman's Art Jocrnai, : 

Dear Sir: — In the March number of the 
JouBNAi, F. J. Toland, in speaking of the 
oblique holder, pronounces it "a nuisance 
in every sense of the word," and puts ft low 
estimate on the skill of those using and 
recommending it. I should like to have 
your opinion through the Jouknai,. I was 
taught to use no other by my teacher, U. 
McKee, of Oberlin. Ohio, whose work shows 
the world at a glance that he is not "in- 
ferior," I have seen it recommended by so 
many of our best penman that I think the 
question surely has another side. 

Truly. "W. A. IlARsiiBAnGEit. 

It was our oiiinion that Brother Toland 

various articles of food which go to support 
life. If the number of times the hand car- 
ries the fork and the spoon and the gloss to 
the lips during the dinner hour was mulli- 
piied by the distance of tbe lips from the 
plate, the hand will be found to travel 
farther in a minute while eating, than while 
writing. But there is hardly any necessity 
to use figures to prove that the hand travels 
as fast or even as far as the foot. If it did 
not it would surely be left behind. For 
instance, when a man left his home in the 
morning, he would arrive at the office in a 
decidedly incomplete stale if his bauds did 
not travel as fast as his feet. He would 
feel decidedly uncomfortable if his hands 
were to lag behind a mile or two. and he 



'i-engramd from c 
in the ordinary c 

letter utrttt^n hy F.W. TT. Wiesehahn, Pen Artiat, St. Louis. Mo. The l,n 
mrse ofcorrespontknee, with m expectatlm of its being published. 

Glen, PlHla.,Pa.; H. A. Spencer, New York; 
H,.I. Magee,New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N.J.; C. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
IT. Patrick, Baltimore. Md.; E. Burnett. Bal- 
limore. Md.; H. T. Loomis, Spcnccrian 
Business College, Detroit, Mich. ; Uriah 
McKee. Oberlin (Ohio) College ; P. F. Judd. 
t'bicago, 111. 

We are very sure that the practical iufor- 
nujtion that will be presented in the series of 
les.sons to be given by such representa- 
tive lejichers as are named above will be 
of sidid advanuige to all teachers and pupils 

Note.— All who have consented to give a 
kiwon. are hereby requested to designate the 
lime at which they prefer to do so. Also, 
It) any teacher or author, who has not sig- 
uilied his purpose to give a lesson, and who 
contemplates doing so, an invitation is 
hereby extended. 

Remember that now is the time to sub- 
scribe for the Journal, while you can get 
all the back munbers and begin with the 
year and the volume. Two subscriptions 
will l)e received for |1.75 with a copy of the 
GuTDB to each subscriber. Also remember 
that the Qoidb alone Is worth all the money. 

made a rather sweeping statement respecting 
the use of the oblique bolder. Thai it pos- 
sesses real advantages over a straight holder 
in the bands of many writers, and probably 
most professionals, cannot be successfully 
denied. A very large portion of all who 
write experience a difficulty in turning the 
hand so that the straight bolder will point 
over the right shoulder, which is necessary 
in order that the pen should squarely face the 
paper, causing both nibs to move under the 
same pressure and thus give a smooth line. 
It is our impression that a large majority of 
our best writers now use the oblique holder. 

A recent scientific article shows that a 
rapid penman writes tliirly words a minute, 
and in doing so draws his pen through six- 
teen feet of space. From this calculation is 
derived tbe grand truth that "the hand 
travels as fats, if not as far. as the foot." 
The writer neglected some other circum- 
stances which might be adduced in support 
of his proposition. For instance, he ne- 
glected to calculate the distance traveled by 
the hand In elevating to the mouth the 

had to wait until they caught up with him 
before he could do any work. If the band 
did not travel as fast as the foot it would be 
very amusing to go to a pedestrian contest, 
and watch the walkers marching bravely 
forward, while their hands were lagging 
behind, and yet doing their best in a vain 
effort to keep up. It seems to he undoubt- 
edly true that the hand really travels as fast 
and as far as the foot, but of course we feel 
surer about it now that science has proved 
it mathematically. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self-improvement in practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's "Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return It, 
and we will refund the cash by return mall. I 

A Few Last Words. 

Juuc H. ISSO. 
Editor Pen -MAN a Art Journal: 

Dffir .Sir.— There ought to be no need of 
a ■' few last words " to the friends of busi- 
ness education throughout the country on 
behalf of the coming convention. There is 
every reason in the world why that conven- 
tion should touch high water mark in its 
spirit and its outcome. There should be. in 
fact, a cordial unaninnty of sentiment as to 
the convention itself, as well as to the work 
which lies before it. The Executive Com- 
mittee have done all within their power to 
impress upon the friends that this meeting 
is to he above all things else a meeting of 
educators, or teachers in the various depart- 
ments of business education. If there is an 
enthusiastic teacher of penmanship in the 
country, he should make it his business to 
be at the convention. If there is an expert 
in bookkeeping, iu commercial arithmetic, 
or iu any other branch of business training, 
he owes it to himself to contribute to the in- 
terest aud profit of this convention. If there 
is a teacher of shorthand who has a better 
system, or a better method of enforcing his 
system than anybody else, this is the place 
for him to do good and to reocive goQd. If 
there arc those who are interested in any of 
tbe acrcessories of a practical education— au- 
thors of text-books, inventors or promotors 
of reporting machines or of typewriters, or 
of anything else which makes labor less irk- 
some and more effective, this is the place for 
him to display his wares and to show to the 
world what is being done to promote the 
business interests of the country. We want 
to make this convention such a positive suc- 
cess that there can remain no doubt in the 
public mind that the special work which we 
are trying to do is a work which the highest 
interests of society demands. 

I have no doubt whatever that we shall 
have here in July the largest and moat en- 
thusiastic convention ever held by the Busi- 
ness Kducators' Association ; not because it 
is in New York, not because one person or 
another has charge of the details ; but be- 
cause the lime has come in our history when 
such results should confidently be expected. 
It should be particularly understood that the 
■' Business Educators' Association of Amer- 
ica," is an association of individuals and not 
of schools ; and that no member has any ad- 
vantage over any other member, except such 
advantage as may accrue to him from being 
able to do more through his tongue or pen, 
or his kindly nature for the advancement of 
the cause. There will be, 1 kuuw, a disposi- 
tion to recognize and bring to the front the 
younger members who show ability in their 
special lines, and for one I can promise to 
any and alt who can make it convenient to 
be with us. a cordial reception and a good 

S. S. Packard. 

Cbairman Executive Conmiittee. 

Rewaids of Merit. 
Miss Fraukie Steadman, teacher of pen- 
manship in the McConnellsville schools, 
conceived the plan of awarding prizes to the 
scholars who made the most progress in 
writing during the past school year. So as' 
to fully determine who was entitled to these 
prizes. Miss Frankie si-nt specimens of pen- 
manship executed by different scholars to 
Prof. I). T. Ames, editor of the Piinman's 
Art Journal, of New York, Mr, Ames 
not only made tbe decision in regard to those 
who made the most improvement, but made 
out certificates to that etlect to be awarded 
as prizes to the pupils. Tlie certificates are 
gems and were executed by him entirely 
with the pen, and are on exhibition in Ilal- 
liday's book store. — McConnrllfreile (Ohio) 

The salary of the President of the I'niled 
States is l^5<).0UU per annuuL If Adam had 
been elected President the day he and Eve 
quit the garden of Eden, and went into 
politics, and had in the meantime been re- 
elected every four years, and put hy lialf 
his income for a rainy day from then until 
now, he would yet have to serve through 
oOU more terms to save as much as William 
II. Vanderbilt left behind him. You see 
Vanderhilt was rich. — A^. 

- '^JWWg'W"^"''"'j^^!Ty^^jyM«jyfJJlllMTjp p^ 

iM^'jiJioto-enffravett fm 

I jitii ami ml ropt/ aiul (h«iqiitd an tlu htuthng }m am mw aioek Diplomas I'lu- Diptotm Blanks will be on tJtf finest paper 18x23 
tind will Im InrntiJud blank or filed Stnd 2oc foi mmpk 

The Schoolmaster's Grave. 

At bis post In the old tog achool-hoiine. 

Whore we sat aide by side ; 
The place looked loru and lonely 

To me In the shadows dim, 
Dut a bird In the alder bushes 

Was slugiug a eong to him. 

We watched them bud and bios: 
And watered them with tears 

And oft, when summer twilight 
To earth new beauty gave. 

We tnmed aside together, 
To staud at the master's grave 

For his thoughts ki 

8 If the angel in Hei 

\a sad and tender. 

i whispered, " Come," t» him I 

The book dropped 

OathedeSi' ._ 
And we sat silent with ti 
For we know that he v 

bowed his head 

Forever echool wa^ out. 

I thought of the school days jolly, 
Ofplay-gTOiiad, bench and ulass. 

As I Knelt by the grave of the ma^tte 
And parted tbelong, green grass. 

And I tried to read the inscdptiun. 

From the Hands of Famous 


AutUogmph collectors may be roughly 
(liviiieci into two classes, those who pollect 
uicre aigimtiires, urged iLeroto by a. form of 
llie ordiuary collectiug mania, and those 
who are always glad to secure some inter- 
esUug letter or inimuscript possessing ad- 
dilional interest from the well-known hand 
ill which it is written. Tlie one is content 
to show to admiring friends a gaudy album 
containing so many hundred signatures of 
all sorts of people, great and emaU. The 
other devoles years to "inlaying" with per- 
tinent letlvrs some fine edition of a stiiudard 
luilbor, or to acquiring a collection of manu- 
scripla of interest to all students of litera- 
ture. To the latter and more worthy class 
belonged James It. Osgood, the well known 
publisher, who from his position was able 
to gather together in the course of years a 
collection of nutogniphs valuable as well as 
His brother collectors will re- 
e and grieve when they Iciu-u that Mr. 

Osgood lias placed his treasures iti the hnnds 
of W. E. Benjamin, of this city, for sale. 
They will grieve that such a well-chosen 
store of precious " letters written" should 
be broken up, and rejoice at the chance 
which enables them to fill iu the chinks and 
crannies of their own accumulations. Eveu 
to the outsider who cares for none of these 
things, a glance over the catalogue shortly 
to be issued will not be labor lost, for it is 
curious to see the estimation in which the 
various living and dead celebrities are held 
by the autograph-hunter. 

Among Americans we find that General 
Grant's name attached to a request fora 
" box ticket " addressed to Wallack's Thea- 
tre is worth $4, while a letter from J. G. 
Holland, in which be makes free with a 
weather prophecy of the IVibune, is priced 
at $1.75. An autograph letter of Lincoln, 
dated I860, is worlh $10. and one of Aaron 
Burr, dated 1792, is marked $4.50. A title 
deed signed by Governor Clinton, dated 
1788, seems cheap at $3.75, as does a two- 
page letter of our own Barnum which may 
be had for $1. One of the signers of the 
Declaratiou, Robert Morris, is quoted at 
$3.50, while Roscoe C'onkling sells for a 
tenth of that sum, namely 25 cents. Oakey 
Hall is worth five cents more. Rufus Chimte 
brings $1, and Victoria Woodhull falls to 
no cents. 

It is in the department devoted to literary 
men that the choicest treasures are to be 
found. There is, for instance, the original 
autograph manuscript of Emerson's "Re- 
presentative Men " comprised in 790 quarto 
pages, Bound together, these are priced at 
$500. Fretiuent erasiu'es, alterations and 
corrections occur and, what must have been 
the despair of the composing room, Emer- 
son frequently wrote on both sides of the 
paper. The hand is bold, clear and charac- 
teristic of the man. Among the many pas- 
sages bodily exercised is the following : 

" Then 

strength and for delicacy. Men have existed 
who afiirmed that they heard the language 
of celestial angels and talked with them, 
but that, when they returned into the natural 
world, though they preserved the memory 
of these couversatious, they could not trans- 
late the things that had been said into 
human thoughts and words. But Shake- 
speare is one who having been rapt into 
some purer state of sensation and existence 
had learned the secret of a liner diction, and 
wheu he retirrned to this world retained the 
line organ which had been opened above," 
Of De Quincey there is a quantity of 
material consisting of corrected proof sheets, 
pages of manuscript and autograph letters. 
The greater part of these letters are ad- 
dressed lo bis publishers and arc unsigned. 
Written in De Quincey 's small, fine hand- 
writing, they breathe in every line the nerv- 
ous, supersensitive nature of the author. 
Appeals for time to finish copy or correct 
proofs, for money for one thingand another, 
without a ray of hope or enjoyment striking 
through the gloom, form the general tenor 
of them. For the lot $50 is asked, or nearly 
half the price of a single letter of Addison 
dated 1708. A letter from Robert Burns to 
his friend Robert Cleghorn contains two 
original songs never published, and cuds. 

"Thine in all the sincerity of a brace and 
honest Port, R. B." It is valued at $85. A 
letter from James Fenimore Cooper to J. D. 
P. Ogden is dated 1830, and speaks bitterly 
of Colonel Webb, editor of The Courier and 
Enquirer, who "has been this day indicted 
for another libel against your humble ser- 
vant." and mentions bis intention of suing 
for libel Colonel Stowe, editor of The Com- 
maxial Adoertiser arid HperUttor. "This 
libel is contained in the imputation of an 
attempt to falsify history." Oliver Gold- 
smith, in a postcript to a letter to his uncle 
(valued at $200) iu which he discusses his 
tutors at Edinburgh, where he was studying 
medicine, speaks of a trip to the Highlands, 
lie says : " I hired a horse of about the si/e 
of a ram, and he walked away (trot he 
could not) as pensive as his master." Bret 
Harto contributes the manuscript of the play 
"Two Men of Sandy Bar," which nearly 
ruined Stuart Rohson, aud is contained in 
two volumes of 125 pages each, priced at 
$75. Of Hawtborue there is the manuscript 
of "A London Suburb," one of the sketches 
iu ' 'Our Old Home," which is priced at $90. 
Two interesting autographs of Oliver Wen- 
dell Holmes are those of the " Professor at 
the Breakfast Table " and the " Autocrat of 
the Breakfast Table," the first complete and 
the latter nearly so. The prices of these 
two treasures are $300 and $325 respectively. 
Some unpublished rhymes by Keats "To 
Miss Reynolds' Cat " are an oddity. A letter 
addressed to " Miss Reynolds, Mrs. Earle's, 
Little Hampton, Essex," is dated 1817, aud 
signed, "Yours truly, John Keats." It is a 
facetious jumble containing the following : 
"But let us refresh ourselves from this 
depth of thinking and turn to some innocent 
Jocularity, the Bow cannot always be bent 
nor the Gun always loaded if you ever let 

it off Then you are among 

Sands Stocks Stones Pebbles Beaches Cliff* 
Rocks Deeps Shallows Weeds Ships Boats 
(at a distance) Carrots Turnips Sun Moon 
and Stars and all those sort of things— here 
am I among Colleges, Halls Stalls plenty of 
Trees thank God— plenty of water tliauk 
heaven— pleuty of Books thank the Muses 
—plenty of Snufl', thank Sir Walter Raleigh 
—plenty of Segars, ditto— plenty of fiat 
Country, thank Tellus' rolling piu." 

The rhymes are valued at $00. and the 
letter will cost the buyer $50. Extracts 
from a letter of Poe's to G. W. Eveleth are 
interesting. The letter is postmarked 
March 12, 1847, and is priced at $40. In it 
he says: "'The scholar and gentleman^ 
referred to is Evert A. Duyckinck." . . . 
"My suit against The Mirror btLs terminated 
by a verdict of $225, iu my favor." " En- 
glish . . . ran off to Washington for 
fear of being criminally prosecuted." " P. 
S. 'TheValdemar case" was a hoax, of 

Macauley writes under date of 18^9 (bis 
letter being now worth $15) : "And what I 
hear of the form in whicrli your countrymen 
show their kindness and esteem for men 
whose names are at all known, deters me 
from visiting you. I need not tell you that 
I mean no national reflection. Perhaps the 
peculiarity to which 1 allude is honorable to 
the American character; but It must cause I 

annoyance to sensitive and fastidious men. 
Brougham or O'Connell would have liked 
nothing better. But Cowper would have 
died or gone mad ; Byron would have in- 
sulted his admirers, and have been shot or 
tarred and feathered, and, though I have 
stronger nerves than Cowper. and, I hope, 
a better temper thau Byron's, I should suffer 
much pain and give much offense." . . . 
The following passage from a letter of 
Lord Tennyson maj be commended to tlie 
agitators for international copyright : "I am 
not in the hjibit of inserting poems in the 
English magazines, and why shoidd I in the 
American 1 particularly as in this unhappy 
condition of international copyright the 
English magazines would immediately pirate 
anything of mine in yours." 

Both Artemas and Artemus Ward are re- 
presented, the one by some regimental 
papers, the other by a characteristic effusion, 
"Am I a nuisance? or a pestilence or a fam- 
ine, or any kind of a disorder ?" Twenty- 
one curious letters chiefly addressed to 
Thomas Percey, author of the " Reliques," 
are included in one lot. They concern 
Johnson, Goldsmith. Mrs. Thrale, Garrick, 
Hannah Moore, Arthur Murphy, dramatist 
and author of a " Life of Garrick ; " Jacob 
Tonson, the publisher, and others. Mention 
of all the rare, curious and interesting mat- 
ter eatidogued would stretch this article out 
to undue limits. It may fairly be said that 
no more a interesting collection has fot a 
long time been offered to the public— iV, Y. 

Ames' Compendium of Practical 

and Artistic Penmanship. 

This work, as its lille implies, is a com- 
plete exemplification of the penman's art. 
in every department. It consists of seventy- 
two 11x14 inch plates, giving instruction 
and copies for plain writing, flourishing, 
lettering, and designing of every kind of 
artistic pen-work. It has forty two different 
standard and ornate alphabets, and a large 
variety of engrossed memorials, resolutions. 
Certificates, diplomas, headings, title pages, 
etc., etc. We are confident that this work 
prcBenta to the penman or artist a greater 
and more useful variety of pen-work than 
does any other work upon penmanship 
cxtjint. Price by mail $5.00. It is the 
cheapest book of its size and character 

Any person who orders it from us, and 
does not find it all that we claim, is at 
liberty lo at once return it to us and have 
hia money refunded 


anent Subscriptions. 
It should be rcmembcttd that while it is 
a rule that the Journal will be discontin- 
ued at the expiration of the term for which 
the subscription is paid, any one who shall 
so request may have their names entered 
upon our permanent list. In which case a 
bill for their subscription will be sent at the 
beginning of each new term of aubseriptioii. 

A kid from Beaver county named Charles 

Engle, is attending Duff's college. He is a 

little "sawed-off" who only measures in 

height six feet four aud one half inches aud 

;ahs 200 pounds, but Our Baldy says he 

■T.. i,« „ 1 „.•„„.. ™„., „(,^,^ ^g ^^^^ 

-^CSJ^ jcmuJMLti^i^^ 

"Bad signatures?" echoed a Cliicago 
bank C4ubier, as a reporter fired questions nl 
liim through tlie tittle golden gate. "Bad 
signiitiires? We don't Lave any in Chicago, 
except what come from lUe East. Everj'- 
body out here writes well. In New York 
and the Kast everybodyiu theljanking busi- 
ness writes his signature just as awfully as 
he can! How do we account for the style 
in 'New York? It is imported. English, 
you know. Bank officers down East write 
their fignaturcs in such a way that you 
have got to learn them as you do any other 
mysterious sign before you can tell what 
they are. There are no letters in them. 
Here is one that fills the paper from margin 
to margin, you see. There doesn't seem to 
be any letters in it, but on close ctamina 
lion you'll see there are letters as plain as 
can be. This man always makes his name 
fill from margin to margin, no matter whilt 
the width of the sheet. Here is one that 
looks as if the writer had put his pen on a 
pivot, and sent it spinning ; winding up 
with a shoot off to the right, a good deal 
like the pin-wheels we boys used to play 
with on the Fourth of July. Some sling on. 
80 much ink that Iheir signatures have to be 
spread out in the sun to dry before they 
can he put into an envelope or used in any 

" I am happy to say that the use of 
• blind ' signatures has taken no root in the 
West, though, of course, there is a case 
here and there. For ins^tance, Peter White, 
in a bank at Ararquette, starts it with a spin 
of his pen, circle after circle, each smaller 
than the other, and then a big, broad drop 
stroke from the centre. Of course itdoesu't 
look like anything at all in the shape of a 
name. Canadian bank signatures are also 
nearly all 'blinds,' but here in Chicago I 
can't think of anybody that uses blinds, or 
that even writes illegible signatures, In 
Chicago it is hard to find a man that writes 
badly, while in New York it is hard to find 
one that doesn't, so far as his signature is 
concerned. One of the worst autographs in 
Chicago is that of E. B. Washhurne. It is 
remarkable how well even the boys write in 
Chicago. Some of our best penmen are 
messenger boys just from school. Most of 
the poor signatures in Chicago are from eld- 
erly men, whose nerves are shaky. Occa- 
sionally we get a signature which doesn't 
look right, and we compare it with the sig- 
nature book, but Oflft times out of a 1,000 
the man was a little drunk, or careless, or 
excited, when he wrote it. L. J. Gage, of 
the First National, writes one of the plain 
est signatures ever seen. Orson i^mlih 
writes a beautiful signature, and so do Nusli 
Oakley and many others in our banks. 1 
am mighty glad the ' blind ' style never b.> 
came popular here. There is no sense in 
it. The ' blinds' can be counterfeited jusi 
as easy, if not easier, than ordinary signji- 

Bears and Bulls. 

n VUR A 

Brokers and operators are "bears" when 
they have sold stock, and particulariy stock 
that they did not own, contracting to deliv- 
er it at some future time. They are then 
"short of the market." The disposition of 
the bear is to pull things down. The Wall 
street bear is often found "gunningastock" 
by putting forth alt its strength and craft to 
break down the price, and especially when 
aware that a certain house is heavily loaded 
and can not resist his attack. lie "buys 
in" by purchasing stock to meet a "short" 
contract, or to rctiu-n borrowed stock ; 
"covers," or "covers his shorts," by buyini: 
stock to fulfill his contract on the day of 
delivery. This is a self -protective measure, 
and is called "covering short sales." A 
"drop" in the price of a stock is to a bear 
the next be.Ht thing to a "break." He re- 
jnices in au "off" market when prices fall. 
He "sells" out a man by forcing down the 
price of a stock that the person is carrying 
so low that he is obliged to let it go, and 
perhaps to fail. He groans lustily when 
the bulls gel a "twist on the shorts" by arti- 
ficially raising prices, and "s([uee2:ing," or 
compelling the bears to settle at ruinous 
rates. Neither "bull" uor "bear" is an ul- 

safe -'critter. ' The latter, how- 
jputed to be about four tinics as 
mischievous as the former, inasmuch as he 
rudely sells another man's property, where- 
as the bull contents himself with carrying 
his own. 

The bear occasionally finds himself in a 
"corner." where it is impossible to buy the 
stock of which he is "short," ami which hu 
must deliver at a specified time. He growls 
and begs, but nuist pay what the holders of 
his contracts are willing to accept. Some 
relief is afforded by a "let up," or the with- 
drawal from the market of the "clique" or 
"pool," or combination operators that 
cornered him. A "squeal in the pool" is 
the revelation of its secrets by one of its 
members, and a "leak in the pool" is wlim 
one of the parties sells out his interest 
without the knowledge of the others. 
Either form of defection yields some miti- 
gation to the bear'a sufferings, — Harper's 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 
than to pay |1 for the .louuNALone year, and 
the "Guide to Self-Instruction in Plain and 
A rtistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents (in paper covers), and |1, hand- 
somely bound. 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

A 33-column monthly, witb I-essous in Ornamental 
Penmanship, by Prof. E. K, ISAACS, and Plain 
Penmansbip. by S. D. FORBES. Boukkeepine 
Illustrated. Business Law articles by Lenalnft 
Lawyers, eto. 50c. per Year, with a choice 
of the following Premiums— TOG-paRe Dictionary, 
or a J^ prosB of best Pens and Patent Oblique 
Holder. Subscribe now, and receive back numbers. 



tine penir 

J/. Sp< 
Knox vi lie, Tenn. 

Address R. S. COLLINS, 

ALL FOR $1.00. 


Ml rai-h I if Written Copies and Exercines, 
5 Specimens of Flourishing (fresh from the pen). 
11 different (fresh from the pent. 


for the JouuNAi.. 
>serve))othasalUeand binder, 
post-paid, on receipt of $1.00. 

205 Broadway, New Yi)rk. 

W. rvl. HALSTED, 
Printer and Stationer, 

Opp. Tribun. Buildioj. N.w York. 


2 1st Annual Session begins 
September 1 . 



nic Buildinj^. 

Course of Study, 


Send for Catalogue with full particnhir* to 



ithly. by H. C. CLAltK, Principal 

The American Penman 
Journal, well filled wllh e\ 
the subject of Penmanship. 

ssued about Deo. 15, 
a year, to any 
I large S-page 

Lessons by Mail 

fl@^ Sl-50."^t 

Continued inquiry with regard to Instrdctiohs 
BY Mail has Induced the undonigned to arrange 
for self and home learners, and for amateurs or 
those preparing to teach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The 50-Ie88on Course In Writing conslstsof a im 
tltiide of elegantly u^ttm copies, embracing j 
kinds of Exercises, the standard smaU and capi' 
Alphabet?, Word copies. Sentence Copies Bnslii 
Forms. Page Writing, letter Writing, variety ..j 
Capitals, varietv of Fancy Capitals, serle; 
^ Combination Exercises, series oi 
Combination Exercises, Business Initial 
-ns, Fancy Initial Combinations, etc., 
th the NAME of tlie person purchasing 
in a variety of artislio oombtnations. 
t these copies are direct from my own 

[ling each 5a-Lessoa Course in plain and 


I showing the exact position of 

analysis of a 

The entire 

with Instruclloi 

and position at'desk! "aIso 

" " " l-s; and 

I.. ppnuiiiK, ciassincation aud 
idard letters and figures. 

portfoho package! 

post-paid, on receipt of S 
The BO-Lesson Course I 

the Exercises or Principle^, ,,^, „ ..v,„i:ui i^u 

of the most elegant QulH, Scroll and Bird Designs 

frorn any one penman; }S- All fresh 

, n Also printed Instructions 

The entire BO Lesson Sebiks op Execibes and 

Designs, with instructions, sent in one portfoUo 

package, pont-pald. on receipt of SI fiO, 

m _ . . . ^j \\iz%Q courses Is based on a 

tfuchiwi penmanship and it is 

^ N Piimi-i, D T Ames, 
* ' spencer 

f li speomiens— one each of Flour 
-ti from the pen. 

of Capitals— the ihrei 


Wo have a most elaborate and artistic rn.s(ic bor- 
der, transferred direct from the original penand- 
iuk prnt«don the finest mialUy ofVlstol board 
and \\ hainmn s hot-pressed drawing paper, Sfixsa. 
I fipnt V" ^ "" "1 '"'P*5 liBving these borders will 

S. T. A1IE8, Artlit Pemas tnd Pnbllihtr, 

Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

For stud 61 

lools, and e 

practical forma for the capital and « 

It gives 

script alpliabeta: also the figures; thus keeping 

present and convenient before the writer 

rot, forms for writing. This ruler Is 15 Indies 
th. metal edged, 
by mail to any addi 
x\ IS luvaluablfl to all wb 
their writing. Address. 


306 Broadway. New York. 



1 Introduction I 
six weeks for 1 

the Study of Book-keeping. 
The course will require al 
completion, when taken In connection with other 

A notable feature la the large numbdr of Bust 
ness Forms— nearly all the Niift ~ ' " 
Certificates of Doj usit Rccriii i 

Draftg, Cbeoks 
In the Seta are gi\<niii ftill « ti ls\ referenue 
A variety of 1 i r LJven fmm 

^il^lfw ''^ "'a';'' "^ f I s and 1 1 

Lbilities, and I . s , i^^ in In 

ereat and I ani tl I i r i i iirthestu 

ine inVe retor^rd (rui 'jtrtl ' " '"*" '"^ "^""^ 
ValuaHeexamplcsf.ruHcm.imng Werageaand 
'ercenfSif.eb on MerohandiM and .ther Trade Ac 
lounts. A now and Sj itemnllo Si,alo for putting 
. r takmn off Trade DIsconnU 

lajment Endorsements and 

Negotiable P; 
..eretofore giie 
Transfer En'don 


rits. greatlv sii.iplifjlng the 

e work will Interest te " 

Price of single copy 

the back of 
try of Closing Ac- 
teacher as well as students. 

By the hundred „,^ 

Remit by Draft on Chicago or New York, by 
Postal or Lspress Order, or Currency by Express 
or Registered Letter. 


11-12 81 8tat« Street, Chicago, HL 

The following courses of study can be pursued 


Commercial Course, 

Phonographic Course and Typewriting, 

Business Penmanship Com 

Taaohers" Course In Plain i-enmansnip, 
1 Course in Plain and Ornnmeatal Pen- 

Thorough Instruction given In Phonography and 
'''^manshlp by Mall. 
Specimens of Plain V 

Spec ,.. 



liars free. Add 



"Question Books with Answers " ThI 
of four small books, oomprlsing U i 
Geography, Grammar and Arithmetic, 

mtaining 1001 practical (\ 
These are positively tii 

published that are compl. 

branch to be of any help t 

only question books 
I enough on a Bingie 

ir for reviewing pupils 

^i*,^1?'.*i','^5"°"'' ^'"^ Answirs on ARITHHE- 
TIC," including neai ly 30<i te^t t xampk « vrtth an- 
swers and solutions Bcitides treating tiiorouehlv 
the entire scope of Ai itbmetiL tins book conttiina 
from 10 to 30 test examples \Mtlmn''«( rfl and solu- 
tions undereach™bjea thes. Iiiti.mhiwingplaced 

TORY." including the Federal Coi 

"1001 Questions with Answers <_ 

PHT,"embracingDe>.(Tlptive. Physical and Mathe- 
matical Geography. The descririllve iinestlons hre 

asked on ea- ' " ^ - . . . 


mutry without reading < 
1 clotli and mailed to an 


Doacriptlve lirculai-s Iroc. 


31 Moffat Building, (1 


K, K. Isaac's " Ideal " Pens arc the ItftC to 
Practicing Ponmanchip. II. Contisi.ondenco 
FlouriBhing, IV. Combining Capitals V. I 
and Ornamental Pennuiiiiihlp gi'ncrally 

durable. III. They make clearer and liner hal 
lines. IV. Thoy Bhade easier. 

Samples for Five Cents. 

R. B. TItOUSLOT. Sole Aoe.nt, 

^-^ Valpariilso. Iiid. 

e seeking tl 


iend for a Sample Copy of our Journal, and 
im of our plan of " ImirucUng amj p,rion In any 
idij" by CORRESPONDENCE and Reading 
rclea. Over 60 College Professors engaged, con- 
ferring Deoukss. Sample Copy mailed for pustago. 


SITUATIONS i-.ririr.tett-SS 


Shading T Square 

Iiosslble teat, and Olid it tlie iiioatr< 
voiilcnt mecnanir-al aid I have er 
purpose for which It is designed. 



The only Instni- 

above-iiamed In- 
ent will be malt- 
ill directions 
any nddress 
rrum the of- 


Old Kn's^isli'irtMrT.'"! 
double, one being run 
other. There iirt> tint, 
broader than Unit riiu 

»s, I't 




The Doidjle Penliolder.roceoilyiiatented, admits 

.■ 6Uiuplv hoiUcr for 10 veulB, o 

3SrO"W" K.E-A.IDir. 





With Two Supplemejitary Books. 



systematize and teaeli writing iu accordanee witli tlio usages of the Ijest 
writers in the business world. 

guisliiiig features of " Si>encers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlie hibor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 

of $1.00. 

Full Descri]ilive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivisoii, Blakeman, Tavlor, & Co., 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. ,.., 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 

WORKS, CAMDEN. N. J. 26 John Street, New York. 



iri.liin can be made easy by tile proper 
II- III llie arm and fliiRere. Numerous t^tr- 

• •YuMli.Ha^er 
iIXLBIt, Prln. 

SHORTHAND "'"owbly tauebt by 
i.'i.odilliinti,...Bn......,i A „ "^'i. or. peraonally : 

L usiiiiutioiiH procured a///n/pj^wbencorai>at.>nt 
I'tiimocraphylhurouEbly leirSed, open, tbe Si 
I .t 'f'^,^"''^' ?«,"■■'«• ""Peiilal y for ed f,.aM 


The flnoBt fluurlsliinK ever sent mit by any r'«n- 
loau will not etjiial the marveluuH specimens I can 
send you, 3 for 00 cenU. Executed by W. B. Den- 
nis, who in this line has no equal. To be bad only 
by addressing L. Madarasz, Box 2116. New Yurk 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journa! : 

Tht undersianed, who hag/oUorottl lAe pro/etrim of 
rarti wrl/hi(/ for tk« past seven ymri, antt han yet to 
I'firn of ih-jlrtt instance wherein hit work km faUed 
to gill -Hlirt aatl^action, takft pletuure in coiling 
•j»urHlin./iontoth«compl4U line of written viMttrnf 
cards, which are offfred at rales eon*lsttnt ivilh l/u 
(pdaUty of cards and penmanship. Orden prompdy 
fillsd. All poit paid. 

t?P~Withevery 4 paokftges ordered atone time 
an extra package of Gilt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
Bent free, with any name written on. With a little 

'tEdge, the finest... 
Cn-am and VFAifo . 

/ Bevels, assorted... 


1 Leather. 1 pocket-s, . . 

No. ^—Morocco, best qi 
No. 6— Calf, extra gooc 
No. 8~AU>ffalm-S/Hn,' 


issorted designs— bints, strnlis. i|uills, etc.. 
ited with taste and skill. Tu students who w 
)(i ni.iclels of Flourisbinc to practice from, th 
1 be found to be "the thlnj;," Price, 85 oe 


insurpusBed specimen of bold business writ- 
1 the shape of a letter, and any quesliim 
;red, on the finest quality of unruled paper. 


s|iii JK.vii-; nf off-hand flourlshinp, suoh 
iii-|i -, .^w.iiis, etc., on unruled paper. 
vji^i , lUU hij a/l to be the most apiriUd work 
ilby any puninaa. Trice, S5 cent* each ; 


tl in the highest style of the art. and 
winning the honor of being roprnwr to the work of 
niiij other itenman in the world. Each 26 ceut^; 2 
scls (different), 45 cents : 3 sets (difTerenl), 62 cents. 
Mention If yon desire plabi orTsruameutal styles. 


\"iv 'luart, $1,30. BydllutiuB 
m- lliild (Arnnld'H Is the best), 
'■^ of good ink may be had 

iliis<iuality. 1 use this Ink 
u samples, Recipe for its 


If you experience difficulty In aecuringa pen t 
will make a very fine air line combined with st 
elasticity without being sonitchy, I can send : 

The Favorite per box, 40ct8., porgroas. $ 

Card Writing, No. 1... " 50 '■ " l 

Remember to write your full nam 
in every letter yim send. Make you 
by Postal Notee or Registered L< 
that nil letters are carefully sealed o 
plainly. If you don't hear f 
time, drop mo a postal and I will t 


for $■. 

Bookkeeping, including bankluK by mall, 

t book and blanks priee ftl.TB furnished free. 
!_::_ Box 205 Sherman, N. Y. 

P. O. Box WlKi, 

3-a New Yoi-klCitv. 

^J-v AUl .iOlIKVAI, 

$4 50 ; bf express 

Live ngents can, ood do, make tuoavy, hj taking 
"" rs for the Jotickal, and sclliog the tibove 
suiid for oiir SjieilHl Kates to Ari-uU 
I>. T. AMES. » 
S05 Broadway, Now York. 

bfpivMuro with 
Tea"cent8"M^"'post."g"pre'l>ni.i. Addrt-e 

P£NaiAN'8 AKT JOU. _, 

405 Broodwftjr, New York. 





from I^'t. G. \V. Brown^ttf tfu JaektoiwUU, IP., 

ejiliiiiiNri- ■■ f Oi.' -rVr,!.. -||^>j,.^.t (,( aci'oiiutauttiiii 
{from I'- ■'■ hvpolitan Budnett Col 

••\ I ..n-i i>i any work hitherto pub- 

liah<-l t .. r Ml- H. A. Spencer." 

From Topflfi nuHn'.-' mul Xomwl CotUge, Kavta*: 

" Wepiirobaaed a copy »t yournew bookkoepiiitr 
(it th0 BuBtnoAS CulleKc Convention, Biid after 

nhave ndoptcd il 
After winy it /oi < 
reoommend It u^ i 
I'rln. Bus. Dcpt "1 
From Jmiii !>;'■< J: ■ ■ 

"It coutalns a fund of valuable iDf< 
doinc you great credit, and no doubt wil 
deeidod suooess. ■ • • The flashy style 
your binder haa donehla work.ln myoplii 
you great Injuglloo. The inside is far Dei 
the outside, and books of such sliowy 
generally fail as refcnrds their content?. 


trom Prof. J.. F- Slubbs, i 

9 dozen Nelson's New Bool 

understood by persons of ordinary oapucitv 
feature which I consider wotMiy nf mir 
lion Is the discarding of all antiiinated fornix \.\i\\ 
have encumbered I' 

ready asslntaut tu the buslii 

have examined, 
most complete re 

juld eeta copy of „ 

kceplug."-77i« OoUege Jlfcord. JacktonvUU, III. 
From th« EUetrUi City CoUrge, SutUr, Mo.: 

"Your new bookkeeping is without doubt the 
finest work on the subject it has beoo my cood 
fortune to examine. J. W. Buosk." 

From ifoore'j Southern liuanui University, 


" Your new 

desired, OB in 

of the solonce 

my opinion 

Isabout all that cant 
I covers the entire 6e 

B. F. Moore. Pres." 

adopted 11, 1 1 

X Biiftni-M Coihge. Akron. Ohio: 
re tlii.rousli, rapid and salisfacto 



from the tcaiher tha 

JIVom r/h- '.'. II. 

-a: J!,..U..., 

ru/trie Gcnmn Nation 

poratc touiijiiuy l..!-,... 
obtain In a lite inn 

l:iiiii;; to biiDkiog, ci 


,n., ... 

, . ,'■ '" '"''''' 


WANTED.-Aposltion In sc: 
to teach PcomanHhlp 
Builneaa Writing a specialty; 
idvon. Addr6s.i, 

. A. WKSt'C, 
Lovllla, Iowa. 

PKNUAN WANTED.-A Sret-olasa Teacher t 
I'lain and OrDameutal Vi ' ' ' 

L of experlenc 

,. nrofeired ; wr„_ 

lUd reforenccN, stnlinc salary i 

MON, U-xlnaton, tiy. 

I'lain and Ornamental i-eutiiansbip h 

.oung man of experience and one wrsed i 

lliiokkeeping nroferred ; write Innncdiately wit 

*■"""'""""" ""id reforenccN, stnlinc salary wishf 

H'gln. Address, OSOKOE W. KEI 


ITinoipals and-Aavbtants; rImi several r< 
Music, Ao. Application-form und Infor 


For experts and careful Writers. Samples for trial on application. Ask fur Card No. 1. 
IVISON, BLAKEMAN, TAYLOR &. CO.. 753 & 755 Broadway, New York- 

" One of the most practical and most useful text liooks ever placed in the hands 
of students." 














. in Capital Letters, 
. in Abbreviations, 
i in Forming Sentences, 
in Punctuation, 
i in Spelling, 
in English, 

inWritingTelegraph Messages 
in Writing Advertisements, 
in Writing Business Papers, 
in Writing Circulars, 
The Form and Structure of Letters, 
Sample Letter Headings, 
Sample Envelope Addresses, 
Sample Social Letters, 
Numerous Sample Business Letters, 
Numerous Full page Engraved Specimens 
Numerous Hints and Helps, 
Many Valuable Suggestions, 
Exercises in Social Correspondence, 
Exercises in Business Correspondence, 
Photo-Engraved Samples of Business 
Letters from New York Business 

It is hardly necessary to say that the need tor a Ihorougbly pracUenl text-book oa tills very 
iiiiportaut subject has been felt by thousands of teachers. It is only a few weeks since the first 
announcement of this new text-book was made. Notwithstaodine this fact, letters of Iniiniry and 
advance ordera have been received from nearly every State and Province. Tlie greatest care has 
beeu taken in the preparation of the work, in the engraving, and in the general typography and 
binding, and we feel confident tliat wo are now placing upon the market a inoij^l text-book. 


THE SUPPLEMENT CO., Buffalo, N. Y., 

!-• or, CONNOR ODEA, Toronto, Canada. 


V^ 20,000 Words; can be used to make Hair 
Lfnea or Very Beavy ones. Only 50 cents by Mail, 

The Automatic Shading Pen 


.eatlier Case. We ;m n 


The Best Assistant in Office Work. 

THEOFFICE,;;,' .; ' :"z,Z 

Mark of Two Colora at a 
Single Stroke. Sample Set of three sizes, 
by mall, 91 Circular and sample writing 
free. 0-5 J. W. STOAKKS, MUao, O. 

iny parties who 

..UtL'i! in ono of the moat enterprlnlntf 
111 the Uuiled StAtea. Good attendance, 
irllcuiarij aildrcBs B^TBR^Dl^E, thla oOlcu. 

'rjy// &^/^y/r 

lilanks and a limited snnply ut atul 

facilities for Penmansnlp, itupid v„Mvuia.,i./ii lu- 

lettrapliy. Sliort-Hand and Type-Wrltinic. For Coi- 

leeo Journal address, 

5-ia WOOD & VAN I'ATTiSN, Davenport, Iowa. 




Thtt Vvh-vrriau Sifsfr,,, of Petl- 

rnanship. ami I'thut-'s f'/iilo- 

sophiiti/ I'l-iutisv of 


1st. A Mombersiiip in thg Bnsineiu Department 
2d. A Itfembershlp In tlie Penmanalilp Depart- 

M Til.' t..ii.i t'\|...!iBfl Is alinut one-half that of 
I" ^I'plicBtloiiB for admission 

'' I ,1 .•iijinior instruetion and 

■ Kros.", or .30 rents per quarter. 

Keokuk, Iowa. 

'resident Pelroe'a Btulneas Tolleso, 
iPnt of Pel 

r Solionls 

OQiifnt of Penmanship Depai 

To Lovers of Fine Penwork. 

The Hendricks Memorial. 

One of the most elaborate pieces of engrosslns 

Is an eight page album, the rcstilntions of the 
Boardof Alderraonof Ihe Ciiy nf St, I'iuil. Minn,. 


plete C 

designs alilte in the eu- 

Tlie iilinintrraphs are in the highest style of the 

We liavi- Ihi' set hound in Gnp ninrrotto and eni- 
l^o^»ed in trold representing tlio album as it was 
sent to Mrs, Hondnoks. 


The entire work bound ja .'lO 

" " " unbound 2 no 

Single pace .-[o 

Three pages 75 

A Few of Many Opinions. 

The finest work of the kind I have ever seen. 

ITof. N. ' 

i have seen the work o 
world, hut forelega 
tlstic Unish I have n 

beautiful and arttstio piece of work, I a 

dof thelleii. 

he wor 

t for elegant 

delighted v 

done with the pen. 
manshlp I have evei 

: could he 
t work- 
I of the 

Twelve Superior Styles.. 

enow In my scrap-book. They 1 
rnl. O. " " 

Your Qonrisli Is superb. 

The speolniens you sent c 
i.iiilu my heat sorap-l)ool« 

Your flourishing 18 very 1 

VoMVB received and I a 
e flourish. 

k'onr spocimeua arc tlii 

luu of epistolary wrllhig 



Valparaiso, Indiana. 
~If you cnntose 15c. whin you write, 
'G a beautiful gpooimen fresh from n 

oadway, N, Y. for $1 per yeai 


Entered at the Post Office of New York, 
N.Y.. as Second-Class Mail Matter. 

EfiUreil according to Act tif CongrtM. 


Vol. X.— No. 7. 

6 of thf Librarian r^ Congrets, W<ts/iin{/ton, D. C. 

Writing Lessc 

By a. W. Lowe. 
eld'a Commercial dillege. Pro 

In preparing this lesson I liiive considered 
the fact, that of the many readers of tlie 
JouHNAL. some favor one method of instruc- 
tion and some another, and I have endeav- 
ored to present a lesson which will meet 
with the approval of all. There is no occu 
pation in which writing- has no part more 
or less. Even the lahorer whose hands are 
hardened hy honest toil must at times wield 
the pen. 

Writing, though it be the mouthpiece of 
every calling in life, has heen justly called 
"the neglected art." On every hand we 
find poor writers, wiihout uumher, and I 
would that this lesson meet the eyes of all 

surely do not wish to send in reply one 
poorly written. 

Send in reply a well written letter and the 
recipient is pleased and may emulate its 

Martin Tupper writes : 

" The pen of a ready writer, whereunto 
shall it he likened ?" If he mean the pen of 
a good writer, all will say: "Whereunto 
shall it be likened !" 

Through the pen we are enabled to con- 
verse, as it were face to face with those ab- 

Before commencing instruction to the 
student, I wish to make a few remarks 

The teacher should cultivate the acquaint- 
ance of his scholars and endeavor to gsiin 
their confidence and respect. If the teacher 
is cold, dislant, or arrogant, he fails to gain 

sequently laborious exercise, becomes very 
interesting, and the time of writing is anti- 
cipated with a feeling of pleasure, rather 
than of dread. 

Enthusiasm in the class is the corner stone 
of success. Do not be afraid to use the 

Some claim that the illustrations on the 
board are never fully comprehended by the 
whole class, and that copies for practice 
should not ho written on the board. I 
believe in using the board at alt times though 
not for the whole lesson. 

If you have but one hour a day for in- 
struction and use copy books, let one half 
hour be given to txcrcises written on the 
board, atd the qf "itrr half hour to the exer- 
cises jn ijie copy books. 
' Tlfcfe is this advantage in the use of the 
board: All the scholars receive instruction 

No one should be deceived hy thinking 
poorpenmanshipa "mark of genius." though 
many men of genius have heen miserable 
writers. The writing of such famous men 
as Horace Greeley, .Judge Choateand others 
I might name should be held up, not as a 
copy for imitation, hut as a warning of what 
careless and hastily written penmanship 
may become. 

Thackeray was a beautiful writer and it 
has been said that he coiUd write the Lord's 
prayer legibly on a piece of paper the size of 
a sixpence. 

Dickens was also a good writer and the 
same may he said of other noted authors. 
If you receive a letter poorly written, 
whether on business or from a loved one at 
home, you cannot fail to notice it and you 

the respect of the scholars, and cannot render 
them ihehest service; mistakes should be 
kindly pointed out and corrected. A teacher 
should occasionally recall the days when he 
was a pupil, and compare his own short- 
comings with those of pupils with whom he 
would he now impatient. 

As regards penmanship in large schools, 
it should he taught in classes wirh more or 
less blackboard instruction ; such instnic- 
tion to depend on the time allowed for a 

No teacher who is not enthusiastic can 
make a success of teaching penmanship, 
and the same may be said of any other 

Let an enthusiastic teacher take the place 
of a mere automaton in a short time a great 
change will be observed in the class. 

What was formerly a tiresome and con- 

on the copy at the same time ; select the 
worst and most general faults of pupils and 
represent them on the board, and do not fail 
to have the attention of all, then make the 
correct letters and compare them with faulty 
ones, explaining to the class all ihe imper- 
fections and in what manner they may best 
be remedied. If you wish to awaken an in- 
terest in the work place a few letters upon 
the hoard, iheu make these letters incor- 

Ask the class to name the imperfect let- 
ters, tell wherein they are imperfect, and if 
possible to give the principles of each letter. 
Let the work he systematic and then it will 
be progressive. Endeavor to anticipate a 
scholar's needs, and do not favor one more 
than another. I have seen in schools more 
scholars who have failed to become good 
writers because they were neglected, while 

others were favored than from any other 

If you he teaching children I would re- 
commend the use of the pen from the com- 
mencement. This is much better in many 
respects ihan first teaching with a pencil. 

Children allowed to use a pencil will nat- 
urally grip it tightly because there are no 
pen points to break or pierce the paper and 
scatter ink. As most writing is done with 
the pen why not first instruct the little ones 
in its use. If this he done, in after years 
there will not be so much grumbling about 
"had positions" ■'cramped bands," and 
■■ death like grips." To my brother ■' Knight 
of the Quill," whodnes not believe in black- 
board instruction I will Say: You can ex- 
plain more to a clat^s in one half hour with 
the use of the hoard, than you can explain 
to the individuals separately in one week. 


I will first mention position. Much as 
has been said of it very few sit correctly. 

Good position is as necessary to good pen- 
manship as movement. There are three 
positions at the desk, right side, left side and 
front. While sitting at a narrow desk the 
right position should he used, that is, the 
right side should he turned to the desk, if 
you be standing at a desk the left side should 
be turned to it; if you he sitting at a wide 
desk the front position should be taken and 
this is by far the best. 

Let the feet rest squarely on the tloor, and 
hy all means sit erect, otherwise you will 
contract an injurious and ungroceful habit. 
If you sit while writing, the top of the desk 
should be even with your elbow as your arm 
hangs at the side and the same may be said 
of a desk used when standing. 

As a rule pupils, while writing, are apt to 
incline the spinal column to one side in order 
to accommodate themselves to the desks at 
which they are seated. This is because the 
desks are too high, and causes the pupils to 
assume a position which is injurious to 
health as well as to their writing. 

Good penmanship requires properly train- 
ed muscles. The great want of success in 
acquiring the art may be attributed to a de- 
ficient analysisof the movements of tbearm, 
hands and lingers on the jiart of teachers and 
pupils, together with an improper position 
in sitting. So much has heen said hy others 
on penholding that I will pass it 
that the arm. hand and fingers should 

Tbisofccuirsc requires of the other muscles 
ihrti produce tbt- lateral movcmentsan effort 
which flKV cnn only mnkc with difficulty, 

:iTvl c'ti^fipn'r^'h' '}irn- r-:tn be no free and 
, ,.1, i,,,,i , ,,■, 1,1 I i|,. ii;rri.' essential ele- 
II I - ! ixmnianship are 

<>i III'-' l-_iiiihi_v i- irfiuinly the most 
iniporliuii. tlmiiL:'! beiiiity iind rapidity may 
be desired by all. To obtain legibility, 
beauty and rapidity, we must first have a 
ledge of Ihe movements by which we 

, muscular 

may reach them. 

The three movements a 
and combined. 

Muscular movement is described as being 
the action of tlie arm extended and con- 
tracted while using the muscle near the 
elbow as a rolling rest. Where rapidity is 

the action of the fingers. 

Combined movement is the union of the 
muscular and finger movements, and for the 
majority of writers this is by far the best 

There is a saying that practice makes per- 
fect. To a certain cvtcrit this is true, but 
praetite. tlinu'_'li csvpnliHl to perfection, must 
be preccdcii hy :i <;infiil study of the forms 

of letters, lliril K-l/llUf \n 

L^ht^ and slant 

Wm., ,.:,:,' , ■.. ■ ■,:. 

theWOnlsnl |),^^ k, II 

arc right and then go ahead. 

Educational Notes. 

lommutik-dttonK for tliie Department mftF ^^ ad' 
wed to B- K. Kkllst, Office of the Fsnuah'i 
' JntntNAL, No. 3f» Broadway, New York. 

150 college graduates in Con- 
D took the prize for English 

Ohio's public schools c 
Three inilliori pupils n 

There arc 

A Chinani 

Tutors of Harvard receive salaries of from 
fSOO to $1,200 a year, while the trainer in 
iiihletics gets $2,000 a year. 

It is said that at least 75,000 teachers in 
the United States are reading methodically 
iind professionally. 

The University at Cambridge has decided 
to confer upon Oliver Wendell Holmes the 
degree of Doctor of Letters. 

A chair of journalism has been recently 
established at Harvard, and is to be filled by 
,1. M. MeCullagb, editor of the St. Louis 
Globe- Demficrat. 

Dr. Timothy Dwi^bt has been elected to 
the Presidency of 11 ale College, to succeed 
Dr. Noah Porter, who resigned. 

1S38 and 1880. 

Since Dr. McCosh has been president, 
:^5,000,000 has been donated to Princeton. 

The legacies of Jennie MfGraw-Pi'ike to 
Cornell University, amniiniju./ i-. ^ iniiiion 
and a half dollars, for liin m i n i . . - d iv,- 
been unsuccessfully cotiii -n i i : : > . ■ . 1 1- 
The case has been pm!: . i_t 

Lyon for three years, ;iini ii^ i^.j-ir.u in 
favor of (V 

I glV( 

EDUCiTiONAL Fancies. 

[In every Instance wbere the source of any Item 
used In tbte department la known, tbe proper credit 
\» irlveo. A Uke uourteay hom others will oe appre- 

A Sioux Indian is in a college near Alex- 
andria, Va., studying to be a tobacco sign. 

Minister.— "Now. my young friends, you 
live in the country. Does the Bible say any- 
thing to farmers ?" Jack Hayseed.—" Yes. 
sir, St. Paul devoted two books to Timothv 
alone." ' 

Teacher (at a night school).— '* Correct 
the following sentence : ' It are warm to 
night.'" Boy. — " It's darned cold to-night. 
And how old are you, my little man ?' 
addressing a littli 


you tell 

Student (soberly).— The col- 

said the school 

five-year-old. "I'm not old at all. I't 

nearly new ! " was the response. 

Tot was receiving his first lesson in ge- 
ography : ■■What is that?" asked the 
professor, placing his finger on the map 
Tot.— " That is a dirty finger-nail, sir ! " - 

Little Tommy, —"Can I eat another piece 
or pie?" Mamma (who is something of a 
purist). — " I suppose you can." Tommy — 
'■Well, may Iv" Mamma.— " No, dear, 
you may not." Tommy.—" Darn grammar, 
anyway ! '' — Hamblcr. 

It wa« a small hny from Mainr and he 
ton, lliMifi'j i.i. I, ■.-! .,1 1,, ^, h I,, ,., |,, .','.',, 

getlin.j ;il..n. ,H -. h i,|,,,| ] , ,„ I 

thprll \M.i'l. , .i , ,1 

thefi.ut, l,ul. ■ ^, n |,rnu,|U 1^.. „,,l il'„. 

biggeth ffcl in tb. 

Professor.—" Mr. 
with what faculty we could'most 
dispense ? " Student , 
fcssor.- " Good. Now speak up loud 
what is it?" Stu''— * '—' ■ ' ^■ 
lege faculty." — Ex. 

There Is said to be a fashionable boarding- 
school in New York City where young 
ladies arc taucht to enter and get out of a 
carriage. This is a timely educational 
movement, as young ladies have recently 
manifested a disposition to climb up by the 
side of the coachman. 

Examinations for admission to Harvard 
College are to be held this year in Paris. 
Germans will be examined as heretofore in 
Cincinnati and Chinese in San Frduciseo. 
I he report has been printed, but not con- 
firmed, that an examination committee will 
travel during the summer with Bamum's 
circus. Knowledge is power. Give vour 
sons a chance.— ii/c. 

Superior Pens. 

Junt rer^ir«i~n new lot of " Ames' Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cents, regular price, 30 cents. Try them 

Yes; They Do Reply. 

Editor I*ENMAN"s AiiT Journal: 

Since you have kindly given space in the 
May number of your valuable Journal to 
my remarks in behalf of Gaskcll's Compen- 
dium, and inasmuch as you "still indulge 
the hope " that I will, at least, try to answer 
certjiin questions and objections, I accept 
your invitation and present for fair consid- 
eration the following paragraphs : 

Permit me to preface what I have to say 
on this occasion with an expression of hearty 
appreciation of the admirable work which is 
offered tbe many readers of the Pknman's 
AuT Journal from mouth to month. I 
cherish the same feeling towards Ames' 
Guide and the Spencerian publications. I 
make this stntement because I wish it dis- 
tiir':tly understood that I am friendly to 
these real works of art. 

In your " comments " upon my May ar- 
ticle you only attempt to make two points 
which I care to notice. 1st. You state, in 
substance, that Gaskell's Compendium does 
not contain " a good, orderly, sensible style 
of copies." If the Spencerian is the Na- 
tional standard, this proposition, perhaps, 
may be admitted. If, by the way, it is a 
fact that for business purposes a style 
of writing not exact, a style of writing 
the freedom of which permits of great 
spe^d is in Remand, may not Gaskell's 
Compendium also baveagrand placeamong 
penmanship publications ? It is not my 
business to decide whether it is "without 
an equal or a second." I am not dealing 
%vith modes of advertising but with the work 
itself. On this basis, honestly, what can be 
said against the writing presented in the 
business forms of Gaskell's Compendium v 
Certainly they are not highly flourished, 
they are legible, strong, and as they seem to 
me pleasing, except from the standpoint of 
microscopic and mathematical analysis 
Q kind of analysis which, I fancy, the ma- 
jority of our best business men care noth- 
ing about. 

2d. Your second objection is like unto the 
first. You imply that Gaskell's Compen- 
dium induces the learner "to practice upon 
from five to ten different and crudely made 
forms for each capital letter." I object to 
the word " crudely." It may be that those 
who advocate Spencerian exactness in busi- 
ness writing would be justified in using the 
epithet, but not others. I find it absolutely 
impossible in my teaching to avoid a variety 
of capitals. It does seem plausible to con- 
fine the learner's practice to "one or two 
really good forms." What teacher who has 
observed his pupils carefully, ever .succeeded 
in ruling out variety? Pupils love variety, 
practice variety, and learn from variety. It 
may just as well be admitted without dis- 
cussion. The admirable monthly lessons 
given in the Jouknal would have become 
monotonous long ago, bad not the eminent 
authors advocated, perhaps unconsciously, 
and forcibly illustrated variety. What les 
son will the reader of tbe Journal practice 
from and learn from ? I presume, like my- 
self, he will revel in the beautiful forms and 
select here and there that which delights his 

Even in Ames' Guide I find by actual 
count 8 forms of C; 7 each of H, M, and S; 
6 of D; Ti each of B, G, K. P, T, U, W, X, 
and Y; and not less than 2 forms of any cnp- 
ilal. In this count I exclude the Italian and 
autograph page. True the exercises are ar- 
ranged so as to introduce the pupil to the 
standard forms first, but the average " self- 
learner " will pay no attention to order but 
will invariably select to please his " fancy." 
Bear in mind tbip variety is notan objection 
to the Guide, on the contrary it is a pleasing 

differ in regard to the merits of certain pub- 
licalions. I will illustrate just what I mean. 
Since you published my "Fair Play." M. D. 
Luther, an excellent penman, of Ilerndon, 
Eans., has written me thus; "I was so 
much pleased with your article in the Jour- 
nal of last month, that I wish to express to 
you my thanks, as you have given my ideas 

I heartily concur with you in every state- 
ment you have made in defense of the Com- 
pendium ; and I think there are many more 
whose opinions are the same as ours." 

U.W. Allen, anotberexcellent penman, of 
Huutsville, Texas, writes : " I agree with 
every word you say in the matter. Gaskell's 
Compendium converted my writing from a 
miserable scrawl to a legible and rapid 
hand." W. W. Bennett, of Cleveland. O., 
one of tbe stars, referring to my article, 
says: "The Gaskell Compendium has done 
more good to advance pen art than any sim- 
ilar publication out." A. N. Palmer, of 
The Western Penman, in a friendly letter, 
June 151J), wrote me : "It is well known 
that Gaskell's Compendium with Gaskell 
behind it, has done more than any otherone 
thing, and for that matter many other things 
combined to create a desire for good writ- 
ing." L. Madarasz, months ago, in answer 
to a question of mine wrote: "My skill 
with the pen was all acquired from the in- 
struction given in Gaskell's Compendium 
and faithful practice upon slip ope." I am 
sorry, in one sense, to draw upon private 
correspondence without the permission of 
each writer, but I am anxious to have you 
and your readers actually discover that 
Gaskell's Compendium has some very 
thorough-going friends. 

In conclusion. I take pleasure in honestly 
expressing the opinion that Gaskell's Com- 
pendium is a publication of real merit and 
that its mission will in the future as in the 
past be to constantly increase the number of 
good, rapid, graceful business penmen. 
Big Rapids, Mich., June 31, 1S8G. 

W. N. Ferris. 

It i 

and valuable feature. 

I have now touched the real objections 
brought against Gjiskell's Compendium. 
Pardon a word concerning my own work. I 
did not learn to write from any Compen- 
dium or Journal. I have obtained many 
valuable suggestionsfrom such publications, 
I am self-taught, however. My present 
hand came to me quite rapidly after I learned 
how to employ tbe combined movement, 
although I nuist confess that a master of tbe 
art would have saved me hours and days of 
time could he have supervised my training. 

One more point. Tbe great lights seem 
to differ very materially concerning tbe best 
methods of learning to write. They seem to 

th pleasure that we receive and 
admit to these columns Mr. Ferris' well writ- 
ten and courteous article, and we assume 
that in his ingenious and able effort he has 
presented the best possible defense to tbe 
numerous objections urged against the Com- 
pendium in question, certainly it is the best 
that has come to our notice. For Mr. Ferris* 
very warm expression of hearty apprecia- 
tion of the Journal and its work we return 
our thanks. In our reply we shall be as 
brief as is consistent. 

FirHt.—Ur. F. concedes that if the "Spen- 
cerian" is the "National standard." the 
allegation that Gaskell's Compendium does 
not contain "good, orderly, sensible cojiies 
may be admitted. " What are we to under- 
stand by a national standard for writing? 
And to what extent is the Spencerian to be 
taken as such ? Within a veiy few 
years nearly all the great publishing bouses 
of the country have prepared and published 
copy books for schools, in all of which the 
new Spencerian models for letters have been 
so closely followed, that none but the veriest 
expert can distinguish the copies of one from 
the other, and in no instance has there, to 
our knowledge, been a notable departure. 
Hence it tomes to be a fact established and 
recognized by the aggregate experience and 
wisdom of the teachers, authors and pub- 
lishers of America that " Spencerian " is the 
National standard for writing. As we have 
shown in the June number, Gaskell mod-, 
eled the copies of his Compendium after the 
old Spencerian copies which have long since 
been as universally discarded as have tbe 
new been approved. 

Mr. F. says: "I did not learn to write 
from any Compendium," perhaps right here 
lies the whole difficulty with Mr. F. not 
having learned from the Compendium, pro- 
bably he does not fully appreciate it^ enor- 
mity, let him give it to one of his pupils as 
a copy and watch the result, we think he 
would soon lose his present favorable im- 
pression of its merits. 

H. C. Clark, Normal School of Penman- 
ship. Erie, Pa., and editor of American 
Penman. "What you have published res- 
pecting the ' Gaskell Compendium ' speaks 

for itself, and any one reading your opinion 
of the same, if properly informed, will ad- 
mire your frankness in giving to the public 
such evidence of its demerits." ' 

Does Mr. F. go into any well conducted 
school (public or private), in the land and 
find a Gaskell Compendium there by the ad- 
vice of a teacher or Board of Education? 
Does he even place them in the faanda 
of his own pupils ? Does he go into 
a school where he does not find Spen- 
cerian copies, or those modeled after 
them ? Not one, except where copies are 
writUn by the teacher, and even then if the 
teacher is honoring his positif)n the excel- 
lence of his copies is estimated by the degree 
of their approximation to Spencerian stand 
ards. On the one band we have the Spen- 
cerian, we do not need to say '■ Spencerian " 
we should say "National" idea of sys- 
tematic standard copies for the learner; on 
tbe other the Gaskell Compendium and ils 
friends (that it has friends we do not deny, 
and earnest ones too, but this does not prove 
that it ought to have). It has been advertised 
to make friends, and its publishers have 
practicably offered the largest kind of pre- 
miums for friends and commendations, 
through the engraving and wide publication 
of portraits and the alleged improvement of 
tographs of some of its purchasers. By a 
similar plan of vigorous and taking adver- 
tising, nostrums as worthless as colored 
water have been made to sell in every nook 
and hamlet in the laud, and to have friends 
in untold numbers, who would fairly shout 
their efficacy, but theenforced notoriety of 
the nostrum soon subsided, its sham was ap- 
parent, and its gulled patrons sought again 
good standard remedies. 

That tbe Compendium has been the in- 
strument of good to somcand has enkindled 
an interest in writing with many of its pur- 
chasers that has led to their becoming good 
writers, we believe, and have so said, and 
were it to be judged from a standpoint 
twenty-five years earlier we should say it 
was positively good, just as we would have 
said of a muzzle loading rifle, which in pre- 
sence of a Winchester, we would now say 
is ' ' played out. " The day of the rambling 
style of Compendium copies is simply past. 
But says Mr. F.. " Ames' Guide also pre- 
sents a variety of letters." This is true, but 
by ils title it is announced as a "Guide to 
Practical and Artistic Penmanship," and as 
Mr. F. himself states, the variety is given, 
in the form of artistic or professional copies, 
supplemental to a course of plain ones, just 
where they belong and where they are pro- 

"If," says Mr. F., "it is a fact that, for 
business purposes, a style of writing not 
exact, the freedom of which permits of 
great speed, is in demand, may not Gas- 
kell's (Compendium have a grand place 
among penmanship publications ?" We 
utterly repudiate tbe idea that there is a 
demand anywhere in the world for inexact 
writing. Such writing in business is simply 
an unfortunate necessity, resulting from 
necessary haste and the fact that business 
men generally are not artists. Perfect writ- 
ing. even in business, is desirable, but 
simply impracticable, and the departure is in 
all degrees according to tbe skill, taste or 
lack of taste, and tbe circumstances of the 
writer. If we are to have copies, variable, 
to suit the exigencies of business and life, 
where would we end. Even Gaskell's Com- 
pendium will fail to furnish the requisite 
variety. Tbe very idea of shifting copies 
in the present age of graded schools, is an 
absurdity too thoroughly demonstrated by 
public experience and practice to be serious- 
ly discussed — and if such copies were 
desired, the pupil should get the old Spen- 
cerian Compendium of which Gaskell's is a 
very limited and feeble imitation. 

Now, respecting the endorsements of the 
compendium, appended by Mr. F. to bis 
article, they are, as we believe, all from 
members of the so-called "Compendium 
Guard of Honor," and so far as we know, 
excepting Mr. F., not teachers of standing. 
Now. as an offset to these, we can fill several 
columns of the Journal With adverse ones 
from tbe recognized teachers of the land, 
but space in this short number forbids that 
we do so. and we give only a few, 

In the same mail that brought Mr. Ferris' 
article came a letter from W. C. Sandy, 
Principal of the Commercial Department of 

» AK-r otmiasxi^r^ 

the Newark (N. J.) High School. He says : 
" I am iD perfect harmony with everything 
you have prioted rcspectiug Gaskell's Com- 

H. W. Flickiiiger. of the College of Com- 
merce. Philadelphia, Pa., says: "I regard 
this {Gaskell's Compeadium) unworthy of 
recognition. Placed by the side of good 
copies it becomes a most ludicrous caricn- 

K. M. Huntsinger, Packard's Business 
College, New York. " I have been exceed- 
ingly annoyed by tlie bad habits acquired by 
boys who have used the Compendiums. 

Every teacher of writing knows to bis sor- 
row the folly of practicing from such multi- 
tudiouB forms as are given in the Conipeu- 
pendiura. The half has not been told." 

A. A. Clark. Superintendent of Writing 
in the Public Schools of Cleveland, Ohio, 
says: "I fully concur with you in con- 
demning this trashy compendium." 

R. J. Magee. penman at the Metropolitan 
Business College. New York, says: "I 
must say I think your criticism of the com- 
pendium is just, and will be endoi-sed by all 
fair-minded business men and teachers 

J. H, Bryant. Howe Business College, 
"Washington, D. C, says: "Your showing 
up of the Oaskell Compendium was a decid- 
ed hit from the shoulder, and all the more 
commendable because it was so richly 

E. n. Chapin, teacher of writing, Albany, 
N. Y., says : " You deserve the gratitude of 
the entire profession for the articles you 
have published on 'Compendiums.'" 

W. J. Elliott, teacher of penmanship, 
Walkcrton, Ontario, says: "I could but 
admire your criticisms of the Oaskell pen- 
manship. I consider tbem just." 


Above are represented the alphabets and four specimen lines given as copies on the first four slips of the Gaskell Compen 
dium. These copies are a fair sample of what the "Compendium Gazette" announces as "without an equal or a second" as 
copies for learners and what Mr. Ferris thinks are good and commendable copies. In the above appear four of the dozen or more 
different forms given in the Compendium of the capital H. with about an equal number of each of the other letters. The reader 
should compare these four H's with each other, and observe how wonderfully alike (?) they are in their form and manner of 
construction, and reflect upon the uniform and consistent practice the learner will get in following those copies. Really wil nol 
the editor of the Oazetie publish the above specimens in its columns, that seeing and recognizing their excellence as copies its 
readers may hasten their purchases. The cuts are at their service free of charge, and also the following should they desire t-i 
complete the comparison, 



7/ fj. r/.,^'r^r u. '. (/' fjf i^rwf 

^^^TT ^ "^ ^"^^^^"^"- ^-^/-^ 


The above cuts were photo-engraved from a copy written at ihe office of the Joumnal. The alphabets are in close con- 
formity to Spencerian or the Nati<inal standard for copy writing. The other writing has a few forms somewhat abreviated from 
the standard. Readers, teachers, fellow penmen, and men of business, which do you prefer, and which would you specially 
commend as copies for the learner. 

,v, — ..«.v. ,..»..,s«M. .ou are entitled 
to the thanks of all honest people for show- 
ing up quack compendiums in the Art 


Wilson M. Taylor. Principal of Marshall 
Seminary, Eastou, Pa. "1 not only admire 
your bold and fearless attack upon imper- 
fect copies, set up as standards and labeled 
'best,' but I think that educators of the 
youth throughout the land should rally to 
aid in the promulgation of such sound ideas 
as you present, and give you support. ' No 
model can be too perfect," ought to be self- 
evident, but if not an axiom with (he 
teaciicr surely we can adopt it as a maxim." 

W. F. Roth, M.D., Manheim, Pa. "I 
hastily write you to express my sincere ap- 
preciation of your boid and vigorous attack 
upon worthless penmanship, i agree with 
you in every assertion you have made, and 
sincerely hope that the time will soon como 
when nostrum writing and nostrum drugs 
will cease to impose upon our oeople." 

Geo. E. Reed, accountant, lihifftou. Ind. 
"Your articles on ' Compendiums ' are just 
the thing, I have often wondered why 
you did not pitch into such trash." 

Edward C. Cockey, storekeeper, General 
Office of the Western Union Telegraph 
Company and ex-President of the New 

use of such copies as are represented ; 
compendium copies in the Marcli number of 
your Journal, as a waste of time and 
labor. I deprecate the use of all flourishes 
and complicated forms for letters as detri- 
mental to legibility and speed." 

W. H. Sbaylor, Teacher of Penmanship 
in Public Schools, Portland, Me. "Respect- 
ing Gaskell's Compendium I agree with 

J. Howard Keeler, Penman at Troy 
Conference Academy. Poultney, Vt. "Let 
me thimk you for your able and timely 
expositi'on of the compendium humbug. I 
trust you will continue to push the work, 
and you may rest assured of the support of 
all reputable teachers." 

Clyde Sandford, Rockingham, N. C. 
" You hit Gaskell's Compendmm right." 

Henry J. Martin, 199 Forsyth street. New 
Y'ork. "I regard the compendium repre- 
sented in the March JocRNAi. as indeed a 
nuisance. There is no standard for letters 
in the whole thing. If, as the Gazette says, 
the sales of the compendiuui have been 
enormous, it has been due to enormous 

H. C. Senn, Oshkosh, Wis. " I am much 
pleased with your determined stand against 
the so-called compendium." 

G. A. Hough, teacher of penmanship. 
Fort Scott, Kansas. " Y^ou have my hearty 
support in all you say respecting the Gas- 
kell Compendium." 

W. G. Trimble, New Orleans, La. "I 
am ^lad to see you after Gaskell's Com- 
pendium," it deserves it." 

A. M. Hargis. Grand Island (Neb.) Busi- 
ness College. "If there has been anything 
in the Journal I have appreciated it has 
been what you have said about Gaskell's 

J. F. Burner, teacher of writing. Eureka, 
Neb. "Your exposition of the quack com- 
pendium has done me a heap of good." 

A. E. Prince, Principal of the Bank Street 
School. Bridgeton, N. J. " Your criticisms 
on Gaskell's Compendium are just to the 
point, and are appreciated by every practical 
teacher in the land." 

C. W. Butterworth, Peterburg. Va., says: 
"1 heartily congratulate you on your crit- 
icism of compendium copies." 

H. D. Allison, Dublin, N. H. "I was 
particularly pleased with your showing up 
of the compendium nuisance." 

J. P. Mitzger, Jacobs Creek. Pa., says: 
"I believe in exact copies. I would sell my 
Gaskell Compendium for a dime." 

C. H. Robins, Penman at the Iowa City 
Commercial College, says: "I have been 
greatly pleased with your showing up of 
certain compendiums. I have long been 
hoping that some one of note would do so." 

Just for Fun. 

Counterfeit butter has reduced the price 
of cows, but pumps still remain tirm. — 
Philadelphia Call. 

It is highly improper to call an oleomarg- 
arine |oke a chestnut. It is a butternut. — 
Wtuhmgton Hatchet. 

When the poet sang of something that 
was "strong without hands," he probably 
referred to butter. — Chimgo Ledger. 

A Chicago landlord shot one of his board- 
ers for joking about the butter. The other 
boarders will choose weaker subjects for 
jokes. — Kew Orkttns Picayvne. 

Butter, butler, nice and fair; how I wonder 
what you arc ; are you really what you 
seem V Were you made of grease, or cream V 
It maki-3 a ^ocer bhiab and stutter. 
And Incoherently then mutter. 
When a woman Hlirleks; all in a fitlttfer. 
" D'yer mean to aay that slull Is tmltfrr" 
A Springfield dairyman furnished butter 
for a circus company, and wanted to gel in 
on the strength of it. The ticket agent ex- 
amined the butter and grauted the request, 
LltUe cow that Kives the milk. 
Hide as »leek and soft as silk ; 

) butierlni 

Ooodail't Sun, 

Am .ioirKNvi. 


Published Monthly 8t »1 per Year. 



I; Bounding Sta«, - Ui33 


New York, July, : 

The Journal for August. 

AUhoiigb the Journai. appears but balf 
its usual size for this mouth, our renders 
can be nssurcd Ihut Ibc August number will 
bring tbem a feast, both in a literary and 
artistic point of view. We have several cuts 
under way that will be gems of the penman's 
an, while the matter furnished by the Con- 
vention will be abundant and interesting. 

Left Out. 

Owing to the diminished size of the 
.louKNAi, for this month, a large amount of 
matter designed for this number has been 
omitted, but will appear in future numbers. 
Several interesting specimens of penman- 
ship are among the things left. 

The King Club 

for this month numbers eleven, and was 
sent by J. E. Depue, the accomplished pen- 
man at Heald's Business College, San 
Francisco, Cul. Clubs, as is usual in the 
summer months, have not been large, but 
small ones and single subscribers have been 
of more than average numbers. 

Board for B. E. Delegates. 

Members of the Convention can secure 
good board and rooms in a pleasant part of 
the city, near the Speucerian and Packard 
Colleges, at ^l.-W per day, by calling on, or 
addressing. A. II. Lewis, penman, 200 East 
14th street. New York. 

The Hotel Acme, 55 West 12th street, 
will furnish members of the Convention 
with commutation meal tickets at ^4 per 
week, and rooms at 50 cents per day. 

Rooms at the St. Stephens, St. Denis, and 
Grand Central, $1 per day. 

All of the places are near the meeting 
places of the Convention. 

A Souvenir. 

We have before us a little pamphlet bear- 
ing the above title. It was issued under the 
auspices of Packard's Bueincss College, of 
this city, on the occasion of the twenty- 
eighth anniversary of that institution at the 
Academy of Music, in March last. Pack- 
ard-like, it sparkles with wit and genius. 
.\fter the presentation of several excellent 
addresses, delivered upon that occasion, it 
tells in the most humorous and happy vein 
how a youth became an alumnus, illustrat- 
ing and describing his advance from the 
foot to the top round of personal fame. If 
you want to make the largest possible in- 
vestment of a penny, address a postal card to 
Packard's IJusiness College, 80^ Broadway, 
for a "Souvenir." 

And School Items. 


" The New Standard Counting House 
Bookkeeping." is the title of a work lately 
published by J. C. Bryant, M.D., President 
of the Bryant & Stratton Business College, 
Buffalo. N.Y. A book of 313 pages. Printed 
in two colors; handsomely bound in cloth. 
Hetail price, |3.50. Postage on single copy, 
15 cents. This is a new and thoroughly 
practical work on double entry. It is simple, 
plain and clear, as well as comprehensi 
and complete. The subject is presented 
a strictly business-like and comn 
manner, and the work is entirely free from 
perplexing theories and unnecessary work. 
It begins with defining the first principles of 
double entry book keeping in the simplest 
and most positive language, and these prin- 
ciples are illustrated and explained by a 
series of simple exercises, by means of which 
every important idea is presented to the eye 
as well as to the mind of the student. Every 
teacher and accountant will find this an in- 
teresting and valuable work. 

" Sheldon's Supplementary Reading," 
Third Book, This book is intended to fol- 
low the use of any third reader, for which 
purpose it is admirably adapted. Its style 
and subject matter are alike interesting. It 
tells in very simple language about The 
Sunbeams, and what they are. About The 
Work of the Sunbeams ; about Water-. The 
Effects of Heat and Cold on Water ; The 
Pressure of Water; The Meaning of Weight: 
The Cause of Weight; The Life of a Plant ; 
The Air ; The Wind ; The Dew; The Clouds 
and Rain ; Snow and Ice ; The Power of 
Freezing Water ; What Happens when Fire 
Burns ; What Nature can Teach Us : What 
Becomes of the Rain ; The Work of Water 
Underground ; How Rivers are Formed ; 
The Work of Rivers ; Snow Fields and 
Glaciers ; The Sea, and why it is Salt ; The 
Waves of the Sea; Inside of the Earth; Vol- 
canoes and Earthquakes. A sample copy 
will be sent to any teacher for examination, 
introduction, by mail, post- 
paid, on receipt of twenty-five cents, by 
Sheldon & Company, 7!J4 Breadway, New 


The Lone Star Penmari. by Frank U. 
Spring, Dallas, Texas another venture in 
the field of penmen's papers, No. 2 of which 
is before us, is creditable, humorous and 
highly interesting. Its editor certainly has 
the genius for cooking things up for a relish. 
The Lone Star has our best wishes that it 
may ultimately add to its present cognomen 
that of a "Fixed Star." Mailed one year 
for 'if.X. Send for a copy. 

The American Penman. Erie. Penn.. is 
maintaining a very creditable position among 
our penmen's papers, and is richly worth the 
low price of 60 cents, for which it is mailed 
one year. If you have not seen it send for a 

The name of the "Institute of Account- 
ants and Bookkeepers of the City of New 
York," has been changed to "Institute of 
Accounts." At its last monthly meeting on 
June 15, Captain Henry Metcalf, U. S. A,, 
addressed the Institute upon the "mechan- 
iral consolidation of accounts." the address 
was of unasiiid interest and was highly ap- 
preciated by the members. An extended 
report of the address will appear in the July 
number of The Office. 

The next regular meeting of the Institute 
will be held on the evening of July 15, to 
attend which, a cordial invitation has been 
extended to the members of the Business 
Educators Association which they can read- 
ily do, as it is so close to the adjournment 

The Newark ((iliio), /JnUij A'lrwaU, mentions la 
lilghly compltmentBry t«rnis some pea wurk exe- 
cuted and exhibited at the exposition lately held in 
that fity by G. W. Allieon of the Newark Businesa 

The Fort Worth (Texasi Gazette payaa handsome 
compliment to Messrs. O. W, Ware and E. P. 
Preuitt, of the Fort Worth Business College, for 
resolutions lately engrossed by them for the City 
Council of that city. The engrossing was ?2xa8, 
and was pronounced by the Oazttte to be a beau- 
tiful work of art. 

Handsomely engraved invitations to annual com- 
mencement exerolses, have been received from 
Peirce College of Business. Philadelphia, 

Fort Wortli (Texas) Buatness College held on 

The Bryant & Stratton Business College and Col- 
lege of Commci-ce Philadelphia Pa ODJuneSOth, 

Soule Commercial College and Literary Institute, 
New Orleans La on luneSljth 

[Persons sending specimens for notice In this 
column sliould see that the packages containing 
the same are postage paid in full at Wiw ratu. A 
large proportion of tnese packages come short 
paid, for sums ranging from two cent« upward, 
which, of course, we are obliged to pay. This is 
Bcarcely a desirable coualderatlou for a gratuitous 

A. M. Ilargis, (irand Island. Neb. 

C. W. Jones. Southwestern Business College, 
Wichita, Eans. 

J. A. Cobban. Businesa College and Training 
School. Springfield, Mo. "The Journal for June 
Is wortli more than its price for a year." 

W, N. Ferris, Big Haplds iXlich.), Industrial_ 

S- S. McCrumm. Sulphur Springs. Texas, 

W. L, Parks. Fireman's Ins. Co.. La Salle. III. 

J. E. Depue, Heald's Business College, San Fran- 
cisco. Cal.. and a club of eleven subscribers. 

J. J. Hagln, Newbury. Minn. 

J. A. Weser, Lincoln. Neb. 

J. W. Palton. Alfred University. Alfred Centre, 
N. Y. 

F. T. Moore, Phila, Pa. 

W. J. Kinsley, penman at the Shenandoah (Iowa) 
Commercial Institute. 

II J. Putnian, Archibald Business College, Minne- 
apolis. Minn. " I have used your Compendium for 
the past two years and consider it the beat work 
on engrossing ever published. 

G. W. Allison. Newark (Ohio), Business College. 
A. H, Bemei', Bniceville, Ind. 

W. C. Sandy, principal of Commercial Depart- 
ment. Newark, (N, J.), High School. 
Charles O. Win 

W. r. Sims, Storer CoUeRe. Itipton, 
W. D. Showalter, Bayless Businese 

penman, Hartford. 

Howard F. Perry. Poultney. Vt. 
J. M. Smith. Guy's Mills, Pa. 
J. C. Blanton, Hardeman, Ga. 
S. E. Bartow, Oberlin. Ohio, "The Joiirnal Is 
brim full of the best things," 

E. W, Maniuls. Worth. Pa. 
G. W. Shftfer. Orrville. Olito, 

J. H. Crabb, Crabb's Business College, WlUnilng- 
ton. Aid. 

H. F. Vogel. pen artist, St. Louis, Mo., a letter 
and 11onri^hed bird. The latter will probably ap- 
pear In the AuKUst JooBHAL. 

W, H. Palmer, Iowa Commercial College. Daven- 
port, Iowa, a letter and flourished bird. 

C. H. Klassman. Minneapolis. MIna., a letter, 
copy slips and a tlourished bird. 

J. M. Lantz. Emmiltsburg, Md.. a letter and sev- 
eral spei^lmens of writing and llciurlshing, 

II, F, Moore, teacher of writing. Ferney, Texas, 
a letter and flourished bird. 

F. K, Persons, Kushford. N. V.. a letter and set 
of fitpitalB. 

K. W. Ballentine. BaienUne's Mills. N.C.. a letter, 
curds, and tlourished bird. 

S. C. Malone, pen artist. Baltimore, Md,, a highly 
artistic card plate engraved from pen work by Mr. 

J. D. Briunt, Houmn. La., an original design of 
the Lord's prayer, designed as an illustration to the 
Journal, but the Ink used was not sufficiently 
black to admit of photo-engraving. 

Mill Sanderson, teacher of writing. Shoshone. 
Idaho, "The June Journal is a daisy.' I am 
wondering what next, and to where you will bring 
e pen who are so ftjrtnnate as to 

P. I. Temple, W. Tisbury. Mass. 

C. II. Peirce, special teacher of writing In the 
public schools, Keokuk, Iowa. 

E. B. Stevena, Pen Art Hall. Wauseon, Ohio. 
"Onrsobool is prospering finely; shaiisenda good 
club to the Journal soon." 

B. R. Pitklns. Mooresville, Tenn., a letter and 
nourished specimens. 

Ehner E. Laoey, Jones Commercial College, St. 
lA>uis, Mo. 

H. A. Howard, Rockland, Me., Commercial Col- 
lege, specimens of writing and flourishing in sape- 


James Harvey Bryant of the Spencerlan Business 
College. Cleveland, Ohio, to Miss Jennie Thomas of 
that city, on June 3(lth. 

A. B. Humphrey, Eureka, Hi., to MIsb Sadie Gar- 
rett, of Peoria, 111., on June Sth. 

Editor Penman's Abt JouitNAL : 

I have just learned of the death of the 
veteran penman and teacher, B. Afusser. He 
died suddenly a few days ago at Smithvllle, 
Wayne Co.. Ohio, where he had been teach- 
ing for a number of years. 

Mr. Musser was regarded as a skillful 
writer and a very successful teacher. For 
a man well up in the seventies he drew a re- 
markably smooth tine line having boldness 
and grace in his execution, His energy as 
a teacher was also something wonderful for 
a man of his years, and his general tempera- 
ment won for him many friends. 

I regret that I have not sufficient data to 
give a more extended notice of one so prom- 
inent and so worthy. Some friend in the 
fraternity can supply this want at another 
time. The present writing will inform his 
friends and pupils — many of the latter are 
now classed as professional writers — of his 
sudden death. In my humble opinion, Mr. 
Editor, items of this nature should appear 
from time to time in the columns of the 
JoiTHNAL as a matter of news. As an in- 
stance : I bad no knowledge of Mr, Flickin- 
ger"s affliction in the loss of his estimable 
wife until I learned it from Jfr. F. when in 
Philadelphia a few days ago, and yet my 
friend's wife had been dead nearly six 

Can't we have a little corner on some page 
of the Journal for noting such events V 
W. H. Duff. 

Yes, certainly, there has always been a 
large corner of the Jouiinai. open for items 
relating to the profession, and any one in 
possession of such intelligence would confer 
favor upon us and our readers by forwarding 
the same. It was through a very disagreeable 
mishap that the proper notice of the decease 
of Mrs. Flickinger failed to appear in the 
JouBNAL. We wrote such a notice, and as 
we suppose sent to the compositor, but from 
being lost or other cause it failed to appear, 
much to our annoyance and regret. 

An Improved Inkstand. 

In another column will he found an ad- 
vertisement by Mr. Ford, of Hartmann's 
Improved Inkstand, which combines the ad- 
vantage of an air tight stopper bottle in pre- 
serving the purity of the ink, thus prevent- 
ing evaporation, and of an open inkstand 
for dipping the pen, while the point, of even 
the finest gold pen, is protected, The pen is 
supplied with just the quantity required, 
and on the under side of the nib. 

In the old style of inkstand, the pen must 
pass through any layer of dust and scum 
that may have accumulated ; by this inven- 
vention the ink comes from under the sur- 
face clear and bright, and always ready for 

This is an admirable arrangemeni and will 
preserve for many months, ink in a pure 
liquid state, or until consumed by use. 
Samples of these stands will be sent for ]|;1 
enclosed to S. Ford. General Agent, S907 
Morgan St.. St. Louis. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 

Remember, that if you order either our 
"New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and tliey are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 
the entire amount paid. 


AH 1 »J01:KNAI. 


Lesson in Free-Hand Drawing. 

(('opyrlglited 1880, by J. H. Barlow.) 

Whatever may be the students intention 

or fancy in his application of a knowledge 

of art, whether for general design or some 

specialty, after he lias drilled himself upon 

cultivation of his taste, in the perception 
and appreciation of the beautiful inform, 
curvature and proportion. 

Taking the parts of the face in the order 
of their simplicity, using guiding lines, as 
in the examples, then combiuing them to 
make a whole face or bead. 

Make the features of various sizes, also 
reversing them. 

the rudimentary principles of form ; wheth- 
er he shall wish it for mere ornament, flow, 
era, fruit, or landscape, it will be best for 
Lim to acquire some knowledge of the 
human figure, not only for its use and appli- 
cation in ornamental work, but as a dis- 
cipline of the eye and hand, and for the 

For the profile view of the head, it will 
useful to him to practice of various si 
and iu various directions, the contour 
given OD a small scale. 

A scale for the hand, as in example, ^ 
serve to fix proportions, first blocking it o 
then adding details. 


■^„yf->t^ y'£<S^gZ'^:^Xf^^ , 

The ab&te cut was photo engraved from a bu^ness letter written by W. U. Latlirop. S^mth 

Boston, Mass. Mr. L. ia a buMJiess man and makes no pretensions to being a 

penman, and had no thought of his letter being engraved, hence tlte 

above is simply a specimen ofhin everyday rapid writing. 

Quick or Rapid Writing. 

PnoF. Geo. J, Becker. 


The utilitarian aud go ahead spirit of the 
times requires that in business everything 
should be done quickly andcheaply. " Slow 
and sure " does not. therefore, recommend 
itself to public attention, and is apt to be 
considered deficient in genius. But white 
we would comply with the demands of the 
times — to have everything done (juickly and 
economically — we would yet warn the 
learner to avoid the errors which would de- 
prive him of the desired success, and point 
out to him the only means by which a rapid 
and graceful execution can be attained. 

It should undoubtedly be his aim at start- 
ing, to become a quick and ready penman ; 
yet this should not be at the expense of ac- 
curacy and It^ibUity. Our experience has 

the term, the learner should closely follow 
the copies aud directions given, with a 
searching eye and a carefully moving pen. 
And as the ability to recognize and trace 
form does not exist alike iu all persons, hf 
should grasp the form and direct the move- 
ment of the hand. By thus educating the 
band and eye, lie will secure a correct forma- 
tion of the letters and will have laid a good 
foundation for rapid execution. Rapidity 
is then to be attained by moving the pen in 
regular measured time from letter to letter. 
All simple strokesshouldbe made with ^gx/af 
rapidity. Those strokes and letters which 
are complex require, of course, more time 
for their correct formation. 

Thus practicing at first slowly, until the 
forms and proportions are fully impressed 
on the mind, the learner may. from time to 
time, increase his speed to any degree that 
may be desirable ; but he should never let it 
exceed his ability for accurate execution, 

It is of primary importance to the ulti- 

the method here recommended ; for it 
is the only way to acquire facility and 
rapidity of execution combined with accu- 
racy and distinctness. — Extract from Becker's 
Treatise on Penmanship. 



t six weeks for Its 

mpletion, when t^ken Id conDeutloo \ 

B Forms— nearly all the Notes, Drafts. Checks. 

to and from the 

A vaHety of Trial Balances are given from 
which to make SlatemenU of Resources and Li- 
abiUtleB, and Losses and Gains. Examples In In- 
terest and Partial Payments for testing the stu- 
dent's ahlllty to perform the computations occur- 
ring in the recorded transactions. 

Valuable examples for ascertaining Averages and 
Percentages on Merchandise and other Trade Ac- 
counts, A new and Systematic Scale for putting 
on Trade Profits, or taklns off Trade Discounts. 

Negotiable Paper presented In a manner not 
' ' "« given, Payment Endorsements aud 
Endorsements alternating on the back of 

1, greatly simplifying the 

the Theory of Closing Ac- 

By the bundri 
Remit by Draft on Chicago c 
Postal or Express Orde- — "— 
>r Regtstereu Letter. 


11-12 81 StHt« Street, Chicago, 1 

■ Currency by Express 



Year's Experience in Bookkeeplnf 
p. Shorthand and Typewriting dei...>- 
correspond with some good College that needs 

1 Instructor. Address J. 



For circulars, address 

receipt c 
■' 8 

- ... RICE, A.M.L.t D., 
Sai Chestnut St.. St. Louts, Mo 


Writing and Measuring Ruler. 

For studei 

script alphabets: also the figures^ tii 
ever present and convenient before ... 

forms for writing. This ruler Is 15 inches 
by mail to any address 

e capital and timali 
, res; thus kennini' 
; before the 

L, metal edged, 
y mail to any a 
It Is invaluable to all who are seeking 

i Bro 




»i s<, 

We have a 

der, transferred din. 
Ink, printed on the f 
and Wbalnian's hot 

elaborate and 

lily orBristol 
I, „„«.„... ► . , liftwing paper, ^x28. 

loFiras or sneets of paper IjHVing these iiorders will 
he sent to engrossers ond penmen at S2. By using 
win*' bo e^I^liV '"'^^f^';,''"^" "■", I^'^^e of engropsing 
than pyo. ' s"nt rnlled a'mfind alarpe s^?oug tub™ 
n. T. AU£S. AniDtPooaiaBflndPuMIilier, 

prepared to furnish 
and durable binder for tlie Joubna 
It Is constructed t0 8or\'e botii asafl 
Sent post-paid, un receipt of $I.W. 

Lessons by Mail 

Continued Inquiry with regard to In 
BT Mail has Induced the- undersigned to arrange 
for self and home learners, and for amateur* or 
those preparing to teach penmanship: 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing. 

(All copies fresh from the pon.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons 


(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
The BO-lesson Course in Writing consists of a 
f elegantly i 

I, tbe standard s 

Forms, Page Writlni 

Writing, variety of 

Business Capitals, variety of Fancy Capitals, 
of Muscular Combination Exerciser, set 
Wholearm Combination Exercises, Bnsinees 

■-All of t 


E exact position of 

proportions, slant, ppaoing, classlllcatton and 

fancy writing, 

arm, hand and pen and 
explicit directions with r 

the princi; 

idard letters and figures. 

N Skbiks op Writteh Copibs, 

portfolio package, 

in Flourishing conalsta of 

. es - ' 

elegant Quill, I 

Also printe( 

analysis of 

e entire 60-1 

with Instructions, i 

[i receipt of SI. 

r Principles, and a 

b eolleottoo 


1 Designs 

The e 

>-Le8sok Series op Execisfs j 

is, with Instructions, l 

package, poB^paid, on receipt of »l, 

! portfolio 

long experience in t 
confidently believet. ._ 
variety, and sparkling s 

.nsliip, and i 

racy, elegai] 

-. beauty, the cor 

ipi qf Sa-SO / vnii send both c 

Jle two perSOnoln ""• aamn nl 

club together if desirable. 

This win enable I 

References : A. N. Palmer, D. T. Ames, j 

Hinman, Henry C. Spencer. 

Three beautiful specimens— one each of Flour- 
ishing, Writing, and set of Capitals— the thrte 

specimens, fresh from the pen. for 30 cents. 

Penman, N. I. Xormat School, 


2 I St Annual Session beslns 
September I . 



.ourse of Study, 

New Masonic 



Send for Catalogue with full particulara to 



Published monthly, byll. C. CLARK. Principal 

one who subscribes before ■ 

The American Penman 
journal, well filled with e- 
the subject of Penmanship. 

A'ill be a large R-page 
erything perlutningto 

ALL FOR $1.00. 



i3CluiwaFl,New-York, N. V. 

For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

laiiship, by S. D. FOIirr- i;....: ■ . , 

Lawyers, etc. 50c. pGrYr.ii, 

of the following l*reniTiiiiis- :■" \ (■ i 

..r a J^ gross of best Pens ami I ■■■■ i.: :■!.. 

Holder. SulwcHlieuow.and r.-. . ^. i. -■ i. i im.iI 


F'rinter and Stationer, 

Opp. Tribune Building. 

Ne-w Yorlc, 

VUI' »J<^>UI{NAI. 

Shading T Square 

e acoompanvlni 
_ __jtlon of tlie bli 
ipecimeuB of ruliiiu 

Djade fre 

9 the head with 


perfect Jnlt 
made free I 
Tarieil by 

Wei;iv I < IIS of 

engruv. .i . .■ ... - ,I.ine by the aid of 

thesii'i'ii' ■ ■ i; ■ 'ly i.r free-hani] lines. 

the Uiilu-<l s.iiiit5 or t uuuiia. Address for pireular 
(fiviug prices iiuddi-'stTipliuii, D. T. AMHS, 

305 Broadwar, New lork. 

New Tobk. July 27, 1880. 
D. T. Kvvs—Dtnr Sir: In the ereat scope and 
perfectldii of unr desi^s I have hnd occasion t o pii i 
your pateul riiliDc and ttniiotr Tstinare lo cvtTv 
possible test, aud fiud it the most reliable utxl c..ii' 
venlent mechanical aid I have ever seen for tlie 
purpose for which it is designed 

r squares L_. _ 
time past, and I 
the various ' 
applied It. 

the various brand 
applied It. Very t 
Designer and Dri 

to hand safely; and. after putting tWm to the 
severest tests, we are deliKtiled with the perfection 
of the work done and the facility with which it 
can be executed. It is an instrument that shculU 
be used bv every draftsman. Yours very truly, 

Moore's Business luiversity 


The only Instru- 
t will 

Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 

lild 12 years of 

Copy, smalliT or larger 
than the original of a 
Picture, Photograph, 
Map. or de-tlgii of any 
description by follow- 
ing tiie printed Instnic- 





Double I'enliolder, recently patented, admlta 

r and cheaper than the o 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



5}steniHti/.e iiml toacli writing in acconlance with the usages of the hcst 
wi'iters in the business world.' 

gnisliing features of " Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
of from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corresponding 
saving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 
of $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeraan, Taylor, & Co., 
753 and 755 Broadweiy, New York. 4_,j 





For Sale by all Stationers and Booksellers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street. New York. 

SHORTHAND ^^'OrouBhly taught hy 
good situations procured allpupiU when oompeleDt 
PlKinoBTttphythoronijldy learned, opens the beat 
field for young people, especially for educated 
'ling ladlea.^end for clr'lar. W. O. CHAFFKE, 

Oswego, N. 




si E m „" 

Mi tul D Oh 

p cl d if n iloor Mot a 

SP V p™ '/ "«l ^ 


d SI 00 

Pr p o : 

. Ohio. 

Bookkeeping, Including bankiuK by niall. 

[•ext book and blanks price $(1.75 f iirnlshed free. 
Box 265 Sherman, N. Y. 


The fiuest flourbbliig ever sent out by any pen- 
man will not eqnal the mnrretous speotmens I can 
send you, 3 for 60 cents. Executed by W. E, Den- 
nis, who In tbl.s line has no eqnal. To be had only 
byaddrossing L. Madarasz, Box 2110, New York 

To the Readers of the Peninan's Art Journal : 

Thf. jindttfi(/nf(I, who has /oKnwtd tht profesgion of 
cant wriliiiff /or l/te pant tetYn yean, arut hus yet to 
learn of thejlrtt Imtanef wfurrHn his work hat failtd 
to 'jive fittire mtinfaction, taka pUamre In e<dUng 
your atlattion to the compUtt litu of written vMling 
cards, which are qfered lU ratee consistent with the 
quality of cards and jtentiuiw/iip. Orders promptly 
flilsd. Ail poll paid. 

|3f~Witbever74packaKes ordered at one time 
an extra package of OiU Bevel Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on. With a little 
effort you can easily Induce several of your friends 
to order with you. 

Number of Cards In each package: 18 36 

Style A.— Plain WhtU, good quality 50.38 J0.75 

" B.~Wedding Bristol, very beat 40 .77 

■' C- out Sdfft, RsaortGd 44 .ftl 

" n.~Bevfi GUI Edge, the finest 50 .98 

*' 'E.—Bevds of Cream and White ... .52 1.00 

" Q.—SUk and Satin Bevels 55 1.05 

■' Jl.~Eig!Uply Bevels, assorted 57 1.10 

" 1.— Elite, the latest styles GO 1.15 

Address Liiies-e:iitTB. 16 .30 

If you order cards you should have a card case 
to keep them clean and neat. 


No. l—Busaia Leather, 4 pockets $0,23 

No.2~ " 4 " 35 

No, i— Morocco, best quality 50 

No. 6— Calf, extra good 80 

No, a—Alligator Skin, very fine 1.60 


Assorted designs— birds, scrolls, quills, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taste and skill. To students who wish 
;ood models of Flourishing to practice from, these 
vill be found to be " the thing." Price, 85 cent* 
»er package of 13. 


An unsurpassed specimen of bold business writ- 
ing In the shape of a letter, and any question 
answered, on the finest quality of unruled paper, 
price 30 cents. 

If you wish your name written in assorted styles 
and combinations, send 51 cents, and the hand- 
somest cards I can poeslbly write will be sent you. 

Elegant specimens of oflf-hand flourishing, such 
IS birds, eagles, swans, etc., on unruled paper, 
iihich are ouiuxded by all to be the moit spirited work 
■ver tent out by any penman. Price. 35 cents each : 


Executed in the highest style of the art, an 
winning the houor of being superior to the work c 
anj/of^tfr penman in the world. Each 25 cents; 
sets (different), 45 cents ; 8 seta (different). 63 cents 
Mention if you desire plain or ornamental styles. 


In re-spouse to numerous calls for very brilliant 
black Ink, arrangements have been completed for 
sending, securely packed, quart bottles to any part 
<if the country. Pi-ice per quart, *1.30. By diluting 
with some good writing fluid (Arnold's Is the beat), 
more than three qnarts of good Ink may be had 
from a single quart of this quality. I use this Ink 
In all my work. See samples. Recipe for Its 

raanuftictnre, 30 



If you experience dlffltinlty in seeuringa pen that 
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elasticity without being scratchy, I can send you 
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P y. If yo 
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or Registered Lett«r, and see 

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: alio. 

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and tlif only set recomiiuiidi.d to 



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Favorable nrrangoments nado with BusIneHS 
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Bristol Board, S-eheet tiilok, 22xi^. per auet 

French B. B.. 24K.H4.' '■ ' " ..'. 

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by mail. l)y i 

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Prepared lndj:i ink, per lioitlf, hy .■\|ire>'^ . 65 

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, " " " Wgrossbxfl. 30 

Spenoerlan No. 1. extra for flonrlBhuiK i 25 

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yard, slated nn sM 

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toBolltiit subsoriplions to the Pknman's Ai(T,)uu 
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^ ' r Pruotical and Onia- 

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Family Reoord, 18x22 

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cer Brothers. . . 
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Guide " is a book of sixty-four large pages, elejiantly printed ou the finest qimlily of fine pkle-piipei-, and is devoted 
_ to instruction and copies for Plain Writing, Off-Hand Flourishing, nud Lettering, We are sure Ibiit no other work, of 
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the penman's art, as will this. Thirty-two pages are devoted to instruction and copies for plain writing. Fourteen pages to the 
principles and examples for flourishing. Sixteen pages to alphabets, package-marking, and monograms. " Price, hy mail, in paper 
covers, 75 cents; handsomely bound in stiff covers, |1. Given free (in paper), as a premium with the Jouknal, one year, for fl ; 
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agents can. and do. make money, by taking 

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Mix it full. Never Driei or Thickens. 
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not a Penman, Arcbitec 
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S. FORD, General Agent, 3907 Morgan Street, St. Louis, Mo. 


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30(> test examples with an- 
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" I60. Address D. H. FAKLEY. 

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and I will send you one dozen ■ 
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Autliur of Nelson's Mercantile AHtbmetk- and 

NolBon"H BonkkeepliiK, Part I: and Prwldenl 

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I JacktonvilU. IV., 
■ork Is the I 

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lished for uocountants. H. A. Spkncer." 
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a bare adopted it li 

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"I kuow what your booklieepiog Is and can 
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"It is tlieuugioKul^or Uiiri 
teaching and stuaylni; the I 
hnnlnens, with all the weak i 
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with any of the different ''Ooks heretofore used. 

FrOmUie Otntral BookJufpfrofthe Qerman National 

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Exercises in Capital Letters, 

Exercises in Abbreviations, 

Exercises in Forming Sentences, 

Exercises in Punctuation, 

Exercises in Spelling, 

Exercises in English, 

Exercises inWritingTelegraph Messages 

Exercises in Writing Advertisements, 

Exercises in Writing Business Papers, 

Exercises in Writing Circulars, 

The Form and Structure of Letters, 

Sample Letter Headings, 

Sample Envelope Addresses, 

Sample Social Letters, 

Numerous Sample Business Letters, 

Numerous Full page Engraved Spe 

Numerous Hints and Helps, 

Many Valuable Suggestions, 

Exercises in Social Correspondence, 

Exercises in Business Corrcspondenc 

Photo-Engraved Samples of Bu 

Letters from New York Bus 


hardly ner.esttarj- to say that tho need for a thoroughly pracllcal text-book on this very 
mibjeol has been felt by thousands of teaoher». It Is only a few weeks since the first 
of this now text-book was made. Notwlthstuodlng this fact, letters of Inijnlry and 
orders have been received from nearly every State and Province. The ereateat oaro has 
the preparation of the work, In the engraving, and in the general typography an<f 

bhidini;, and we feel oonfidenl that v 

1 placing upon the market a 

a,hi t 


THE SUPPLEMENT CO., Buffalo. N. Y., 

vi or, CONNOR ODEA, Toronto, Canada. 


time we will make sTAMT I'OR- 
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VlBlllng t-'ards, elo.. engraved on Steel or Copper 
Plates In all the approved Btyles. 

BPECIA1..-A facsimile of your Autograph 
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Send sttimpa for samples of AutOBrapb £agrav- 


k:eiok:xtk:, ioaatj^, 

The rrirctriau St/itfem of Pen- 
manship, and Veirre's Philo- 
sophical Treatise of 
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Membewhip in the Business Department 

s S'lO.O 

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3d. The total expense Is about one-half thafof 
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8th. My Philosophical Treatise of Penmatiship 

Remember, It Is the only 

. bllehed ; containing iteven 

questions and answers, together with,, u^;u..ures, Critlolsms and dlRcuB.«lonB. All 

pertalniog to penmanship, and covering 112 pages 

book of its kind e 

of superior paper. 

9th. The 8 

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r 81 

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n of Penmaneblp Department. Keokuk 


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J\o I Ready for Delirerff. 

"-.V. Y. TtViutu 

1 who is thoroughly I 

'A remarkable wealth of Infonnatlon."— t'Al- 
go Tribune. 

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" The straightforward book of a atrulghtforward 


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The Automatic Shadine Pen 

Makess Sbaded Maxk of Two Colors at a 
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The Best Assistant in Office Work. 

I'ractlcal Journal for Bu 

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to TO W?NAMt:N'r^i>-- 

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Entered at the Post Office of New York, 
N.Y., as Second-Class Mail Matter, 


tfif ytar 1885. by Daniel T. Ames, in tfu Officf of the Librarian qf Obnffras, Washington, D. C. 

Vol. X.— No. 8. 

Movement Exercises. 

Muscular movement, the fouodatiau of 
fill good pmciicftl writing, can best be ac- 
quired through exercises systematically 
practiced. " Practice upon movement exer- 
cises is to the learoer of writing what prac- 
tice upon the scales is to the learner of 
music." Aud movement is the key which 
unlocks the door to all future successful 
practice. Movement without form may be 
worth but little, yet form without move- 
ment is the same, so it is evident that ihey 
must go together, although when practicing 
for movement we must sacrifice form more 
or less and vice vtTm. 

While I may not he able to give exercises 
which all penmen will indorse, I give to all 
advanced pupils an exercise with every les- 
son occupying one half the time of each 
lesson. If this is true the question naturally 
arises what exercises are the best. I believe 
and probably a great many others that the 
oval and most simple ones are best, but 
practicing those conslaotly will soon be- 
come monotonous and dry, so to -avoid 
this it is necessary to give and practice other 
exercises, aud for that reason I give this 

Were every one to notice the similarity 
they will n^t find them very difficult. 

Some win say: " T>o they not have a ten- 
dency to lead to that flourishing or Mark 
Checkup style of writing ?" No. not if 
properly carried out and that for an object 
in view movement. If pupils practice sys- 
tematically and understand what the exer- 
cises are for, they will put them to that use 
and no other. 

This lesson is presented on the supposition 
that all understand pen-holding, position of 
the body, arms, band and feel. 

b irsL practi 
ing the small letters. 

Too much stress cannot be laid upon this 
oval exercise either direct or indirect. The 
circular extended motion of the hand and 
firm from the rest just forward of the elbow 
develops a good movement in all directions 
and lays the foundation for a great many 
other letters. 

Study it carefully and make it with a full 
swinging motion of the arm from the rest. 

Make them just as regular as you can 
with a full muscular movement and about 
three-eighths of an inch high, or the distance 
between ordinary ruled practice paper. 

Go just as far as you can every time in 
all movement exercises without crowding 
the hand and arm, and then shift the arm 
and continue finishing a line every time he- 
fore beginning the next. If you can make 
the entire line with ease so much the better. 

Mimefourorllve os u 
a straight line, then one line io oval, then 
two lines as in copy before atoppinj; and 
tememher to practice systemuticalJy. 

This is a good exercise for acquiring free- 
dom in moving from right to left, so avoid 
making them too near together. 

Other letters as v, w, and c, can be taken 
up in the same way. 

This exercise should receive a great deal 
of practice, because upon this depend the 

t, d, p. 1, h, h, k and f, which can all be 
made by simply making the letter and then 
passing around the same as in o. 

This exercise may be a little hard at first, 
but after once acquiring it. q. j. y and z, 
can be made in the same way. so you will 
notice there are only two forma to learn and 
you have an exercise with every small letter 
f the alphabet. 

Make all capital exercises with as vigor- 
ous a movement as possible, shading as 
heavy as the most elf.stic pens will shade. 
Shades cannot be made too bold for practice 

The pupil who i 

ice the form carefully and try to get 
J well as you can and keep the move- 


Observe aUuui the same things 
IS you do in the 0. 
Make large, bold and heavy. 


Comieci una lUe same as yuu uu Lhe 0, 
)ut avoid bringing the shade too low down. 

Drop the shade inside the oval, or before 
'ou cross the line at the bottom. 

Observe in this letier that you drop below 
the line in coming around. By doing tliis 
you will get the letter much better. 

W may also be taken np in the same way. 

II capilul letters coming be- 
low the line that you make both parts (above 
and below) the same slant. After once ac- 
complishing this, .1. I and "Y can be made 
in the same way 

The hardest part of the stem will be to 
get the shade in ils proper place, which 
should be made down on the oval turn, aud 
this can only be accomplished by a great 
deal of practice. Some seem to find it al- 
most impossible to get the shade in its 
proper place, but if you have patience and 
stick to it, it will come by practice. 

While a great many other and more 
difficult exercises might be given, they will 
not serve any better purpose. 

Now. in conclusion, remember that what- 
ever you do is worth doing well, so in these 
exercises practice and study but one at a 
time, and let me again impress upon the 
learner the necessity of practicing syste- 
matically, connecting a certain number 
every time, and filling one line before be- 
ginning the next, so continue page after 

Report of the Proceedings of the 

Eighth Annual Convention of 

the Business Educators 

and Penmen of 



The association met at the rooms of Pack- 
ard's Business College, ou July 7th, and 
was called to order by the president, A. 
.J. Ilider. Keporls were read by the 
executive committee, secretary and treas- 
urer. After which the annual address 
by the president was delivered. The address 
was an able and comprehensive exposition 
of the purposes of the association, and the 
present condition of business education in 
this coimtry. 

" It is, he said, about forty years since our 
venerable co-laborer 'Bartlctt' discovered 
that anomaly in commerciol science, where- 
by the young man bad to know how before 
he could get in, and he must get in before be 
could know how. 

Great advancements have been made in 
the methods of commercial and business 

We have not passed a point where the 
young man must know how in order to get 
in. But we have passed to a point where he 
can learn how before he gets in. 

Whatever may be said in this respect of 
the 'American Business College,' it must 
be acknowledged, and stands to its credit, 
that it has forged a key that unlocks a door 
to the avenues of commercial science, 
whereby ambitious young men may enter, 
and that they do enter, Is evidenced by the 
thousands of young men and women, too, 
who patronize these schools from year to 
year, and by the large number of men now 
engaged in commercial pursuits in this 
country, as compared with the number in 
other countries where there has been a tardier 
recognition of the importance of 
cial trade. 

From a small beginning and pr 
existence the business college system of this 
country has come to constitute an impor- 
tant factor in the educational plan of this 
country, having annually in attendance be- 
tween 8,0UO and 4,000 pupils of both sexes." 

The address was well worthy of being here 
given in full. But space forbids that we 

should do 80 at this time, but will probably 
in a future number of the Journal. 
After the president's address it was de- 
cided that the verbatim report of the pro- 
ceedings of the convention should he taken 
and published in pamphlet form. 

Propositions for taking such a report were 
made by Messrs. Kimball the conductor of 
the phonographic and type writing depart- 
ment of Packard's College, and M. M. 
Bartholomew, inventor of the stenograph, 
Mr. Bartholomew subsecjuenlly withdraw- 
ing his proposition, that of Mr. Kimball was 

Mr. Morris, vice-president of the " Pack- 
ard Alumni Association," presented on 
behalf of his association to the " B. E. As- 
sociation " a very handsome gavel bearing 
the following inscription, " Presented to the 
Business Educators Association of America, 
by the Packard Alumni Association, July 
7th, 1H86." 

In presenting the gavel, Mr. Wise said : 

"1 need hardly suggest that in the hands 
of an energetic presiding officer a guvel has 
been known to accomplish some very re- 
markable results in the cause of legislation. 
The Alumni Association of Packard's also 
recognizes the truth of the old adage that, 
" All work and no play makes Jack a dull 

The executive committee of our association 
thought it might be pleasant to you and to 
those of your friends who accompany you 
on this occasion, if a little recreation from 
the cure, the excitement and work, should 
attend the labors of the convention. I there- 
fore take pleasure in extending to you and 
the members of this convention the hos- 
pitality of our association, which with your 
permission will take the shape of a river 
excursion on Friday next. We have taken 
the liberty to assume in advance that our 
invitation will not come amiss. I have 
already made such preliminary arrange- 
ments as are necessary to give you a good 
day's entertainment. 

The programme briefly will be a sail up 
the Hudson to lona Island, where the day 
will be spent in such reasonable recreation 
as will be there afforded, and in return land 
you in this city at a reasonable hour in the 

The gavel as well as the invitation to the 
excursion was accepted by the association 
and other members of the convention, with 
anappropriateaddressof thanks by President 
Rider. Also an invitation was extended by 
Mr. Wiogate. secretary of the '•Twilight Club 
of New York," to the members of the con- 
vention, to a dinner at Brighton Beach 
Hotel, Coney Island, on the Thursday even- 
ing following, which was also accepted. 

Mr. Packard, chairman of the executive 
committee, then read the programme for 
Thursday, when the convention adjourned 
to meet at Chickcring Hall in the evening. 
The meeting at the Hall was not as largely 
attended us had been anticipated owing to 
the extreme heat, non-arrival of the mem- 
bers, and the absence of many of tlie people 
from the city. 

The meeting was called to order by Mr. 
Packard, chaimian of the executive com- 
mittee, who said : 

Ladies and Gentlemen.— Everybody is 
out of town excepting ourselves, and we are 
here to do honor toabody of educators, who 
in the plentitude of their wisdom know 
where to go in the hot weather. This as- 
semblage of schoolmasters whom you see 
scattered about Ibis audience have come to 
New York on business, like the country 
merchants and women who find it necessary 
at stated occasions to repair to the metrop- 
olis for the purpose of keei-ing up their sup- 
ply of goods, so thcfe gentlemen propose to 

use a part of their summer vacation and 
come here tor the purpose of luyiug in « 
Block of Dcw ideas for the fall trade. In 
this enterprise they represent that principal 
in economics which I Imvc never seen laid 
down in any work on bookkeeping or polit- 
ical economy, the story of the boys who un- 
dertook to pet rich hy swapping jackets— 
the boys you remember cnme out of the 
trade with the same number of jackets as 
they bad in the beginning, rather the worse 
for wear but neither of them being much 
richer- the story is told for the purpose of 
shutting the mouths of the false teachers 
of the theory of accumulation. Here is a 
cose, however, where the sacred and long 
established principles of exchange seem to 
be set at naught — a case where the person 
who gives ihe most gets the most by the 
very act of giving. The man who, having 
ideas gives Ihcm away, so to speak, does 
not by that act part with them. He lets 
others have them, to he sure, but the more 
he lets them have them the tighter the grip 
by which he holds them for himself. If we 
appreciated this proposition tnorefully, how 
much richer the world would be in ideas. 
These, gentlemen and ladies, are the teachers 
and proprietors of business colleges, sonieof 
them have been long in the work and have 
not grown tired of it, others have come in 
more recently and have come in to stay 
They have come here for the purpose of ex- 
changing views in reference to the processe-- 
of teaching, and we have come here to do 
them honor in extending to them the hos- 
pitalities of this city, and to cheer them by 
words of eucouragrimeut. The gentlemen 
who speak on behalf of the city are its best 
representatives. They come from its fields 
of thought, of enterprise, and of admiration. 
They represent Ihe city governmeDt, the 
judiciary, the educational interests, thelcgal 
brotherhood, the pulpit and the press, and 
to them I propose to commit this meeting. 
The Mayor of this city, in the person of the 
President of the Board of .Vldermen will 
preside. The following letter which I have 
received from the Mayor will explain this 
matter more fully than I could otherwise 

Mr. Packard then read a letter from 
Mayor Grace, expressing regret at his in- 
ability to preside at the meeting as per his 
promise, naming as his substitue the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Aldermen and Acting 
Mayor of the city, Mr. Nooney. 

MATon's Office, tinw York. July 0, 18S0, 
8 S. Packabo, Esq.: 

/Jrar Sir.— I desiro to express to yon my regrets 
tliat absence from the city tomorrow evenlnE will 

reunion of BO larice a num 
ested In the cause of Imsincss education. The 
number of such instldilions Ihrougliout the coiui- 
Ir? haa. I am intormed. Inrcrely Increased, and the 
evidence which such Increase gives of the growing 
Intf re»t taken In this very practical depnrtnient o( 
education Is to me, aea businessman, very graiiry- 
InK. Technical education and business education 
should go hand In hand. I take it that it matters 
not what a boy studies so long as he be taught to 
employ Ills facnlties to the best advantage In any 
walk of life In whk-h he may choose to engage. If 
he be bright, he may learn this art In college or In 
life. In the schools or in dally contact wlfh bis fel- 
low men. The great lesson which needs to be In 
ouloatcd is that of self command and self concen- 
tration. That leisoD may be learned as well In 
business and technical SL-hoola as t^'kewbere, and. 
In addillon, a scholar will have gained a sum of 
knowledtce which a general student will have yet 
to acquire, although his general education will 
have given hlni a dlstloct and invaluable advan- 
tage over less fortunate competitors. 

Inmyab-ence the Acting Mayor, Mr. Nooney, 
will represent me, and 1 beg to express the hope 
that your reunion mny result in the improvement 
of the methiids eniployrd In the department of 
buxinexs education. 

1 remain, respectfully. 

W. R. Grace. 

Mr. Nooney, who being present, was in- 
troduced by Mr. Packard as the presiding 
officer, as follows : 

This is a graceful act and an act of grace 
as well (laughter). For while it does not 
deprive us of the Mayor in fact, and of bis 
kindly personal greeting it also gives us the 
best part of the Board of Aldermen. The 
Mayor is here, however, and I present to you 
President Nooney, IheActingMayorof New 

On taking the chair Mr. Nooney suid in 
substance : 

1 am proud to occupy the favorable posi- 
tiun that T do here to-night, and to welcome 
in the name of the City of New York, the 

icasion of the 

Business Educiilors of America, The cause 
of cdiiruliou is at any time one of supreme 
interest. But really at this lime and at this 
period, and iit this particular juncture every 
man not only in this city, but throughout 
the entire country who has a soul, and ap- 
preciation of the situation regiirding educa- 
tion in the United States, should feel that 
bis calling is a sacred one. Great problems 
now occupy the public mind. Bccent 
events demonstrate that vast responsibilities 
rest upon the educators, both secular and 
business in this United States. And if we 
would have appreciated all the blessings 
that should come from foundations laid by 
our fathers in the last century, if wc would 
have those blessings fall to our posterity as 
they came to us, it behooves every man 
whose business it is to educate, to have the 
most elevated thoughts, and the most noble 
impulses in guiding the young idea, and the 
idea of more mature years aright. If any 
word of mine representing the City of New 
York as I think, if any word of mine should 
impress the educators and gentlemen whose 
convention is commenced to-day, to be more 
earnest if possible, and more elevated in 
(heir thoughts of duty in the future and lay 
better foundations for their successors, I 
shall feel amply paid. 

' Knowing as I do that gentlemen will fol- 
liow me who can entertain you with that elo- 
quence that I do not possess, I shall not lake 
your time imuecessarily, but bid the "Con- 
vention of Educators " a cordial and hearty 
\yelcome to the City of New York. 
' The "American Glee Club" here enter- 
tained the meeting with choice selection of 
music. The president of "Business Edu- 
cators Association," then introduced the 
president of the association (A. J. Rider), of 
Trenton, N. J. He spoke in substance, as 
follows : 

Permit me on behalf of the Business Edu- 
cators Association of America, to express 
i;o you ray high appreciation of your geuer- 
(fus words of welcome. In coming to the 
great commercial metropolis of the country, 
we were aware that we were coming to the 
metropolis of inteltigciice. of enterprise, of 
Wealth and of corresponding liberality. 
And while it is expected that the spirit 
which controls a people, will find expression 
in individuals, I confess sir, that the cordial 
reception that has been given in your hearty 
words of welcome, exceeds my most san- 
guine expectation. You have, sir, the most 
hearty thanks not only of the Business Edu- 
cators here assembled, but of thousands of 
jour co-laborers all over the land for the 
noble recognition you have given them and 
their work here to-night. 

We expect sir, during our short stay in 
your city, and after our returu to our res- 
pective fields of labor, to deport ourselves in 
such a manner as will show that the gener 
ous sentiments you have so kindly expressed 
have not been unworthily bestowed. 
' Es-Gov. Chamberlain, of South Carolina, 
was then introduced, who delivered a very 
able and interesting address. 

Its length precludes its admission in full 
here. The Governor paid a high tribute to 
^he work being wrought by the business 
Colleges of the country. There was no 
form of modern education with which he 
was in more genuine sympathy than that 
represented by the convention. "While the 
phrase— business education— as ordinarilv 
tised, in a restricted sense was, as compared 
^ith the learned professions so called, in- 
complete, it seemed to him that in its 
fitting of men and women for business life 
in the highest and best sense education, 
that is education which has not only ad- 
vanced the world to its present standing, 
but holds out its best hopes for the future 

At the close of the Governor's address. 
Professor J. L. N. Hunt, of New York! 
made a somewhat extended and able ad- 
dress. Mr. Hunt was for many years one 
of Ihe best known educators of New York 
City, and is now a successful member of 
the New York Bar. 

"Twenty years ago this month," said 
Mr. Hunt, "I came from the State Normal 
School in Ohio to work in Ihe traces with 
my friend here on the right (Mr. Packard) 
in the institution of which lie is now as well 
as then was President. That institution 
then had. and during the years intervening, 
in that president one aupreine guiding star 
in the front. No matter through "what 

form it is wrought, no matter by what 
genius it has been brought about, no matter 
what means it has employed, in the institu- 
tion there has been but one aim and object, 
first and last and all the time, and that is to 
advance to the highest possible standard 
business educalioa and the interests of the 
thousands who have Bought the advantages 
of the institution. I have been near by and 
have seen its workings, witnessed its 
troubles and its success." 

Speaking generally of the business educa- 
tion throughout the United States, Mr. 
Hunt said that we have had the verdict of 
the highest court of resort that business 
education is not a failure but a success, It 
has been vindicated by the beads of depart- 
ments of the goverumeot of the United 
States, and by the business community at 
targe. He emphasized the high estimate 
placed upon business education by Governor 
Chamberlain as a direct aid to business 
success, as compared with the courses of 
study pursued at the Colleges and Universi- 
ties of the country. We regret that we are 
unable to give the address in full. After 
the Governor had closed, the Rev. Dr. 
Buckley, of New York, delivered an 
able, interesting and instructive address. 
After welcoming the convention to the city 
of New York, in view of the lateness of the 
hour and the extreme heat, he likened his 
position to a minister in the West who said 
to his host, "I will take another piece of 
steak because I have got to speak ; " and, 
suid his host, "I will also take another piece 
of steak because I have got to listen to you.'* 
He believed in business education, and be- 
lieved that many failures in life were due 
to the want of such education as these insti- 
tutions give. Apply the knowledge of 
bookkeeping to his own profession ; it is 
very necessary in church matters. And be 
described a church in the city which was 
going to destruction through the misunder- 
standing of its business relations. He 
instanced an old firm in New York in 
which were kept two sets of books, The 
old man of the firm not understanding 
double entry insisted tipou having a set of 
books kept by sinjile entry, which he could 
understand ; while the younger heads of 
the firm kept another set by double entry. 
He related the story of an okl farmer who 
had spent two thousand dollars upon the 
education of his son in one of our literary 
colleges, who thought he would ascertain 
when his son came home how much he 
knew about Latin. He asked him, " John, 
what is the Latin for fork ?" " Forkibus_ 
sir." "And what is the Latin for cart?" 
" Cartibus, sir." "Well sir." said Ihe old 
man, "you take the forkibus and fill the 
cartibus, or it will be the worse for you." 
The old gentleman then sought in his Bible 
some consolation for the waste of time and 
money he had thrown away upon the boy. 
ind he could only find it in the phrase, 
i' I have poured in gold and there came out 
this calf." Institutions should be judged by 
their results. 

Some time since I went to the head of one 
of our large business houses in this city and 
asked him. Have you any of the gradiuites 
of the various business colleges in your em. 
ploy, and he said yes. What is the result of 
their training. They counted but 13, and 
said 11 are first-class, one is a fizzle whom 
we keep for his fathers sake, and one is on 
probation. Where can you find any institu- 
tions that are doing better than that ? 

Thursday Morning, 10 A. M. 

The convention assembled at the room of 
Packard's College. The exercises were 
opened by the reading of a paper on " How 
to introduce the theory of accounts," by 
Dr. J. C. Bryant. The paper was listened 
to with marked attention and evinced much 
thought and a thorough mastery of the sub- 
ject by the speaker. 

"Bookkeeping was capable of being pre- 
sented in a variety of ways, and each author 
thought his way the best. It should not be 
Ihe aim of a teacher to relieve pupils from 
mental exertion, but rather to interest and 
encourage them to master for themselves the 
principles of bookkeeping, many pupils mas- 
tered the routine of books and were yot ig- 
borant of the fundamental principles of ac- 
counts; he believed that the principles of 
bookkeeping could best be taught by the use 
of a skeleton ledger, in this way instruction 

can be centralized, and all the essential facts 
brought out, eliminated from the perplexing 
and confusing details that bavfe too often 
surrounded and mystified the instruction 
of bookkeeping. The ledger is the great 
central receptacle in which each account is 
placed according to its classification. The 
day book and journal are only the mediums 
through which accovmts pass to the ledger, 
they arc no more essential than are the cash 
book, sales book, bill book. The tendency 
has been, and still is, to shorten and 
simplify the labor of bookkeeping, and 
much has been gained by the discarding of 
useless theories. Once get a pupil interested 
in bookkeeping and there will be enkindled 
within him a love for the study and a desire 
to excel that will enable him to surmount 
all obstacles. 

G. W. Brown, of Jacksonville opened the 
debate upon the paper read by Mr. Bryant. 
Though he agreed with Mr. Bryant respect- 
ing the use of text books, be thought that 
the former works upon bookkeeping had 
been built loo much upon the plan of arith- 
metic. First, giving definitions Iheu exam- 
ples. He thought that ideas had been dark- 
ened by words. That definitions should be 
learned in the practical application of a 
science. We have compelled pupils to wade 
after words through high sounding phrases, 
until he has come to regard bookkeeping 
as something i erribly double-and-l w isted . 
and that unless you be one of the elect, and 
from heaven you could 

Now, I believe in beginning bookkeeping 
with a definition of bookkeeping. What is 
bookkeeping ? It is a record of the trans- 
action of business. 

Those transactions in a business that a 
sane individual would desire to have re- 
corded. And right here, the teacher ought 
to read between the lines. (It need not ap- 
pear in the book.) 

I don't care whether records are kept in a 
day book, journal, or a memorandum book 
carried in the vest pocket. It is good, had 
or indifferent bookkeeping in a degree, that 
it serves the purpose for whiek bookkeeping 
is intended. He believed that if a nimble 
teacher would start off with the idea that 
bookkeeping is a record of business, and 
that it must be classified in order to he use- 
ful be would succeed. He would begin with 
personal accounts. There was where book- 
keeping conimeuced. He would impress 
upon the miod of the pupil that a personal 
account was founded upon a personal prom- 
ise to pay. You can begin personal accounts 
with cash if you like, but that does not 
seem to be the most natural way. He would 
go on from subject to subject forging link 
after link in the chain of the idea of ac- 
counts, never mentioning single or double 
entry, never saying anything about day 
books, ledgers, or culries. These ought 
never to be mentioned in connection with 
the intellectual idea for the philosophy of 

P. R. Spencer of Cleveland, Ohio, dif- 
fered with Jlessrs. Bryant and Brown 
respecting the use of the skeleton ledger. 
He believed it best to illustrate ; 
singly. Taking up personal i 
illustrating each account separately, dis- 
tinctly and fully. 

Richard Nelson, of Cincinnati, began 
teaching bookkeeping with the thought 
that the pupil should do nothing that he 
did not thoroughly and completely under- 
stand, and the entire theory of bookkeeping 
should be taught in one set of books. He 
now believed a pupil should not be taught 
anything that he could readily discover for 
himself. He believed that the main error in 
bookkeeping lay in the effort to make it 
too intellectual; that too much attention was 
given to theory ; that it should be first 
practice then theory. The natural method 
is to do the work and take theories from it. 
You need no rules, the theory is the prin- 
ciple involved. 

After the close of Mr. Nelson's ad- 
dress, which was somewhat extended 
and practical, T, C Smith, of .lacksonville, 
opened the discussion upon the " best method 
of teacJiing business vtriting." Spcuking 
from his standpoint as a teacher in a busi- 
ness college, having to do with advanced 
pupils, those who had already pursued a 


course of writing iu the public schools, he 
might present the subject differently than 
he would were he teaching beginners. He 
believed that for beginners copies could not 
be too perfect, or the method of instruction 
too exact. Wbile with young meu whose 
course of study was near completion, there 
might be allowed to some extent license in 
their practice. We all know that it is im- 
practical to write perfectly and strictly 
according to the standard in business. He 
did not believe in holding a pupil, well ad- 
vanced to such of business college work, 
strictly to standards. That he should be 
permitted to exercise much the same license 
that he would practice in a counting-room, 
subject constantly to criticisms and sugges- 
tions of Ibc teacbcr. And that in this way 
a pupil would be belter prepared to enter at 
once upon the work of the counting-room 
than if be had continued the practice of 
exact writing.up to the time of his gradua- 
ation. He believed that great attention 
should be given to drill in the movements 
for the acquisition of speed and ease in 
writing. It had been said that be was not 
believer in systematic copies and instruction, 
that he practiced what was termed the 
helter-skelter plan. Nothing could be 
more erroneous, as be believed the remarks 
he had just made would show. 

Mr. Becker, of Worcester, Mass.: The 
great difficulty experienced by myself and 
I believe by most teachers is writing on the 
finger movement, which in almost every in- 
stance, has been previously practiced by the 
pupil. He had known teachers who advo- 
cated purely the muscular movemeut in 
which he did not believe. Forearm and 
finger movement was very much the best 
for good rapid writing. 
He believed that the 
fingers should be em- 
ployed iu assisting the 
muscular motion in 
making the extended 
letters and giving ex- 
pression to writing. 
He believed in a liberal 

man intimate that he did not wish abso- 
lutely perfect writing, but we all know that 
the environments and demands of business 
are such that it could not be produced. Men 
have sometimes been shaved with dull razors. 
They do not prefer them but submit under 
the circumstances. So with imperfect writ- 
ing. It is used in business because perfect 
writing cannot there be obtained. But it 
did not follow from this that imperfect 
writing should be held up by the teacher as 
an example: such an idea was an absurdity 
that no sensible teacher in the land would 
tolerate. I believe that the higher and the 
more uniform the standard the better will 

facility that he would write imperfect writ- 
ing, if there would be any objection to the 
perfect writing. Mr. Brown ; I don't 
think that there would be. But commercial 
writing is not microscopically accurate 
handwriting. And if a clerk is tracing it 
with very great care and exactness I think 
the business man would say "We want 
you to get up and write." 

H. C. Spencer. Washington. I believe it 
was at my suggestion that Mr. Smith was 
called to lead this discussion. I had reason 
for making that suggestion. We visited 
Jacksonville College last year, and saw very 
good business writing. We had previously 


The (liiom cuts 

cise, for disciplining 
the muscles of the arm 
and tingers, and en- 
abling them to execute 
writing with rapidity 
and reasonable accu- 
racy. He had seen ad- 
vocated the use of the 
whole arm movements 

for writing. This he 

did not believe to be practical, as it required 
too much practice and discipline to enable 
one to .sufficiently control the motion of the 
whole arm to produce reasonably accurate 
forms for good writing. In selectiug copies 
for learners he believed it best to give a 
single style of a letter, and that a pupil be re- 
quired to limit his practice strictly to those 
forms until they were mastered. The forms 
should be the simplest and plainest possible. 
He believed that much injuryresulled to the 
pupil where careless practice was permitted. 
He believed in being positively severe if 
necessary to enforce the pupils to follow 
strictly the copy given him by the teacher. 
He did not believe iu covering quire after 
quire of paper with careless and well nigh 
aimless practice. He also believed in a lib- 
eral use of the blackboard in the way of il- 
lustrating correct forms and criticising faults 
in pupils' writing, 

K. C. Spencer here said he would like to 
ask Mr. Smith of Jacksonville, if he under, 
stood him correctly in saying that business 
men did not wish accurate writing. And if so, 
how extensive his experience had been with 
business men in that respect ? Mr. Smith 
replied that whatever he might have said he 
did not believe that business men did desire 
accurate writing, and if they did they could 
not get it. Mr, Spencer asked if it was be- 
cause they did not want it or because they 
would not get it ? Mr. Smith said he thought 
that business men were thoroughly satisfied 
with writing that was perfectly legible and 
rapidly written. 

Mr. Williams of Rochester, said if they 
could get accurate writing at the same price 
and the same eJTort, and the same expendi- 
ture of time he thought that business men 
would be glud to have perfectly accurate 

from day to day in order that good results 
may he produced. 

I read this morning of a man sitting down 
upon a log to fix his gun. and in some way 
the gun was discharged, and a squirrel waa 
killed off at his right. Now I never heard of 
such a thing as that before. There was a 
gun that went off at random ; it is seldom 
anything is hit, and it is so with teaching ; 
teaching at random seldom produces any- 
thing. But in this case there is no random 
work, there is a standard of teaching that 
gains good results. (Applause.) 

Mr. Roth, of San Francisco : A business 
advertisement reads : Apply in your own 
handwriting. What does that mean ? Why 
the proprietor wants to see the writing of 
the party seeking employment. And if it is 
not accurate he will have nothing to do with 
it. If it is not good he throws it in the wast* 
basket. If it is good he says, that shows 
style, that shows character, and I want to 
who wrote it. It was my good 
handwriting that helped me to a good busi- 
and it will be the handwriting of many 
young men and women that will help them 
to good places and to promotion. He 
thought that good and accurate writing was 
school. In bookkeeping there 
need not be great speed. He did not believe 
in birds and flourishes and all that sort of 
thing in business writing, and says, what 
would you think of a business man Mr. 
Ames, for instance, who went waltzing all 
the way down Broadway to his office at 205 
Broadway. That would be in a business 
point of view what flourishing would be to 
writing. It would be no more ridiculous 
for a man to go waltzing down Broadway 
to his business, than it is for business col- 
leges to deal with flour- 
ishes and fancy writ- 
ing. He believed in 
artistic and fancy writ- 
ing in its proper place. 
If he went to have 
a testimonial or mar- 
riage certificate filled 
which he had not yet 
had, he would want 
nice artistic writing, 
possibly with flour- 
ishes. But that was 

(oCT-e plioto engramd ft-oni pen and ink copy executed at the Rockford {III.) Business College, and 
loaned to tlie Journal by the tlie proprieto/'s of the College, Messrs. Wmans & Stoddard. 

Mr. An 

• yet heard a business 

be the result to the pupil. And that no 
business man will ever say to his clerk 
"John, your writing is too perfect; we 
don't want such perfect writing in this 
office." I doubt if any such thing has ever 
occurred or ever will occur in this world. 
The difficulty is a young man may be so 
trained in school as to write a given num- 
ber of words in a minute handsomely ; but, 
in leaving, he is employed in business 
■where, from necessity, he is required to 
write a much greater number of words, 
possibly two or three times as many iu a 
given time. He can write so many words 
well but he has never tried to write thirty. 
The consequence is that the standard of 
motion with him is not up to the standard 
of the demand. And in the extraordinary 
effort to perform the unusual his writ- 
ing at once degenerates into scrawls and 
illegibility. I believe that a pupil in prac- 
tice should be held to a high standard of 
perfection in his copy, and also carried to as 
high a rate of speed as possible. But it 
will ever be the fact that any one attempt- 
ing to write beyond a speed in which they 
are practiced or disciplined will of necessity 
write badly. But the very idea of any one 
in the world ever desiring imperfect writing 
in preference to perfect, seems to me to be 
the height of absurdity. 

Mr. Brown, of Jacksonville, thought this 
to he threshing old straw. He did not 
believe business men knew what they did 
want in the way of handwriting. They did 
not want an inaccurate handwriting so called 
simple as an inaccurate handwriting. They 
want a handwriting that will be written 
legibly and meet the exigencies of business. 

(Mr. Ames) : I would like to ask Mr. 
Brown, if he believed that a pupil going 
into a business office and writing perfectly 
nt just as high a rate of speed with just the 

'riling of the pupils from 
that institution. We also saw Mr. Smith's 
business writing. The specimens were evi- 
dently written with great speed and were 
fair samples of copies. Now while good 
results are obtained in a school, it is desir- 
able for us to ascertain how they have been 
produced. We are investigators. If we are 
progressive, there is no man who can rise 
and say, I kuow all about this subject of 
business writing, or of business arithmetic, 
or of bookkeeping, or any other branch. 
All come here to give and receive. And I 
for one feel very anxious to know how they 
produce that excellent writing at Jackson- 
ville. I charge nothing for this as a free ad 
vertisement of the school. The methods 
have been set forth by Mr. Smith to some 
extent in our presence. And they are profit- 
able lessons. One thing you will perhaps 
observe. The teacher makes his band the 
standard, the absolute standard of that 
school. ' 

Now this does not matter so much in a 
single school, it does not matter particularly 
whether those standards correspond with 
the standards adopted by teachers in other 
similar institutions. That they are standards 
there for advanced pupils, that are under 
the tuition of the teacher is sufficient, if 
thoroughly and efficiently taught as they 
appear to be. But suppose a teacher is 
wriling a copy not for his school only, buta 
copy that is to be reproduced, and scattered 
the world over. Now that becomes a stand- 
ard for many. For teachers who are imable 
to set up a standard fully as good, or thatis 
good enough for their pupileand the public. 
What I wish to say i.s ibis. There should 
be a standard toward which men work in 
their schools, that standard should be defin- 
ite, it should be descrihable, it should be 
something they can point to as the same 

Mr. Robhins depre- 
cated this talk about 
wf^re nourishing birds and 

the like in connection 

with business writ- 

ing. He knew of no 
college that taught flourishing in 
with their business course. If 
they taught flourishing it was outside and in 
a special department, to which he saw no 

Mr. Becker thought that if a course in 
flourishing were taken in connection with 
the practical writing at a business coliege, 
the graduates would connect the two in 
spite of advice or reason, in such a manner 
as to give a had effect to the business writ- 

Mr. Rathbun thought there was no con- 
flict among the gentlemen present, with res- 
pect to what should constitute the basis for 
good business writing, that no one would 
advocate superfluities and flourishes in a 
business hand and that alt agreed that the 
muscular movement or the forearm move- 
ment combined with the fingers presented 
the best movement and that good forms rap- 
idly executed constituted good writing. He 
believed the movement exercises should he 
exteusively practiced if we were to devote 
but an hour to writing he would use one- 
half of it iu drilling upou movement exer- 
cises. But we should bear in mind that we 
have all sorts of persons to instruct, those 
who are nervous, those who are constitu- 
tionally slow, and those who are indifferent, 
and that different measures would be re- 
quired with different persons, a good teacher 
would exercise a large discretion in that 
respect. He also believed in movement 
drills iu which the lime was marked by 


Aftkhnoon Session. 

The session was opened by the reading of 
a paper upon " school management " by S. 
S. Packard. This was really one of the 
most interesting and valuable papers read 
before the couveuiiou. It elicited marked 

nttcnlioii and warm fomtuendatEon. We 
rcsret llmt our limited space prevents giving 
it in full. ■' Commercial schools, be aaid, 
were a necpJisity from tlic existing necessity 
nf better iutormios men for conducting 
business. Tbc first commercial scboolswere 
in the nature of special and individual in- 
siruction. lie mentioned mauy of tbc early 
founders of business colleges and described 
the work Ibat they performed, and com- 
pared these early cfEorts with those now in 
vngue in business colleges, as the course had 
been extended and the patronage increased. 
'I'he instruction had now become more of 
the class system. He believed that the man- 
agement should be such as to appeal to the 
better sense aud to the ambition of the 
l)upil. There should be regulations rather 
tban mles, just such as a reasonable pupil 
would make if be had the option. The one 
point which should be clearly enforced is 
that the pupil and the teacher are striving 
for a common end. and whatever the regu- 
liitions, they are only for the purpose of ae- 
rtiring this end. The teacher expects to do 
his duty as laid down and the pupil is re- 
([uired to do his. The only thing to be 
observed by regulations is the defining of 
iliese duties. This is the beginning and the 
end of school government. The best of 
i;r.od management in a school as in a family 
U that kind of action growing out of a 
sympathetic feeling. No student is in a 
proper relation to its school who is not 
under all circumstances its warm and un- 
flinching champion. It should bo for him 
outside of his own family, the dearest spot 
on earth, and should live in his memory 
among the truest blessings that have come to 
liiH life, and he should be able to carry from 
it the be-st impulses and noble purposes. 
The speaker believed that 
should have an Alumni 
.'ichools were true to their duty and gave to 
pupiU all the good that was within their 
power, they deserved the assistance of their 
students, and the Alumni Association was 
the best means for securing it. The pu- 
l)er was discussed by Messrs. Sadler, 
llrowo, Wilson, H. C. Spencer and Laos- 
ley. This discussion closed the exercises 
for the day 

Friday morning at 9 A. M.. the members 
of the convention agreeably to (be invitation 
extended by the Packard Abimni Associa- 
tion assembled with other invited guests at 
the foot of Twenty-first street where they 
embarked upon a specially chartered steamer 
for an excursion up the Hudson to lona 
Island which proved to be a most delightful 
and enjoyable excursion. Every preparation 
had been made for the comfort and pleasure 
of the party. They arrived about noon at the 
Island, which is delightfully situated in the 
Hudson, presenting a fine varietj* of scenery 
!ind provided with every preparation for 
tlie amusement and entertainment of vis- 
itors. In a spacious hall near the centre 
of the building, tables were set with boim- 
tiful refreshments which proved most ac- 
ceptable to the hungry excursionists. 
After dinner speeches were made by I*ro 
fesHor Packard, who presided, and others. 

Mr. Packard after congratulating the as- 
sembly vipon the pKasures of the occasion, 
said he was too happy to be eloiiuent, he had 
enjoyed the society of those present beyond 
the power of expre.'*sion . The guests would 
never know how much he thought of them 
aud the occasion. He said we have with ub 
geotlcmcn who have been waiting to be 
called upon to speak for two or three days, 
and they ouyht now lo be ready. I have at 
my right the president of the Business Edu- 
cators Association, and I am going to call 
upon him for his speech. 

Mr. Rider : I am not one of those of whom 
Mr. Piiekard has spoken as having many 
tbdujilits and an elotjucnt manner of ex- 
pressing thcui. I should be specially uu- 
gr.itcful if 1 did not express the gratitude 1 
feel to the Alumni Association for the plea- 
sure and enjoyment we have had this day. 
It is due from me to the Alumni Association 
on behalf of the IJusiness Educators, and I 
thank you for this very kind hospitality and 
pleasant eotertaiument. 

It. C. Spencer, tif Alihvaukec, said : We 
have been endeavoring to bury his giiefsaud 
disappointments with due fortitude while 
waiting for a time when he might be afforded 
an opportunity to say his little word. This 

was the choicest of times. After paying a 
high compliment to the "Packard Alumni 
Association, " he said : I know of no worth- 
ier way in wiiich people may give expression 
to the appreciation of services which have 
been rendered by faithful and capable in- 
structors, than by uniiinn themselves to fos- 
tci that kind of education which Ibcy have 
received at the hands of those instructors. I 
am glad to see in fhegicatCity of New York 
men ond women who have received the pre- 
paration for business in Packard's Business 
Colleges, and I wish to express my deep ap- 
preciation of the warmth, the sincerity of the 
sentiments expressed liy my brother Packard 
yesterday before Ihe association in relation 
to these Alumni Associations as a feature of 
business colleges. I recognize in this asso- 
ciation an element in business aud social life 
of the metropolis and the influence whsch Is 
to result from this association is to be a great 
one. not only in New York, but upon all the 
interests that are affected by the influences 
that eminates from tbis great metropolis of 
business, of finance, of social life, and of in 
telligencc. On behalf of the business leach 
ers of the West. I desire to express Ihe ap- 
preciation which we have of the example 
which this association has so nobly set before 

Mr. Wise, President of the Alumni Asso- 

No matter what they may say to tbc con. 
trary. and delivered an address that would 
have literally paralyzed you. The greatest 
harm about the impromptu speech is this : 
Ladies and gentlemen, — I regret to say tbc 
word is illegible. (Laughter.) Sailing up 
the Hudson a few short hours ago, and view- 
ing the beinitif ul .scenery (gesture), (laughter). 
The following beautiful thought occurred to 
me, that our Mr. Bowman shot off on Friday 
morning and Ihe shot found lodgment herc- 
(Another gesture.) ll is neither birlb. nor 
wealth, nor rank nor slate, it is get up and 
get that makes man great. Now. I never 
could get up early in the morning. When I 
get rich and go away for Ihe summer to rest 
and spare brain, the place that will lake my 
patronage is the place where the attraction, 
that is the principal attraction outside of the 
table will be to see the sun set. No sunrise 
for me. 

We regret we cannot give Mr. Deyo's ad- 
dress entirely. It was read amidst the wild 
est applause and laughter, and would cer- 
tainly have done honor to the best of our 
after dinner speakers. Afier Mr. Deyo 
closed Mr. Packard said : We have beard 
fr-jm the educators in the West, we would 
like to hear from members nearer home. 

The City of Poughkecpsie is near New 
York. Let us hear from Mr. Gaines. 

expressions of thi-ir delight with the excur- 
sion. Our Western friends especfally were 
extravagant in their expressions of gratitude 
to the Alumni Association for a day of such 
delightful enjoyment. 

Penmen's Section, Satukdav MonsiNG, 
9 a. M., assembled at the rooms of the"Spen- 
cerian Business College," 86 East Fourteenth 
Street. The exercises were opened by H. C. 
Clark, editor of the American Penman, 
Buffalo, N. Y. At his fii-st lesson in pen- 
man>hip he set the pupil at work iipon the 
wbolearm movement. No finger movement, 
which he continued until the pupil tired of 
the wholearm movement. When he sug- 
gested that the movement be continued, al- 
lowing the arm to rest upon the table, which 
at once brought him to Ihe forearm move- 
ment, which he practiced end taught, using 
the fingers to a very limited extent. In this 
manner the student was eacily brought lo 
use the combined movement in writing. He 
did not believe in ornamental or fancy writ- 
ing for business. 

H. C. Spencer: In teaching wriiing 
correct forms should be aimed at. There 
should be something definite about what 
you teach both as respects the forms of 
writing and movement. I remember that 
my father used to liave a stage which he 


11 1 

i P\r 

^iPRiEt.- Little ^ 

Th' nbore mi «(M p/ioU}-enffva/ee<l /t 
nf Designing and loitering. 

coinen of toJtich will be f&i- sale at (hC» office, 

elation, who said that no effort which the 

Abuuni Association or officers could perform 

would appropriately express their thanks and 

happiness at having been honored by so au- 
gust and repressntative a body as the Busi- 
ness Educators of America as their guests. 
He was one of the founders of the iissocia- 

tion, and he believed it to be u good prin- 

ciiile of life that no man should he ashamed 

of his parentage. And that he felt he wiis 

favoring himself in as-nisting to create such 

:iii nssocialion. and he was proud to witness 

the good fruit that sprung from it. In con- 

c'usion he could only wish with Shakes- 

peiire "That good digej-tiou wait on appe- 
tite, and good health on both." (ApplauKC.) 
Mr. Packard : I don't know whether any 
one knows our friend Deyo. Whatever you 
do gentlemen, don't get in his debt.. 

Mr, Deyo arose and standing for some 
minutes pulled from his vest pocket and let 
fall a roll of paper six feet in length and 
began lo read, " Taken so entirely by sur- 
prise you nmst not expect a speech from me 
no mailer how simple the subject. If I had 
even the faintest idea that I should be called I the trip homeward 
on. I would have prepared myself ae the joyable. 
others have done. (Applause and laughter.) All returned with the 

Mr. Gaines : I am in exactly the position 
referred to by Mr. Deyo, although I might 
have brought manuscript written by some 
one else. I am one of the newest members 
of the convention and have enjoyed beyond 
comparison the exercises of tbc day. I hope 
the influence started in these Alumni Asso- 
ciations will go on. He looked forward to 
the lime when a similar institution would be 
formed from the graduates of the iustitujion 
over which be presided. 

After diimer there was played a matched 
game of hose ball between the students of 
"Packard's Business College" and of the 
(Trenton, N. J.), Business College, also 
swimming and rowing matches. And those 
of Ihe party who were so inclined retired to a 
large pavlllion.where many couples " tripped 
the light fantastic toe " to excellent nmsic 
discoui-sed by the hand which accompanied 
the excursion, and a piano belonging to Ihe 

About five o'clock the boat started upon 

its return trip. Songs by the "Alumni Glee 

Club," and music from the band rendered 

the highest degree en- 


called the corrective stage. First, there was 
the movement stage for drill. Then the 
principles would be applied lo correct form, 
of those stages he managed lo introduce, one 
into ahnosl every writing les.son. What I 
am about to present refers lo the second stage, 
that is. teaching according to principle. (A 
printed scale showing the proper proportions 
of wriiing was presented to each one present.) 
This scale of wriiing has, of courec, been 
used lo measure proportions of height and 
breadth. The speaker then illustrated the 
making of letters by the use of the rhomboid. 
This is sometimes used as a corrective means. 
Mr. Beeker remembered a teacher who was 
not a penman well up in general education- 
al matters, who advocated the practice of 
teachers at the blackboard upon the letters 
that he might be able to better present them 
to his class. 

But the difllcully of most of our unprofes- 
sional teachers of writing is in fact that they 
have not a clear and correct idea of form in 
their own mind. It was useless for sturh 
teachers lo attempt the use of Ihe blackboard 
in leaching writing, except by way of cor- 
rections and criiicisme of class work. 

Mr. Vincent, of South America, had been 

for some years past engaged entirely in teach- 
ing Spanish pupil:;!, witli whom he was obliged 
to employ diiT?rcnt methods than be had 
coinmonly used by Icncbiog io this country. 
They had previously written what we termed 
the old English "Round band," and, of 
course, very slowly. He introduced the Spen- 
cerian system, in which he was ii believer. He 
iisked one of his oldest pupils if be wislicd to 
(')uingc his band and showed him by com- 
parison how laborious bis writing was com- 
pared with the more running Spencerian 
liand. In this and in most cjibcs which was 
inatanced only half an hour was devoted to 
writing. The results attained were very sat- 

Tlie regular session of Ihc convention was 
calletl to order by the president at 10 o'cloc^k, 
A. .\i , in the "Packard College" rooms. 
The subject of a publication of the verbatim 
report of the proceedings of the convention 
in pamphlet form was taken up and after 
considerable discu^ion it was decided that 
such a report should be published. After 
which a paper was read by Mr, Saddler, of 
Baltimore, on the subject of " bow to teach 
jiritbmetic with the best possible results." 
In teaching arithmetic Ihc pupil should be 
required to demonstrate from time to lime 
his knowledge of the principles involved and 
their appliratiou to problems as they are suc- 
cessively solved, until he has mastered the 
various subjects which we teach. The re- 
sults attained from rules and arbitrary pro- 
cesses are not lasting, from the fact that the 
philosophy of the operation is not under- 
stood. Mr, Saddler's exercises were inter- 
esting and practical throughout. A mem- 

rious kinds of business ?" Shall we teach 
the method of bookkeeping as applied to 
banking, lo commerciid business, to that re- 
quired by steamboat lines, manufacturing, 
mining, etc., etc. The speaker believed that 
it should be the purpose of the course to 
deal with the science or principles umlerly- 
ing accouuls. that is, instructing iu the gen- 
eral principles of bookkeeping, and not to 
go extensively inio ilf^ detailed application 
to various kinds of business. The principles 
of bookkeeping are the same whatever 
may be the business to which it is ap- 
plied. He believed iluit special stress 
should be laid in Ihis direcliou. This was 
endorsed by Mr. Burdetl. Mr. Brown also 
agreed with Mr. Williams, but believed gen- 
erally that loo much attention in business col- 
leges had been given to bookkeeping ; be 
believed many other subjects were entitled 
to nearly equal consideration as bookkeeping, 
that it should be the purpose of a business 
college to turn out graduates strong in all 
branches pertaining to business, and Ibat too 
much lime bad been wasted upon unimpor- 
tant details. Mr. Shacklcton, a business 
man of New York, said : The public have 
been invited to attend these meetings. He 
had accepted the invitation and bad been a 
delighted listener to the discussion upon the 
topic before the convention. He related his 
experience many years ago when he entered 
as a young man in a store seeking to become 
a business man. And also his e.vperience 
since with business college men, and business 
college work, and paid a high compliment 
to both. He too would emphasize what had 
been said with reference to dealing with the 

he says it is a bills payable. He is naturally 
puzzled but t be principal stiys no, I will keep 
it as bills receivable, make an entry io the 
cash book covering the case, and any time 
before maturity you can take it out of your 
safe and get it discounted at a bank. Thus 
you perceive you have bills payable and 
bills receivable in one piece of paper. Now 
this is a puzzling thing, but I presume you 
enlighten your pupils on these points so that 
when they go down to business they will not 
be surprised by an entry of that kind, 

Mr. Packard : I woidd like to ask the 
gentleman if he has taken out a patent for 
this transaction. I think it is one that will 
not be found in any of the text books. I 
think that no teacher would ever have 
thought of bills payable becoming bills re- 
ceivable. Mr. Nelson : This problem is 
something that strikes me as unusual. I 
never beard it thus presented before. 

This closed the session for the day. when 
the members adjourned to visit Manhattan 

Monday. 9 a. m,— The Penmen's Section 
assembled at the Spencerian Business 

Mr. Collins, of Knoxville. Tenn., illus- 
trated his method of training the muscles 
for acquiring a rapid 
He placed great stress upon 

Mr. Rathbun, of Omaha, found the 
greatest difficulty in his teacbiug to be the 
finger movement, which had in most all 
cases been previously acquired, and which 
was the prevailing movement in the public 
schools and by unprofessional teachers of 

27« ab re cut 

rraved fT07a copy written at Uie office of the Jour 
t?ie small letters being vnitten with the combined fM'ei 

I and finger morement. 

of wholeariii capitals. 

lier n3ks how far we would have pupils ad- 
vance in ariilimetic berore beginning book- 
keeping. I don't care lo receive pupils thai 
are not familiar with the subject as far as 
through fractions, at tbaL point they are 
ready to enter upon the bookkeeping course 
When pupils are not sufficiently adviineod 
for bookkeeping, we fretjuenlly relain tliLiii 
in arithmetic and peiin\!inalti|i i-lii-sses until 
siKrh time lis tliey may be sulliciL-ntly profi- 
cient in arithmetic to commence bookkeep- 
ing. Mr. Rathbun thought that all pupils 
should be examined critically when entering 
upon their course lo ascertain their special 
■pialiliealir.iis. This was endorsed also by 
1{. (.'. Spencer, who believed it very neces- 
sary tbat Ihc present qualifications of a pupil 
should be thoroughly understood iu order tbat 
the course of iostruclion might be gauged to 
suit the pupil's requirements and capabilities 
on eulering u[)on his new course of study. 
Tlie diseu-isiou was continued by Messrs. 
;Me('nrd. Stowel, Nelson, Brown, Rider, 
IJeeker. Grey, Rathbun, Spencer of Louis- 
ville, Robl)in8 and Horton. This closed the 


■ Aftkknoon Session. 

Was opened by a paper read by L. L. Wil- 
liams. "How far and iu what direction 
t-liall we go in applying the science of book- 
keeping lo business specialties." Mr. Wil- 
liams said : The subject for discussion at 
tbis hour, stated in another form, is " How 
far and in what direction shall the Instruc- 
tion in accounts afforded by our schools he 
adapted to bookkcei)ing required by the v^- 

principle of accounts and business rather 
tban with details He emphasized the neces- 
sity tbat a young man should write rapidly 
and well, be correct in figures, correct in bis 
autography iu order that he might be re- 
tained and advanced in a position that he 
might secure through good writing. Mr. 
Spencer, of Louisville, believed that he 
would leach bookkeeping more successfully 
and in a shorter time by using practical 
business forms than by theoretical work. 

The topic wasfurtberdiscussedby Messrs. 
Brown, R. C. Spencer, Clark, Spencer, of 
Louisville. Gaines and Rider. 

Mr. Shacklcton believed iu actual practice, 
he said, "That students needed to have their 
knowledge tested by experience. Experience 
is a hard but good schoolmaster. He drew 
bis first draft with fear and trembling. He 
now drew a check for $300,000 with as little 
thought as he had formerly drawn one for 
$30. He said there are cases arising in keep- 
ing books which you don't find in textbooks. 
For instance, when bills payable become 
bills receivable. He instanced a commis- 
sion house which was drawn upon for $5,000 
at four months ; it is presented to tbe drawee 
for acceptance, and perhaps it is sold in Wall 
Street, the drawer looks over the broker's 
pocket hook and discover there your accept- 
ance, and you have money he wants to In- 
vest and save interest for a time say 30 or 60 
days, and he buys his own acceptance. Now 
he don't want to extinguish tbe acceptance, 
be wants to keep it alive where he can have 
it discounted or sell it again ; be brings it lo 
bis bookkeeper to draw a check for it. and 

writing. He inipressd upon tbe minds of 
his pupils the absolute necessity of acquir- 
ing a free muscular movement for business 
writing. In bis drill he often had recourse 
to mechanical means for forcing the pen 
into the proper position, and the use of tbe 
muscles for the forearm movement. Tbis 
was sometimes accomplished by slipping a 
ruler up the sleeve and fastening it to the 
hand, and sometimes by passing a stick 
tbrough tbe fingers so that when the band 
would turn out too far, the end of tbe stick 
would strike the paper and give warning lo 
the pupil of his bad position. 

Mr. Hinman, of Worcester, Mass., believ- 
ed that position and movement went beyond 
the mere position of the pen and hand while 
writing, and comprehended tbat of the 
whole body. A pupil sitting with crossed 
legs and leaning heavily upon one side, or 
sitting in an unbatanced position could not 
practice or write to the best advantage. 
His conception of the movement compre- 
hended a firm and well balanced position. 
He believed in light gymnastic exercises, 
the use of dumb-bells and the like for dis- 
ciplining and strengthening the muscles. 
One of the best writing teacheis that he 
ever knew took daily exercise in this way. 

H. A. Spencer did not wish to speak so 
much respecting the training for muscular 
movemeni, as of mind training. He be- 
lieved that no degree of movement 
would alone develop good forms, ex- 
cept such first existed in tbe pupil's 
mind. Tbe pupil should not on laying 
down his pen cease to think of his alphabet 

and writing. It was through mental direc- 
tion that the laws of action become indelibly 
impressed upon the student. It was a re- 
mark of his father's that when a young 
man bad acquired au excellent style of 
signature, he was in a fair way to excel as u 
business writer. One of the firat things be 
taught was the mastering of a good signa- 
ture lie believed that a pu])il should be- 
come BO enthused with his work as to think 
writing while walking the street. Tlic 
pupil becoming thus enthused was sure lo 
become a good writer. 

Mr. Huntsinger, of New York : I have 
made it a point to teach thoroughly the mus- 
cular movement, and the grcojler the " driv- 
ing " the better. One of bis employers bad 
told him that in "driving" the boys too 
bard, be drove them out. Tbe result was 
by driving .«ome out he drove more in. He 
believed that students generally come to a 
business college with a sufficient knowledge 
of forms iu writing acquired during their 
public school course. But what they lacked 
was the movement and proper idea of busi- 
ness writing. Hence be dealt largely and 
chiefly with movement in his classes. At 
ten o'clock the meeting adjourned to meet 
at the general session in Packard's rooms, 

Monday morning. 10 a. m —The exercises 
opened by the reading of a very able and 
excellent article upon business ethics by the 
Honomble Thomas C. Hill, of Chicago. 

He says the controlling law of mankind is 
tbat of self-interest, which induces him to 
put forth mental and physical eflfort and lo 
expend money where could be had the 
largest return for the investment. He re- 
ferred to tbe tendency through machinery 
to lesson labor in production, thereby de- 
priving large numbers of the advantage of 
employment which he thought should be 
counteracted by tbe lessoning of the number 
of houra for labor. Thus continuing to give 
all who desire work profitable employment. 
Promptness to fulfill obligations, and to meet 
engagements united with strict integrity 
were indispensable to business success. If 
you borrow return promptly. If you make 
a promise fulfil it, and iu conclusion he 
said: The whole law of business ethics is 
summed up in tbe golden rule. Tbestrictob- 
servauce of tbat supplemented by industry, 
temperance, intelligence and courage iu 
whatever sphere tbe individual is called to 
act will certainly make a successfvd business 

A discussion upon the paper followed, 
participated in by R. C, Spencer, who re- 
plied in a humorous way. saying tbat be 
differed from brother Hill in the payment of 
obligations as an element of wealth as be 
had found that tbat bad been the chief diffi- 
culty in the way of his becoming rich. 

The discuBsiou was continued by Messrs. 
Lansley and Packard. At the close of this 
discussion a superbly written article by 
Mrs. Sarah Spencer, of Washington, upon 
"women in business" was read by Mr. 
Packard the article elicited the warmest ap- 
plause. On motion of Mr. Williams, of 
Rochester, a unanimous vote of thanks was 
extended to Mrs. Spencer. At some future 
time we hope to give tbis paper in full in the 

Mr, Nelson here read a paper on business 
practice, setting forth tbe method practiced 
in his institution. He believed this was 
the tiue method of teaching tbe science of 
accounts. The paper was discussed by R. 
C. Spencer. Mr. Brown was glad to see that 
Mr. Nelson believed that the best way to 
learn a thing was in doing it. If a man is to 
learn to i)lane a board, or drive a nail, or 
turn a furrow, he learned by doing it. It 
should be the same in business. The discus- 
sion was ably coutinued by Messrs. Stowell. 
Rathbun. Goldsmith, Spencer, of Louis- 
ville, Rider and Packard. This was followed 
by a humorous and highly interesting enter- 
tainment by Mr. Frank Lincoln, afterwbich 
a paper was read by Mr. Felix Adlcr upon 
the moral aspects of business. The address 
was a plain, sensible exposition of moral 
ethics and their importance as elements of 
true bvisiness .success. The paper was list- 
ened to throughout with the do.sest atten- 
tion. At the close of Mr. Adler's address G. 
W. Brown addressed the convention upon 
tbe subject of- bookkeeping as applied to the 
retail business. He had visited several of 

1- "^JJl^iVKT JOVKJ>l\T 

the large mercanlile bouses of Chicago, and 
he had been surprised at the simplicity of 
their bookkeeping. It whs bis belief thnt 
bookkeeping as generally taught in business 
colleges was much more complicated than 
that practiced in business. That the course 
of instruction in that respect needed refor- 
mation. A business man to be successfuj 
needs to have a clear comprehension of all 
the departments of his business. One of the 
most successful railroad men and linancicrs 
of New York and the wealthiest man in iln' 
world required that clerks at the bciids of 
the various points upon his railroad and tel- 
egraph lines send daily at a flxed time to 
certain headquarters the result of their busi- 
ness during the day. These are telegraphed 
to bis head bookkeeper, and iu the course of 
an hour rhe resull is laid upon his desk. The 
entire receipts and expenditures of the day 
are before him. This plan has, no doubt, 
contributed largely to his success. 

Following Mr. Brown, Mr. Rathbun 
presented his method of leaching writing 
by music— that is the drill in movement 
exercises was practiced in time marked by 
music. This method he had employed iu 
his school with considerable success. After 
which Mr. Warriner. of Woodstock, Ont.. 
read a paper upon the moral toue of busi- 
ness colleges. The paper was well written, 
and presented many valuable thoughts for 
the consideration of the principals of col- 
leges in the conduct of their work, His 
impression was, that the moral tone of 
business colleges should be elevated above 
their present plane. Mr. Packard followed, 


tone 1 

An inlin^liriLj ^li^ ussion followed by 
Messrs. Nelson, Gaines, Williams, and U. 

C. Spencer. After which Prof. George E. 
Little, the celebrated artist, of Washington^ 

D. C, to whom the readers of the Jouhnai. 
need no introduction, gave an iuterestiug 
exhibition of what he termed "Chalk 
Talks." It is quite impossible to do any- 
thing like justice to Mr. Little's exhibi- 
tion in these columns, it can only be 
appreciated by eye witnesses. The 
facility with which different and very 
numerous subjects were represented upou 
the blackboard in striking perfection was 
literally astonisbinj 

^■h Sect 


The meeting was called to order by Mr. 
Ames, the Chairman. 

II. C. Spencer moved that each speaker 
make the programme for himself and strike 
out for himself, and that the tirst speaker be 
allowed ten minutes and those who follow 
blm five minutes each. 

The motion seconded and carried. 

Mr. Shattuck : A suggestion occurs to 
me that may perhaps be of advantage to 
those who follow me. A teacher once said 
to me " I wish you would teach' how to get 
boys and girls to make capitals so that we 
can tell them from small letters." Now I 
think the commercial teachers do not give 
stress enough to that particular point. The 
gentleman I refer to says '■ I find scholars 
show me letters that are perhaps a little 
larger than the rest, and I have to accept 
thfiii Jis cMpiials." I have pursued that 
liin- of iiivf'siiL';ition with considerable vigor 
iirnl ill (Hiking to principals in New York 
(iiyaiul t-lstwbrre they tell me they have 
trouble with that very thing. They say 
that the scholars will always try to cheat 
by using some letter that may be used for a 
capital or small letter. Now it seems to me 
that there should be some established 
method by which a capital could be recog- 
nized every time. I am simply getting at 
that plan that we should make a capital so 
that it will be always a capital, even though 
it is no larger than a small letter. In lalk- 

iuc with a principal of a New York school 
a short time ago, he said any letter that was 
larger than a small letter be should call a 
capital. I said from my standpoint " sup- 
posing you make your capitals out of small 
letters, you make your capitals by increas- 
ing the size of your small letters, don't 
you?" Now I simply throw out this sug- 
gestion for what it is worth. When it 
(■nine< to iMisliicts, I say use anything that 
sii'itis fr;i^i)i]i' (n use. make capitals by 
iiilu.'itij III. siiiiill letters; but, I think 
ili;it ihi' inpihil-. used in the public schools 
should be such that they never need be mis- 
taken for any other letter for representing 
just what they are and nothing else. The 
business college penmen have very little to 
do with the preliminary school, iu facta 
great many of the teachers who come out of 
the commercial colleges to teach iu public 
schools meet with a great many difficulties. 
It seems to me that teachers in commercial 
colleges know too little about what is going 
on in the public schools. If they knew 
more a great deal of good could be done by 
extending their work into the public 

Mr. U. C. Spencer: I am glad brother 
Shattuck has brought this matter so plaiuly 
before you, and of course there are different 
views of this matter when you come to the 
corporation of forms, and you can carry that 
to any extent you choose. There has been 
in the last few years very great progress 
made in writing. That progress has been 
made in spite of those who sit still and let 
the world move on and leave them. You 
will find when there is any progress made in 
theological matters there are men who get 
up and tell you what God thinks, and when 
there is any progress made in educational 
matters they will stand as interpreters of 
what teachers believe. Now, there is uoone 
man on earth that cau stand as interpreter 
between God and man or bctwceu the busi- 
ness and educational world. We concede 
much to certain things in use ; for instance, 
we find that this form of capital A. enlarging 
the small A is more iu use than any other. 
I procured at great pains specimens from all 
('hisses of writers in every department of 
business and I find that A enlarged from 
small a to be the favorite. Now would you 
exclude also these M's which develop from 
the small letters ? It would exclude this 
other useful capital O and much valuable 
material that has been used so long. It 
would exclude many correct styles of letters. 
We would have to forego the use of practi- 
cal simple forms because somebody fancies 
they conflict with the small letters. I, for 
one, am not prepared to accept auy such 
doubtful interpretation of business and edu- 
cational demands. I believe that our watch- 
word is Excelsior, Upward and Onward. 

Mr. Lansley : I have been taught by expe- 
rience that it is a delicate thing to talk about 
penmanship before the present company and 
I shall have to be very wary of what I shall 
say. My opinion is that we want to be very 
careful of what copy we give young chil- 
dren You may give them the highest bless- 
ing in the way of a letter and they will take 
it and make is look like something you never 
saw before. I think if we come down to a 
stereotype style of one plain letter and insist 
upon their making that and nothing else, 
they will never forget it. The public school 
certainly needs to have a foundation laid in 
the way of penmanship that will prepare a 
boy for the business college, or will prepare 
a boy for business without the college. 

Mr. H. C. Spencer : I thiuk not enough is 
credited to the business college teachers who 
go into the public schools. They help to 
introduce free movements and other things 
which are very much needed. They want 
to be able to render such efficient service in 
the teaching of forms of letters, but they 
certainly do help them very much in regard 
to position, and they teach free movement. 
1 think the business college teachers of this 
country should have credit for that wherever 
they render their assistance to the public 
and private schools. 

Mr. Jones : Mr. Spencer has said that 
the business colleges have the credit of 
establishing good teaching of free movement 
in the business colleges. It seems to me 
that it might be taught in the public schools 
to n certain extent and less in the business 
colleges, then when the pupil leaves the 
public schools and goes to the business 

college he would have some idea of move- 
ment that would help him very much in his 
work there. This is a thing * should like 
to hear talked upon by those who have 
more experience than I have, and tell us, 
how we can teach children to write in the 
public schools. 

Mr. Goldsmith : The subject of penman- 
ship to me has a very peculiar influence. I 
ride a hobby, I think, and that is practical 
penmanship. I do not thiuk it necessary 
to make any apologies for that. I thiuk all 
the different lines of teaching that we are 
engaged in ought to be worked up to that 
matter of practical work, and if I have a 
hobby it is practical writing. Now I am 
glad to see the Spencerian people coming 
down to a practical standard. It is ac- 
knowledged that the Spencerian copy l)ooks 
have taken the lead in beauty of form, and 
now they arc trying to adapt themsnlves to 
tlie requirements of business, and in order 
to do that, they very wisely give up a great 
many of the unnecessary strokes in pen- 
manship. I have frequently been thrown 
upon the practical market, I have come in 
contact with business men. and find that the 
business men are very peculiar, inasmuch 
as they are practical and devote all their 
time and energy to making a living, and in 
order to do that with facility, they throw 
off all superfluous forms. I have noticed 
that they are more thorough in the North, 
In the North you are more influenced by 
the education you have received. Educa- 
tion is of a very much higher standard here 
than in the South, and that among the busi- 
ness men, they base all work upon the 
practical. Now that ^ is a practical A, 
(small a. n and m enlarged) and that iVand 
3f are practical, you will see nine-tenths of 
the business men in the Southern States will 
adopt them, they say simply because it 
facilitati'S easy motion and it is plain. 
Again, instead oi a W made in this form, 
they would use this style of w (giving form 
for small w). Now, if business men thought 
that the best style of to they would use it. 
This can be made very quickly and without 
taking the pen off the paper. It is easily 
read if properly made, and it is never mis- 
taken for any other letter. Then, again, 
there is another peculiar feature of this 
country. (Time called by the Chairman 
and extended by the House.) There is only 
one thing that I wish to say and that is in 
reference to teaching practical penmanship. 
There seems to be a diflerence of opinion as 
to how it should be taught. Some claim 
that it should be taken rapidly and others 
say slowly. Another would claim that a 
pupil should be started to write rapidly 
from the beginning. Now I would like to 
know from older and more experienced 
men who have applied these different prin- 
ciples ; I would like to find out which is 
the better. We, as business educators, 
shoidd come down to the standard of busi- 
ness. I do not believe in adopting any new 
code of laws and trying to bring business 
men up to that standard. I believe in find- 
ing out what the requirements of business 
are and adapting our teaching to those re- 
quirements. I have never yet seen a busi- 
ness man adopt any fancy notion that a 
business college would teach. If you give 
them something that is practical, something 
they would understand, yon will find that 
they will adopt it readily and accept it every 
time. I would like to find out from this 
section of the Convention which is best, 
teaching writing slowly or teaching the 
pupil to write rapidly from the start. 

Mr. Itobbins : I have not much to say on 
the subject of penmanship. There seem to 
be .so many different ideas about the 
specialty that everybody is going to teach 
to suit himself anyhow. I do not see 
much use in wasting words. I think the 
secret of teaching anything is in getting 
the pupil interested in that subject. Now 
by what method you interest him is the 
question, I think if we do away with all 
beauty in writing we will lose inspiration at 
once. I am not in sympathy at all witli 
this kind of writing that does away with 
those curves of beauty. 1 think that we 
ought to combine plainness with beauty, 
and that is what the business man wants if 
he can get it, Any first class firm will em- 
ploy the man that writes a plain hand and 
at the same time a beautiful band. Every- 
body loves beauty if he can get it. It 

Vis I »J<n'K-NAlJ 

behooves Iiim who can enjoy beauty to do 
so. anc] a business man who can get a pcu- 
man who writes n beautiful hand, and >it 
the same time a rapid hand and jilain. will 
always take bim. I have seen penmen who 
wrote very rapidly wilh Ihe forearni move- 
ment. We have a man in our post-office 
who is a rapid writer and uses the forearm 
movement. I believe we should teach the 
muscular movement for business wriliuK. 
What we commonly fiod is muscular move 
ment combined with finger movement. 
Tuesday Forenoon. 
In Packard College, the subject an- 
nounced was "Class Instruction in Pen- 
manship," led by Mr. A. II. Hiuman. of 
Worcester, Mass. 

Mr. Hinman : I have jotted down a few 
points that I have found useful in teaching, 
and will refresh my mind from the schedule, 
The first requirement is that you command 
the attention of the pupil and all necessary 
means at band should be used for this pur- 
pose. Even Dr. Talmage would dance in 
the pulpit if it were necessary to secure Ihe 
attention of his audience. The teacher 
cannot lead if the minds of his pupil are 
upon something else. The attention of the 
pupil must be insisted upon first, last, and 
all the time. After the attention has been 
secured. I believe the next step is the secur- 
ing of a good foundation for writing, or in 
other words, a correct position, All move- 
ment is the result of correct position, at 
least all good movement. The lower muscles 
of the body must be put in use in order to 
sit correctly. Without correct position we 
cannot do correct writing — the correct posi- 
tion of the hands, and feet and body, all are 
necessary to success. When I get a pupil to 
write well with the correct position and 
motion, I place him among those who are 
not good writers, whom I am trying to train 
correctly and I insist upon the others look- 
ing ill him and watching his position — his 
iiiiuint-r of holding the pen, for by placing 
these model pupils with the others they teach 
by example. 

Movement will come nest. Correct writ- 
ing is partially the result of correct move- 
ment. Movement and form should pull to- 
gether like a team of good horses. The 
other day in Boston I was riding in a street 
car and one horse pushed ahead and did the 
pulling while the other held back. That 
was like form in writing going ahead with- 
out movement, but when both pulled to- 
gether we went along nicely — that was like 
form aud movement going along together. 
Driving either movement or form to e.xcess 
mil interfere with progress. The teacher 
should be constantly on the watch to see 
that both move along evenly. Too much 
form will injure writing by destroying move- 
meut and too much movement will also in- 
jure writing by destroying form. You can- 
not produce good results without uniformity 
of action. If a person steps quickly at one 
time and slowly at another, the steps will be 
of different lengths — but when be moves 
with a regular step, one, two, three, four, 
the steps will be equal in length. Uni- 
formity of outline, of form, are largely the 
result of uniformity of action. You see a 
dissipated man going home early in the 
morning, and the irregularity of movement 
causes him to reach out now in short steps 
and now in long ones — he takes various 
ways : aud if you let a pupil write with a 
jerky, drunken movement, aud there will 
be no uniformity of outline or form. To 
secure rapid writing (aud I do not mean by 
that a jerky, rapid action) the movement 
should not be slow at one time and rapid at 
others— hut the pen should move asin walk 
iug, with regular steps. If a person moves 
his pen regularly as rapidly as he can write 
well, and produces a good form and keeps 
it up through that page he will get through 
that page much quicker than he who writes 
spasmodically — quick at one time and slow 
at another. It is uniformity of action that 
produces good writing and a swiftly written 
page. Among the pupils the poorest writer 
should be the one aimed at by the teacher — 
let the teacher keep up sufficient enthusiasm 
to interest the poorest pupil and let the others 
take in what he is doing. Gough used to 
look around for an apparently sleepy man. 
and used his best efforts to thoroughly in- 
terest him, feeling sure that others would 
be interested. In explaining a copy I take 

a single letter af a word, perhaps the letter 
M. explain it lo the pupil and let him write 
one letter, not a whole word — then perhaps 

and then combine the two, and then ex- 
plain another aud let them unite all three, 
and so on. practicing each letter sepifrately, 
and finally uniting them all in a word. 
Sometimes we prastice on signatUTes — it 
might be J. B, Smith, and we would practice 
on the J, and then on the B, and then the S. 
and then combine the whole, and then after 
the pupil has become tired of that I would 
rearrange the copy, making it perhaps S. .1. 
Brown, giving the same letters but a differ- 
ent combination, and it would be like a new 
lesson, thus keeping them for a whole hour 
on the same capitjils but changing the order. 

1 believe also in having the pupil write on 
legal cap paper, say a dozen sheets fastened 
together at the top — writing the first lesson 
on the first leaf, or perhaps more, and then 
thene.\t. or lesson No, 2, nnd then after they 
have used up these packages I take them as 
my property. I have in that a record of 
whether they have scribbled or not, and 
every time they get through these pages or 
books they belong to me and I have good 
evidence of how they are progressing, and 
the result is approval, or otherwise. I also 
believe in writing on ledger paper. Much 
of our writing is done on widely ruled paper. 
I believe we sometimes use closely ruled 
paper in the writing class to enable the 
pupils to get accustomed to the paper used 
in the journal or the ledger, aud that a style 
may be taught suitable to ledger writing. I 
believe iu keeping these packages and the 
pupil knows as he writes that he is going on 
record. Then again if I pass down the class 
and notice one who is out of position, and 
say " position," and he must think of him- 
self all over and find out in what respect he 
is out of position, aud he recalls the neces- 
sary points — if, for iustiince, he finds he is 
not holding his pen as the model pupil is 
holding his, he will see that he is out of pos- 
ition in that particular, and a sufficient num- 
ber of these marks affect his standing upon 
the weekly report sent to his parents. If 
the pupil "scribbles" I sometimes preserve 
it to show to the parent. — atany time during 
school time if he is found scribbling I put 
that in the record if I can get hold of it. In 
writing figures I believe in taking legal cap 
paper and instead of using it in regular pos- 
ition wilh the lines running horizontally. I 
turn it so that the lines are perpendicularly, 
and use three figures between the lines— 
that will produce figures the size I want. I 
find this training in figures an excellent 
practice to secure uniformity in their books. 

Owing to the great amount of conventiou 
matter which we deem of interest to the 
readers of the Jouhnal, we have decided 
to occupy a portion of two numbers rather 
than abridge it so greatly as to bring it 
within the space that can be appropriated in 
one number. The report will therefore be 
continued and concluded in the September 

s of those who 

J. E. Gustus, Lindsburg, Kan. 

A. II. Hinman, Worcester, Mass. 

Mrs. A. H. Hinman. 

C. L. Free, Easton, Pa. 

S. S. Packard, New York. 

Mrs. S. S. Packard. 

L. L. Williams, Rochester. N. Y. 

Mrs. L. I. Williams, 

A. S. Osborn. Rochester. N. Y. 

L. A. Gray, Portland. Me. 

H. C. Spencer, Washington, D. C. 

J. M. Frasher. Wheeling, W. Va. 

F. E. Wood. Scranton. Pa. 
W. H. Sadler. Baltimoi-e, Md. 
Mrs. W. II. Sadler. 

D- T. Ames, New York. 

Mrs. D. T Ames, 

H. C. Clark, Erie. Pa. 

J. C. Bryant, Buffalo. N. Y. 

It. C. Spencer, Milwaukee, Wis. 

C. W. Robbins, Sedalia, Mo. 

G. A. Winans. Rockford, III. 
H. A. Spencer. New York. 
C. E. Cady, New York. 

W. H. Covert. Fairfield, N. Y. 
Richord Nelson, Cincinnati. O. 
C. T. Miller. Newark N. J. 
Mrs. C. T. Miller. 

Enos Spencer, Louisville. Ky. 

E. L, Burnett, Providence. R. 1. 
W. A. Warriner. Woodstock, Out, 
R. S. Collins. Knosville. Tenn. 

C. Claghorn, Brooklyn, N. Y. 

H. C. Roth, San Francisco, Cal. 

A. J. Rider. Trenton. N. J. 

T. B. Stowell, Providence. R. I. 

G. R. Kalhbun, Omaha. Neb. 

L. F. Gardner, Poughkeepsio, N. Y. 

F. Schneider, Wilkesbarre, Pa. 

F. 11. Burdett, Boston, Mass. 
P. C. Shattuck, Boston. Mass. 

K. E. Gallagher, Hamilton, Ontario. 

Mrs. R. E, Gallagher. 

W. R. and E. W. Smith, Lexington, Ky. 

E. M. Iluntsinger. Ntw York. 

Mrs. E. M. Huntsinger. 

L. Doit E. Kimball, Lowell. Mass. 

L. Madarasz. New York, 

W. P. Gregory, Allentown, Pa. 

Wm. Bartholomew, New York. 

G. B. Jones, Bergen, N. Y. 

W. A. Barton, Kent's Hill. N,Y. 
E. J. Hub, Indianapolis. Ind. 
J. D. Odell. New York. 
Mrs. J. D. Odell. 

A. W. Rundell, New York. 

W. E. McCord, Jacksonville. Ill, 
P. R. Spencer. Cleveland, O. 
Byron Horton. New York. 
Mrs. Byron Horton. 
C. C. Curtis, Minneapolis, Minn. 
G. W. Brown, Jacksonville, 111. 
J. ir. Lansley, Elizabeth. N. J. 
,\Irs. J. H Lansley. 
C. C. Gaines. Poughkeepsie, N. Y. 
E. C. A. Becker. Worcester, Mass. 
C. T. Smith, Jacksonville, 111. 
J. M. Vincent. New York. 
Wm. Allen Miller, New York. 
W. E. Drake, Jersey City. 
Thos. E. Hill. Chicago, III. 
Mrs. Thos. E. Hill. 

B. F. Kelley, New York. 
Mrs. B F. Kelley. 

Besides the above there were a large num- 
ber of visitors whose names were not en- 

Board of Officrrs for 1887. 

W. H. Sadler, Baltimore. President ; R. E. 
Gallagher, Hamdton, Out,, Vice-President; 
L. F. Gardner, of Poughkeepsie, Vice- 
President; Mrs. S. S. Packard, New York, 
Vice-President ; A. S. Osborne. Rochester, 
Secretary and Treasurer ; R. C. Spencer, 
G. W. Brown and L. L. Williams, Execu- 
tive Committee. 

The next meeting will be at Milwaukee. 

The Muscular Bugaboo. 

I don't want any upstart to simply deny 
what I have said and then strut around and 
say that anyfool should know better. There 
are too many superficial statements going 
the rounds, and sooner or later we must ac- 
knowledge that the ranks are full of incom- 
petent suckers who simply work their 
mouths like a parrot and whose utterances 
amui^e rather than instruct. 

The individual who writes a purely mus- 
cular movement, i. e., purely forearm does 
not write wdl. 

He who claims that there is no action of 
the fingers in the best writing of to-day is 
either an ignoramus and therefore unworthy 
of audience, or a willful liar who hopes to 
develop through intelligent obstinacy the 
truth which must prevail. 

I can't understand why there is no au- 
thority in our profession. The amateur 
parades his opinions and grows irritable if 
they are not countenanced. The would-be 
professional says that the diagonal penholder 
is a fraud, etc. I am out of patience with 
such nonsense. He who disclaims the merits 
of the oblique holder cannot prove one single 
assertion. Writing done purely forearm be- 
comes careless and eventually degenerates 
into illegible scrawls. There is no denying 
but that very much of our business writing 
of to day is done purely forearm, and in ad- 
mitting this, wc wish to produce evidence of 
poor writing that continued, will grow 
poorer as the speed is increased. 

Systematic speed does not produce degen- 
enitiun. Where writing has been taught 
properly with a development that will even- 
tually bring it to meet the demands of husi- 
ness there cannot be any just complaint. 
But where the student is made to believe that 
the limits of the forearm contain all the 
available power necessary to good business 
writing. I for one decry such fallacious 
treatment. I know better and can prove to 
the entire satisfaction of any one open to 
honest convictions that the fingers not only 
perform a fair share of the work in all kinds 
of good writing, but that their part in the 
play is su.sceptible of demonstration. 'Tie 
not enough to say they move a little and not 
define their action. It is ihe wishy-washy 
treatment that places our profession at times 
in disrepute. It is this bungling that places 
us in disfavor with the intelligent of other 

The relation of the fingers to the forearm 
is the same as the forearm bears to the whole 
arm. We do not execute in the strictest 
sense of the word (from an artistic slatd- 
point). with any one set of muscles. Writing 
that displays life, force, energy, expression 
is traceable to causes which are ever present 
whether the writer is cognizant of them cr 
not. The very best results come from her- 
culean efforts, and call forth the tensioning 
of every muscle and fibre in the whole man. 

Skillful Reporting. 
Prof. James N. Kimball, who has charge 
of the Short band Deparlmeut of Packard's 
College, performed the remarkable feat of 
taking in short-hand a verbatim report of 
the proceedings of the convention, aud de- 
livering it in excellent style of type-writing 
to the publishers within a few hours after 
the convention adjourned ; a feat never 
before accomplished at any convention of 
which we have knowledge. 

Where all Sorts of Diplomas are 

Now that the commencement season is at 
its height the expert penmen and litho- 
graphers who combine each year to stock 
the diploma market are in the hayday of 
prosperity. There seems no end to the de- 
mand for these interesting documents, tiid 
in red, blue or orange ribbons, written in 
remarkable English or still more remark- 
uble Latin, and announcing in the most flat- 
tering terms that Jones or Smith has passed 
certain courses with distinction, and is grad- 
uated with an indefinite amount of praise. 
More than a hundred forms of sheepskins 
can be found any day this month completed 
or awaiting completion in the office of D. T. 
Ames, the well known penman of No. 2015 
Broadway. To one who has seen a diploma 
but once in his life— on some College Com- 
mencement Day — the process of making 
them is an interesting oi e. The blank sheets 
arc filled out with the required formulas by 
careful pen work. The blank diplomas are 
printed from designs that are first made wilh 
a pen on paper, and then transferred by pho- 
tography to stone, when they are printed by 
lithography. Theadvauiagcs of pen work 
and photo-lithographing is in the reduced 
cost and Ihe celerity with which orders can 
be filled. Mr. Ames thus furnishes 100 di- 
plomas lithographed at from $25 to $50. ac 
cording to the artistic display of design. 
The %valls of his office are covered with a 
multitude of original and artistic designs 
for all sorts of purposes, especially of memo- 
rial and testimonial resolutions. The de- 
mand for these is constant throughout the 
year and they with general penman's work 
and the editing of the Penman's Journal, 
occupy most of Mr. Ames' and his six as- 
sistant's time. Mr, Ames' spacious rooms 
constitute an extensive and interesting 
galaxy of the penman's art —A'. Y. Tribune. 

Ames's Guide. 

If you desire to have the very best aid to 
self -improvement iu practical and artistic 
penmanship, send seventy-five cents for 
Ames's " Guide to Self-Instruction in Prac- 
tical and Artistic Penmanship" (in paper 
covers), or $1 for same nicely bound in thick 
covers. It tells you all about writing, flour- 
ishing and lettering, and how to learn. If 
you are not pleased with it you may return It, 
and we will refund the cash by return mall. 

Business Educators 
Warren H. Sadler. 

The business tcacbers of this country 
liuve become an important division of tlie 
grand army of educators in whose hands 
are the destinies of the race. 

Teachers of business have since 1868, 
under different forms and names for their 
improvement and the advancement of busi- 
ness education kept up an organization and 
have met annually with considerable regu- 

These meetings have tended to benefit 
creatly the cause of business education, and 
to give business teachers u recognized pro- 
fessional stimding. They have also afforded 
opportunity for pleasant social intercourse 
that has been much enjoyed and drawn busi 
ness teachers into closer fellowship with one 
another. From year to year interest in 
these meetings has grown among those who 
h;ive attended them, and also with those 
who were absent. The recent meeting in 
New York City will be remembered as 
iinidn? the most profitable and delightful o! 
the past. The feeling that pervaded the 
New York meeting was excellent through- 
out. It concluded its labors by choosing offi- 
cers for the ensuing year with entire unan- 
imity according to a slate which the writer 
of this had prepared for the occasion. This 
is about the only thing I have seen achieved 
without opposition. But my success is due 
to the individual merit of the candidates on 
my slate, and to the harmonious feeling that 
so thoroughly united the association and 
which will, I hope, always remain. I ought 
to acknowledge my obligation to the good 
nature of the association in allowing me to 
name its officers this year ; and the associa- 
tion will. I doubt not, be thankful to me for 
relieving it so entirely of the trouble of 
picking out four among so many good and 
competent people those who are to be its 
servants for the year to come. 

I told the association that I wanted War- 
ren H. Sadler for president because I love 
him and he loves rae. In that I spoke sin- 
cerely. The reasons for which I love Sad- 
ler are the reasons why every one loves him 
who knows him well, and these reasons 
qualify him for the position of president of 
the Business Educators Association of 
America, or any other position that he will 
consent to accept. But Sadler would have 
been as well nualilied for and worthy of the 
presidency of the association it he had hated 
me. and I hope I should have been suffi- 
ciently impartial and devoted to the best 
interests of the association to have put him 
ou my slate, but I am not quite sure that 
liitd I known him to be my enemy I should 
have had the grace to ask permission to pre- 
sent bis name. 

I am thus frank about my part in Mr. 
Sadler's election to the presidency of the 
association because I wish to make a clean 
breast of it, because I like to be open and 
above board in all that I do, and think that 
I was doing just the right thing for the asso- 
ciation at this particular lime. 

I know Sadler, lie is one of my boys. 1 
hud the honor of teaching him in the Buffalo 
College in 1859, and have watched his career 
with a sort of fatherly interest and pride 
from that time to the present, lie is true 
lilue. Not a drop of mean blood flows in 
bis veins. He is a square man. He is an 
honor to the profession which he loves, lie 
hos a warm and loyal heart and is as tender 
in every fibre of his soul as a woman and as 
brave as he is tender. I expect that he will 
m;ike the best presiding officer the associa- 
tion has ever had. lie has a fine presence, 
but is very diffident and shrinks from pub- 
lic position. He imagines that he cannot 
speak in public and avoids it if possible. 
Hut be is really a good speaker both in mat- 
ter and manner. When he speaks occasion- 
ally he shuts his eyes with a nervous quiver 
id the lids. He does this, I presume, because 
lie thinks nobody will see him if he sees 
nnliody. which relieves this feeling of em- 
barrassment from which he suffers so much. 
Let us all gather around Sadler next sum- 
mer at the annual meeting in Milwaukee, 
and in full sympathy with his earnest. warm. 
ni;mly nature unite our heads, hearts, and 
hands ou behalf of the grand cause of busi- 

ness education, and become more closely 
bound together fraternally for all time to 

ROBEItT C. Spencbu. 
Milwaukee. Wis.. July 28. 1886, 
A few points in relation to Mr. Sadler 
which would be of interest to our readers 
Mr. Spencer seems to have omitted. Mr. 
Sadler was born at Lockport, this State, and 
completed the course of study at the high 
school in his native city, when he entered 
and completed a course of study at the Bry- 
ant & Stratton Business College, at Buffalo, 
when he returned to Lockport and accepted 
the position of principal of the commercial 
department of the Lockport Union School. 
This place he held with honor for three 
years, when befell imder the scrutiny of Mr. 
Stratton, who was ever on the lookout for 
" coming men " in his professii-n. Stratton 
saw in Mr. Sadler the eminent qualities 
which he has since displayed with such sig- 
nal effect, and at once engaged him for im- 
portant duties in his great work. He was 
first placed, for a brief term, in the Buffalo 
and Cleveland Colleges, but finally trans- 
feired to Rochester, where in connection 
with J. V. R. Chapman, he established the 
Bryant & Stratton College, now known as 
the Rochester Business University, of that 
city. His success here was immediate and 
assured, as he laid the foundation of what has 
since been one of the most marked and pros- 

cators Association, is simply a fitting recog 
nilion of his ability and his 25 years of able 
and successful work in the field of business 

His remarks upon being conducted to the 
chair after bis election, although informal 
and entirely off hand were among the most 
happy and taking efforts made during the 
entire convention. 

After expressing his thanks for so unani- 
mous an election, he said; "It was my 
pleasure to attend the first meeting of busi- 
ness educators held in this city during the 
holidays of '64, and with but two exceptions 
I have been present at every succeeding 

In my opinion there has never been any 
such soul-inspiring meeting as this. From 
the opening day to the present, we have 
had inspiring thoughts from inspiring teach- 
ers and the lessons that have been here 
taught will be productive of great good. This 
session has given to business education an 
impetus that could not have been acquired 
in any other way, and I feel that each of us 
will return to our respective homes better 
prepared to do our work, to be better teach- 
ers and better men. For the many pleasures 
that have been arranged for us by Bro, 
Packard and Bro. Spencer we shall ever be 
under the deepest obligations, and I can 
imagine in future years when some of our 
younger members rise in the experience 


perous of bu^mcss scliooK In December. 
18r»;l. he was married to Miss Letitia H 
Ellieott. daughter of the late Andrew Elli 
cott. of Orleans County. N. Y., whose 
ancestors were among the first settlers of 
Ellieott Mills. Maryland. In the summer of 
1864 he established, in connection with Bry- 
ant & Stratton, the Baltimore Business Col- 
lege, of which he has ever since been the 

One would suppose that in a work so ex* 
tended and well performed, one man would 
find all that his bands and head could do ; 
but there has been no time within the past 
fifteen years when Mr. Sadler has not been 
interested in a more general way in business 
education. First, as co author and pub- 
lisher of Ortou & Sadler's Business Calcula- 
tor, and. more recently, as senior author and 
publisher of Sadler's Counting House Arith- 
metic, he has shown marked ability and 
achieved marked success. Of the Calculator 
over 40,000 copies were sold within six 
months, and the Arithmetic has been a real 
success — having won golden opinions from 
the best and most critical teachers of the 
country, in whose schools it is now the text- 

As an educator, Mr. Sadler's specialty is 
commercial calculations — in the teaching of 
which he is almost unrivalled. 

Mr. Sadler is now in his forty-fifth year, 
having been born September 30tb. 1841. He 
is a man of fine presence and most genial 
manners, and impresses every one with 
whom he comes in contact with his earnest- 
ness and honesty. He is as simple-hearted 
as a child and as true as steel. His election 
as the executive officer of the Business Edu- 

meetmgs and recall tlie man 
of what wass done in 1886. how interesting 
will be their description of the entertainment 
at the Twilight Club— the sail up the Hud- 
sou — the pleasures of lona Island, and the 
impromptu dinner provided by the Dromios 
Spencer at Manhattan Beach, which called 
forth the maiden speech of " ' Robby Spencer. 
Dicky Nelson," and others, with what pathos 
will be described the ride of yesterday 
through Central and Riverside Parks— the 
visit to the tomb of General Grant under 
the guidance of Bro. Packard. They 
will picture him as he rode up ond down the 
line on his mettled steed, pointing out the 
places of interest and making hapful 
his many guests. If ever we had an 
opportunity to make a general of a business 
educator it was yesterday. They will tell of 
our efforts last night to make a general of 
this great and good man, and how he with 
tears in his eyes declined the honor, saying, 
*• Don't call me General, call me Silas." 
(Great applause.) I trust that every member 
here present will make the resolution to 
meet us in Milwaukee in 1887, and con- 
tinue the good work in the cause of business 
education. (Applause.) 


The force by which the pen is carried in 
different directions must work through some 
instrumentality. The action which results, 
is termed a movement. 

In writing, the instruments used are the 
pen-fingers, the forearm and the wbolearm, 
giving rise to the three principal movemenis 
niim^d respectively, the fluger movement. 

the forearm or muscular movement, and the 
wholearm movement. » 

The finger movement is made by the ex- 
tension and retraction of the pen-fingers by 
fiexion at the second joint of the first and 
second fingers, and at the first joint of the 
thumb, which also moves as far as its origin 
at the wrist. 

To teach this to your darlings, hold a pen 
in your band so that all can see. Call their 
attention to the fact that thefingersare bent 
down at the second joint, and the thumb out 
at the first ; thus holding the pen in a me- 
dium position capoble of being moved up- 
wards or downwards. Show them, that if 
the fingers and thumb were straight, the pen 
would be fully extended, and an up stroke 
could not be made ; if they were bent as 
much as possible, the pen would be fully 
retracted, and no downwuid stroke could be 
made. Hence the convenience' of the me- 
dium position. 

Next show that by straightening the 
thumb, the pen is pushed upwards ; and 
that when the thumb pushes, the fingers 
yield at the second joint. In this way an 
up stroke is made. 

Then show, that by bending the fingers at 
the second joint, the pen is pushed down- 
wards, ond that the thumb in turn yields by 
bending at the first joint, and giving way as 
far as the wrist. In this way the down 
stroke is made. 

The forearm or muscular movement con- 
sists of the forward and backward and of 
the lateral movement of the forearm on the 
arm rest — that is, the muscle below the 
elbow — as the centre of motion. The com- 
bination of these two produces the oblique 
movements required. 

The wholearm movement is used mainly 
for striking large capitals and for fiourish- 
ing. In this, the hands, steadied on its rest, 
is moved as reciuired by the action of the 
wholearm from the shoulder as the centre 
of motion. 

Combined movements result from the 
union of any two or all of the movements. 
In the execution of work, two things are to 
be accomplished, the up strokes and down 
strokes of the letters, and the keeping of the 
haiid in the same relative position for each 
succeeding part by moving it to the right 
across the column. The finger movement 
secures the former, and the lateral part of 
the forearm movement in the latter. 

The pen being correctly held, and the 
hand rightly placed, whenever the pen-fin- 
gers move up obliquely to make the up- 
strokes, the hand rest, and in consequence 
the whole hand is moved sideways by the 
action of the forearm. When the pen-flu- 
gers move down, the forward movement of 
the hand and its rest is stopped, because the 
down stroke is towards the left, and no ad- 
vance of the hand is needed. The fingers 
make the up strokes and down strokes of 
the letter, the rest slides forward upon gen- 
eral principles on a straight horizontal line 
for each up stroke, and stops whilst each 
down stroke is made. See class 1 of the 
Peircerian System of Penmanship. 

It is very difficult for pupils to acquire this 
combined movement. Care should be taken 
therefore, that in writing they do not lift 
the point of the pen from the paper till the 
group of letters or the word is written, ex- 
cept in the introductory lines of a, d, g, q, 
c. t, and first part of p. 

In the execution of work under Class 2, 
the baud rest should be made to participate 
in the movements of the fingers. As they 
imivu nliliijiuly up and down. it (the hand 
ri^u liuiiiii ill- Mm s;ime, describing a letter 
of Mil' -;iiii< imiim, but making it of less 
Irml^IiI, in<;ni-.i- i»ir( of the movement is 
niitdc l>> liif luij;i:'rs. 

In the third class where the fulcrum of 
the hand is movable and stationary, in the 
same letter the execution partakes of the 
nature of the first and second class and is 

oftbef.iMM- . ' 'i. ■■ !■■ ■ .- <uuu US ihey 

have sufliri. I ■ |i. -per training, 

they run i.i '■> ■ ■ ' . "■ -^ bund. 

ThemoM -u]. . i ,f i-. , n,. \ nnent without 
accurate and trranful tornis is absolutely 
worlhless. while ou the other hand, real 
grace and finish can only he secured by free 
and practiced movement. 

:V Sf ;!& -VH'r Jouknai. 


Our Business College Friends. 

A somewlmt comprebensive record of tlie 
doings of the Business Edvicators of Aoieii- 
ca at their receut meeting in New Yorli is 
presented elsewliere in these pages. The 
CBuses that brought them together, the 
results of ihat interraiDgliog. the seedo ihey 
sowed, the harvest they expect to reap, tlic 
wise thingB they said and did, and the wise 
things they thought they did, are presented 
iu detail, so far as the Jouknal's resources 
of time and space would permit. The 
student of commercial science is referred to 
that record. He will find in it much to 
interest and instruct. He will see Low full 
oE earnestness and cothusiasm are the men 
and women whose life work is training 
boys and girls to handle the machinery of 
practical affairs ; showing Ihem how to 
earn their living, to become good citizens, 
and the makers of civilization. 

The observations which follow are born 
of another purpose. They are neither phil- 
osophical nor historic ; as much as anything 
a sort of smoked-glass view of the less 
weighty incidents of the convention. If 
the outlines appear a little misty, the indul- 
gent reader is requested to charge the delin- 
quency to the erratic properties of the glass 
or of the unotficial optic behind it. 

That was a very happy hit of Dr. Buck- 
ley's in attributing to Mr. Packard "a sort 
of ghostly ubiquity." The words fit each 
other and they fit the man — at least when he 
has his hands full of convention. For two 

man, who magnified his office and stood 
vipon its dignity. He was courteous in bis 
rulings and gave intelligent direction to the 
business. Gray, of Portland, an old timer, 
was grave and sagacious, and had a way of 
looking at a subject on all sides, which gave 
his opinions great weight ITo Inni;^ mnre 
like a country judge Unih ■■> tr^n-lin uf ,:um- 
mercial subjects. Stn\\< ii ..i I'lMvuirnce, 
is a self-assertive ami srll-ritiii;uiii li indi- 
vidual. What be knows be knows, and is 
not averse to telling it. He can parry an 
inquiry with the skill and grace of a scien- 
tific boxer, and gets in a blow on the smeller 
quite as frequently as the fellow pitied 
against him. Gaines, of Poughkeepsie, has 
a boyish appearance, but speaks like a man, 
and made a good impression. His plan of 
alternating prayer meetings with round 
dances as the readiest means of promoting 
knowledge and morality took the Educators 
by storm. It seems likely that the business 
colleges will hereafter profit by the Gaines 
method. Bro. Smith, of Lexington, hung 
about the edges of the Convention during 
the first day or two, when he mysteriously 
disappeared ; but not until the Graphic man 
bad captured bis photograph. The Educa- 
tors are at a loss to know where Bro. Smith 
comes in, and why Bro. Iliuman was left 
out, But Bro. Hiumau don't need a keeper. 
He seems to know enough to go in when it 
rains, which is more than everybody knows. 
The twin Spencers, Henry and Harvey, 
posed well as the "two Dromios " at the 
Manhattan Beach dinner and were generally 
on hand when there was anything going on. 
The opening meeting at Chickering Hall 
came near being a success, though the night 

presence of the Great Electric Light of the 
West, who is supposed to have been detained 
by the preparation of article 99 of a short 
series on "Letter Writing." Bro. Isaacs, 
of Valparaiso, sent regrets and a paper on 
commercial correspondence, which was 
kindly relegated to the sacred precincts of 
the published proceedings. Not so with 
Mrs. Spencer's paper on " Women in Busi- 
ness," which was read with proper unction 
and evoked the inevitable applause. Mrs. 
Spencer's bodily absence from the Conven- 
tion was a matter of regretful comment. 
The brothers didn't feel quite happy over it. 
and " Bob " lacked the quickening influence 
of her ready repartee. He got in a few- 
good-natured licks, however, in a character 
istic speech against a vote of thanks for the 
paper. He failed to see why the men shovdd 
be continuously assailed for the limited op- 
portunities and general shortcomings of 
women. On the other hand, he felt that 
for the shortcomings of men women were 
quite as much to blame as the men them- 
selves. He thought the apple tree transac- 
tion in Eden didn't reflect any great credit 
on either party, and was particularly dis- 
creditable to Adam, who couldn't keep the 
secret. Packard wouldn't have been so un- 
gallaiit. nor did he think any member of 
this Convention would. 

The Educators were well cared for in the 
way of recreation, and in this regard bad 
abundant opportunities for testing the facil- 
ities of the metropolis, and the fertility of 
the Packard brain. First the Packard 
Alumni took the body on a day's trip up the 
Hudson, spending four hours at lona Island, 
where a bountiful dinner was spread. They 

weeks before the Educators came, Mr. Pack- 
ard scarcely knew where to look for him- 
self. Now chartering a steamer, now hiring 
a hall; revising "souvenir" copy for the 
printers, mapping out a plan of work for 
the Convention, buttonholing newspaper 
men. bearding hotel clerks in their dens, and 
torturing his brains with a thousand and 
one iuveutious. all poiuiing iu ihe direction 
of comfort and pleasure for the Educators. 
Some of the wires may possibly have failed 
to work, but enough of them did respond to 
make the visitors very joyful over their 
coming, nor did this restless activity dimin- 
ish with the gathering of the dans. It 
seemed to gi-ow by what it fed upon. The 
Chairman of the Executive Committee ap- 
preciated the responsibilities of his position; 
and what are time and trouble and money 
when one's reputation is at stake ? Surely 
of slight consequence to such as Packard. 

From the start, the Convention was an 
assured success. It couldn't have failed 
under any circumstances. It contained the 
wiseacres and spouters and camp followers 
of the Association, men not only witty in 
themselves, but the occasion of wit in others. 
"Bob" Spencer was there with his genial 
face, his ready guffaw, and his rare faculty 
of saying serious things in a humorous way. 
Brown, of Jacksonville, with his goggles 
set at the proper angle, ever on the alert for 
a chance to strike out from the shoulder. 
He had one rule— never to let a subject pass 
without discussion, and rather tbau suffer 
euch a mistake he would discuss it himself, 
whether he understood it or not. The Presi- 
dent, Mr. Hider, was a solemn, punctual 

was blistering hot and the assembly room 
sunply the worst ventilated in the city. The 
Mayor presided in the person of the Presi- 
dent of the Board of Aldermen, who took 
occasion to exalt his own position, while he 
bestowed becoming praise on the Educators, 
Es-Gov. Chamberlain contributed an excel- 
lent address, tilling the Educators full of 
self appreciation. Prof. Hunt who was in- 
troduced as a teacher, but who claims to he 
a lawyer, attempted in a thirty minutes 
speech to exhibit the wit there is in brevity, 
but so far as his hearers were concerned, 
seemed to fall short of uiaking his point. 
He was to be succeeded by Kev. Dr. Buck- 
ley of the Christian Advocate, who had awell 
thought out speech in the pulpit and press 
as coadjutors of education, but refused to 
inflict it upon the audience under such eir- 
eumslimcea Packard's ready resources 
were, however, equal to the occasion. He 
rung in a little coup d' etat that evoked from 
Bro. Buckley an off hand speech which kept 
the audience in a stale of hilarious humor. 
The Arcadian Club relieved the entertain- 
ment with appropriate songs, and altogether 
the welcome boom passed off with eclat, 
more or less punctured with thermometer, 
which stood at ninety degrees in the shade. 
Mr. Packard s paper on "The Manage- 
ment of Schools," turned out to he a sort of 
bible for the faithful, laying down the prin- 
ciples of education in general and business 
education iu particular. The brethren very 
graciously awarded their thanks, and Pack- 
ard scored the tirst run. The peunu-n held 
their morning sessions at the Spencerian 
College, but they lacked Ihe illuminating 

had the steamer and the Island to them- 
selves and their friends, heard speeches 
from all the funny members and witnessed 
various athletic games between the Packard- 
ites and Ridcrites of Trenton. President 
Rider bad his boys trained for the occasion, 
and took great pleasure in seeing them 
gobble up the cream of the prizes. On 
Thursday they were the guests of the Twi- 
light Club at Brighton Beach, where four 
hundred took dinner, and heard some excel- 
lent speeches on "The Problem of the 
Hour." On Saturday evening a trip was 
taken to Manhattan Beach, and a dinner 
given by the twin Spencers, who, sealed at 
either end of the table posed as the two 
Dromios with admirable skill and perfect 
effect. Possibly the most enjoyable of all 
the ouiings was the cavalcade procession to 
the tomb of General Grant at Riverside 
Park. The ladies of the Convention — 
twenty in number — who had spent the day 
as the guests of Mrs. Packard, at her home 
in East 73d Street, visiting the Park and 
MetroDolitan Miiseutn of Art, were joined 
by the gentlemen at five o'clock in the after- 
noon. Carnages were in waiting and the 
pilgrimage began. The most picturesque 
figure in the procession was Packard, 
mounted on a fiery charger leading the van 
in the capacity of Lord High Marshal. Ar- 
rayed in a vast smile, bobtail velvet jacket, 
white points and cavalry boots, he was the 
cynosure of all eyes. " Bob " Spencer was 
so startled by the spectacle that his features 
grew rigid and the normal smile wasknocked 
out of time ; lliuman's eyes sparkled In rap- 
turous contemplation of the perfect har- 

mony between form and movement ; neither 
Sadler, Stowell. nor indeed Bro. Nelson 
himself could figure out the slightest mar- 
gin of discount ; Bro. Miller, of Newark, 
wept feelingly between snatches of " I want 
10 be an Angel ;" Gaines took notes with a 
view to introducing a uniform for slate oc- 
casions among his faculty ; while the as- 
tounding apparition threw Bro. Brown into 
such a spasm of nervous excitement that the 
combined muscular eloquence of his neigh- 
bors was required to prevent his plunging 
through the glass panel of his Victoria, and 
fleeing precipitately to the nearest woods. 
Long after, when the danger was over, be 
explained that they don't have such "con- 
traptions " iu Jacksonville. 

As the Mikado people say. "It was a 
touching sight to see." 

Good Taste. 

Good lasle is a notably rare thing. .\ll 
men have tastes ; and to a certaiu extent we 
may say that all men have taste ; but good 
taste— which is both a gift and au acquire- 
ment — belongs to comparatively few. 

Good taste is the Midas touch that turns 
everything to gold. It makes very little 
difference what material comes to hand, if 
only this transforming power is brought to 
bear upon it. Wild flowers of the field, or 
rare exotics worth almost their weight in 
gold, are equally susceptible to the beauty- 
giving power. And who shall say that a 
handful of wild (lowers arranged with ex- 
quisite taste, is not more beautiful than an 
armfid of hothouse blossoms put together by 
a vulgar hand ? 

Perhaps there is nothing that shows more 
strikingly the difference, the wide contrast 
between good taste and had taste (or no taste 
at all), than penmanship. It is one of the 
charms of the art of penmanship, that it 
affords opportunity for the exercise of the 
most delicate taste, both iu the matter of ex- 
ecution and the manner of criticism. As in 
all other arts, so in penmanship, there are 
two classes of work— the coarse, pretentious, 
elaborate and showy, and the more simple, 
truthful, elegant and neat. It is in judging 
between these two classes, and in choosing 
one's own style, that the good taste of the 
penman finds opportunity for exercise. 

I have said that good taste was both a gift 
and an acquiremeut. It is a gift in the 
sense that some persons are incapable of it — 
totally incapable. No amount of education, 
no culture by example, nor correction of 
fault, can ever bring them to distinguish be- 
tween the truly beautiful and the pretentious 
and showy. They are wholly lacking in the 
artistic sense. 

On the other hand, good taste is an ac- 
quirement iu the sense that it improves, be 
conies more discriminating, more susceptible, 
by cultivation. The ii;irui :il gift may he in- 
creased. The lak-Tit in tljL- iiiipkin may he 
put out at usury, inul leliini ils possessor 
many fold on his investment. 

Good taste is the necessary equipment of 
a good penman. He must be able to dis- 
tinguish lictwecD what is really excellent and 
what is iiHii irkious in his art. We have 
all, nn li. nil -11 II -(ncimens of sliowy, 

elahi'i ii' I 1'^ iiuiinanthip which, so 

far iiv H I I ■ . . . Ilitice is concerned, 
werr ^ini|'i. ii" iiir iM. Vet justsuch pen- 
manship appeals to a certain class of so- 
called '■ artists," who do not hesitate to pro- 
nounce it "finer " than the delicate, tasteful 
work of really accnmpliFhcd pcnmcn. 

FortllIl;lU-K-, ^illrr. \h<- flMHlllMirr-Ml f»rin- 

muhihii, i ■■ t- 

icsuf U.': ■ 1. 


vhicbiKkseives, ll is a 

part of the missiot 

of the PE^MAN'B Art 

.loiRNAL, and olhe 

r publications of its clasH, 

to educiilc Amen 

iin iieiinun up to the 

standiinl ufiiM- tu_ 

1 ' 'Ml done in 

this .linMiMii ,|., 

.1 1 . < ' ii.|i,iring the 

prodiirtji'ii- i.i . ■. 

1 . \ . ,11 penmen 

todiiv" "N III' ;■' 

siderril -i ■■hi 

1 ii\ or foriy 

■ 1.;;. .1 1 ■. isteud- 

IDgl.i L 1 1 


1 Ni. that ils 

scope ^11 ■! \-''- !■ 

riic model 

haiidw 1:1 1 

1, 11 HI. .re truly 

ii-iie .sense. 

hask--..i HM 11 ■M. 

1..11- 1 III, less of 

preti-i>.s.u., ;.,..! >li, 

^* III. Ill ll: :i ■•'■ 1 ■■(■rirT;i- 

tionago. Ihisihai 

aging development 

II, ...r ■ I-. 

development which pu 
other arts in this country, n.i iMv ili- nit nf 
poetry, which is still yearuinyiiftcr tbt> flc-sh 



Publiiihed Monthly at »1 per Ye 

on« eoioiDD ■ fKxa ' t»bsio iiaooo inc. 


and ArttiUo Pennuummp;" oT,lortLab,a.covf^ bound In clth. 

«crl&era, oncloBln(( ft, *« "ii 

New York, August, 

The Late Educators' Convention 

As Mrs. Mulnprop would sny. " Com- 
parisons are odorous," and so we will not 
draw any l)etween the recent convention 
and any one tliat has preceded it. There 
would be little danger, however, in saying 
that if the estimate of those in ai tendance 
is to be taken it was equal in all respects to 
auy one of the seven that have been held 
under the present organization. In some 
respects it was clearly ahead. We speak 
particularly of its social character, and in 
doing so we are aware that we speak of a 
very important element in the success of 
the association. It was a happy thought to 
have "a day off" so early in the session, 
and its good effect was seen and felt all 
through the work. The convention was 
not large, not more than half as large as it 
should have been under the circumstances, 
but even in this respect it was quite above 
the average. There was, besides, no lack 
of enthusiasm. And beyond all there was 
no working at cross purpiises, no "side 
issues," and absolutely no "politics" to 
mar the pleasure of the meeting or to inter- 
fere with its grent purpose. One of the 
best assurances of this is the fact that the 
very last session, which included the elec- 
tion of oflicers for the succeeding year, was 
the most enlhusiastic and barmouiuus that 
were held. There were some dear and 
familiar faces missing, but the published 
proceedings will show that there was no 
lack of material or of ability. It was, 
without doubt, the most substantial con- 
vention which the association has yet held, 
iiud one whose intlueucc for good will be 
felt in the vears to come. 

Exhibits at the Convention. 

In one of the spacious rooms of the Pack- 
ard College, where the convention met, 
were several exhibits of penmanship, books, 
type writers, stenographs, etc. Conspicu- 
ous among the penmanship designs were 
two large skillfully designed and well exe- 
cuted specimens by J. M. Harkins, penman 
at Curtiss Business College, Minneapolis, 
Minn. Mr. Harkins is certainly to be 
ranked among our most skilled and promis- 
ing pen artists. W. E. Dennis exhibited 
several well executed specimens of off band 
Hourishiug. From the office of the Jouknal 
was exhibited the original of the Grant 
Memorial, and an extensive variety of 
original designs for diplomas, commercial 
forms, etc, as drawn for photoengraving 
and photo-lithography ; also copies of 
Ames' New Compendium and Guide to 
Practical and Artistic Penmanship. Works 
on bookkeeping were exhibited by Dr. J. 
C. Bryant of Buffalo, N. Y.. and Richard 
Nelson, of Cincinnati, Ohio. An extensive 
variety of pens, ink and other penmen's 
supplies, together with specimen pages of 
the new Spencerian Compendium and Copy 
Book, were exhibited by the house of 
Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor & Co., 753 Broad- 
way, New York. 

Remember, you can get the Jouhnal one 
year, and a 75-ceut book free, for $1 ; or a 
$1 book and the Journal for |1.25. Do 
your friends a favor by telling them. 

The King Club 

For this month numt)ers twelve, aud was 
sent by Fred, S. Lyman. Jr., Honolulu, 
Oahu, Sandwich Islands, Mr. Lyman writes 
a handsome letter and says he expects to 
send a larger club when the schools open in 
the fall. The Queen club numbers ten and 
was sent by I. W. Patton, of the Elmira 
(N. Y.) School of Commerce. 


'■ Sadler's Commercial Arithmetic." — In 
another column will be found the advertise- 
ment of Sadler's Commercial Arithmetic. 
Those of our readers who are familiar with 
Prof. Sadler's former successful efforts in 
this direction will naturally expect an im- 
proved text book as the result of his ripened 
experience as an author and teacher of busi- 
ness arithmetic; but after a careful review 
of its contents we venture the prediction 
that even his warmest admirers will be sur- 
prised at the extent of the improvements 
upon former methods contained in the pres- 
ent work. It is literally a "new" arith- 
metic, not ouly with reference to the time 
of its production, but also in regard to its 
contents ; and unlike many other things 
that are simply "new," every departure 
from the older methods is u decided im 
provement. Not the least of its improve- 
ments is its omission of the great amount of 
impractical, unteachable matter which cum- 
bers the pages of most other arithmetics. 
We believe that with this work as the text- 
book it is now possible for a student with 
few educational advantages to acquire a 
thorough aud permanent knowledge of 
practical arithmetic in the few months 
usually devoted to a business college coui-se, 
and for this reason will be welcomed with 
special favor by the business college fra- 
ternity. It certainly is admirably adapted 
to meet the particular needs of business col- 

"Holmes' First Reader." by George F. 
Holmes, LL. D. Copyrighted and pub- 
lished by the University Publishing Co., 
New York, is not only admirably adapted 
to its purpose as a first reader but it is in all 
respects one of the tinest specimens of the 
art of tine book making we have ever ex- 
amined. The type is clear and elegant, 
while the illustrations are the perfection of 
design and the engravers' art. Its pages 
are interspersed with script, the copy for 
which was prepared in the art department 
of the Journal. 

" Sheldon's Elementary Arithmetic," ad- 
vance pages of which have been received, 
appears to be a most attractive and in- 
genious presentation of the first and most 
difficult lessons in arithmetic. The illustra- 
tions all furnish a helpful assistance to both 
the learner and teacher. The book will 
contain 208 pages, at an introductory price 
of 40 cents. This book should certainly be 
examined by all teachers of arithmetic, and 
especially by primary teachers. Address 
Sheldon & Co., New York. 

"The Kindergarten and the School" is 
an interesting and valuable treatise upon 
that deservedly popular department of edu- 
cational work. It consists of 146 pages, 
with numerous illustrations of kindergarten 
methods and work, and \vill be an invalu- 
able aid alike to teachers aud pupils in that 
class of schools. Published by Milton. 
Bradley & Co., Springfield, III. Mailed 

"Manual of Correspondence," by Connor 
O'Dea, Secretary of British American 
Business College, Toronto, Ontario. This 
work consists of 66 large pages, and gives 
with the usual information respecting the 
rules for composition and letter writing a 
large number of practical examples of the 
various styles of correspondence, photo- 
engraved direct from the actual peu and 
ink, thus placing before the writer good 
examples of actual letter writing. It will 
be found to be an attractive and valuable 
aid to teachers of correspondence. See ad- 
veriisement iu another column. 

"Allen's Forty Lessons Double Entry 
Bookkeeping." as used in actual business. 
Prepared for use in Graded iiud High 
Schools. Complete in itself. No blanks 
required. Price by mail |1.50. By George 
Allen, New Berne, N. C. 

"Essays ou Educational Reformers." 
By R, H. Quick. Reading-Club Edition. 
16mo., pp. 330. Syracuse, N. Y., C. W. 
Bardeen, $1,50. The plates from which 
this work has hitherto been issued having 
become so worn as to necessitate renewal, 
the page has been made uniform with the 
"Reading Club " editions of Sully's " Out- 
lines of Psychology with special reference 
to the Theory of Education." Tate's " Phil- 
osophy of Education," Payne's "Science 
and Art of Education," DeGraff's " School- 
Room Guide," etc. We have examined 
this work with more thau a passing interest. 
It is replete with valuable thoughts and 
suggestions upon a wide range of topics. 
Any reader would find $1.50 invested in 
this book a more than satisfactory return. 

"Nelson's New Bookkeeping," announced 
in another column, and lately noticed 
in this column, can now be examined 
and purchased at this office. We are quite 
certain that accountants or teachers of 
bookkeeping will find this not duly a 
valuable book for study but for reference. 

"Poor's Directory of Railway Officials 
and Railway Directors for 1886 " is a valu- 
able handbook for Railroad men. It is 
conveniently arranged and well printed, 
and gives a list of the officials of every rail- 
road in the United States, Canada, Mexico, 
Central America, South America, West 
Indies, Great Britain, and Ireland. Mailed 
for $3.00. H. y. & H. W. Poor, (P. O. 
Box 233), 70 Wall street, New York. 

" The National Builder," a monthly jour- 
nal devoted to practical building. Pub- 
lished by the National Builder Company. 
Thos. E. Hill. President, George JI. Por- 
teous, Treasurer, William D. Kennedy, 
Secretary. Publication office. No. 103 
State street, Chicago. $3.00 per year, 
single copy 35 cents. To all who are con- 
templating building, or who are in any 
manner interested in fine aud economical 
architecture, the Builder will be of rare 
interest. Few if any parties have devoted 
more or equally appreciative attention aud 
study to modern architecture than Prof. 
Thos. E. Hill, who is the chief director of 
the publication. 

0. W. Temple, formerly ut Valparaiso. Ind, . hns 
(tncuKcd to teacli penmaiisliip and commorclal 
bruQi'hes at iho Alamo Business College San An- 
tonio, Texas, after September 1st. 

L. B. Waldeii, lately at Mauuhest^r, Ky., baa en- 
gaged to teach in ilie Lakeside BuBtneEs College, 

A. D, Skoels, formerly of Itomtio. Mluli, has en- 
gaged to teaoii in tlie Cbatliam, Ontario Itiisineas 
College, lie suys : " I can never Bpeali HufflcienMy 
In praise of the JountiAL for its aas<Btance to me In 
my home practice." 

A. M. Mayner will have charge of the penman- 
ship department at the Central Normal College, 
Douville, Ind,, during the ensning year. 

T. H. McCooI. tiifl well linown pen artist of-rhiia- 
delphlu. Pa., announces the opening of a "Spen- 
cerian Writing Academy " in tliat city on October 
■Itli. Mr. McCool l8 an accomplished penman in 
ind we wieb him 

We copy the foilowiug from a Creston (Iowa), 
paper. '■ Prof, Perry T. Benton, teacher of pen- 
munehlp In our schools departed for his home at 
Matteson, Mich., yesterday, where on next Tiiea- 
day. he will wed Miss Effle M. Owen. The couple 
will return to Creston in Aiigust and will make 
their home In this city among tiie scores of friends 
made by the groom during his sojourn here." 

Warren H, Lamson, for several years past special 
teacher of writing and drawing in the public 
schools of Lynn, Mass., has accepted a position as 
teaoher and superintendent of the same branches 
for tlie ensuing year, at Brldgepurt, Conn. 

TheP.irl W..rll. CIVx,..-), Rii-ln.-'is College held 
i(s si-vrrith .■nMiiJul.-..mrnrti. I'ln-nr exercises on the 

C. N. Crandle has entered intoapartnerabipwilh 
A. C. West, in conducting an Institute of Pen- 
manship and Pen Art. at Nashville. Tenn. Both 
gentlemen are skilled penmen, and ought to win 
success, for which they have our best wishes. 

Prof. A. J. Scarborough, formerly of the Cedar 
Itapids (Iowa) Business College, has accepted a 
position as editor of the Ptnman'n Gazette, Chicago. 
The Prof, has written some very Imght things for 
The Sun, recently, and ought to make the Oazntte 
a desirable paper for all classes,— /'a;' it San. 

We hereby return our thanks to F. W. n. Wiese- 
hahu, pen artist and expert. St. Louis, Mo., for a 
copy of the report of the late trial of Maxwell for 
the murder of Priller. in which case Mr. W. gave 
skilled and valuable testimony as an expert res- 
pecting the identity of certain incriminating writ- 
ing as Maxwell's. 

A Business University haa just been incorporated 
In Chicago, with J. O- Cross, M. A., author of Elec- 
tric Shorthand, President, F. F. Judd, expert ac- 
countant. Dean nf the College of Commerce, and 
G, W. lioyer, practical reporter. Dean of the Cen- 
tral College of Electric Shorthand This is a strong 
combination as the many p'lplls and friends of 
these business educators can testify, and under 
their management the new University cannot tail 

At the Business Educators meeting at Jackson- 
ville, a year ago at an evening reception, Mr. It. C 
Spenoer said : " I do not know whether there is a 
God." This remark has been wantonly distorted 
into the declaration that he said— there is no God. 
While many great philosophers assert belief In a 
personal Deity even the nmst eminent rarely claim 
an absolute knowledge of him. The usual behef 
that there is a living God vviis expressed by A. J, 
Rider, U. C. Spencer, and several others on the oc- 
casion referred to. 

H. P. Vogel, pen artist, St, Louis, Mo. Isspend- 

weeks with C. H, I'elrce, at Keokuk, 
ffa, studying the true " philosophy of i 
applied to the art of writing. 

s sending specimens for i 

uia see luac me pacKages coniainme 
e postage paid in full at Utter rata. A 
Ttion of these packages come short 


V !I. D. Allison, Dublin. N. H. 

8. .1. lioblnctt, Liberty, Ala. 

G. W- Temple. Valparaiso. Ind. 

J. E, Whitman, Tremont, Pa,, and a club of sub- 

L. R. Walden, Winchester. Ky., and club of five 
names, Ue says "Tho Joi^hnal certainly stands 
without a rival in Its line of work." 

J, E. DePue, Heald's Business College, Suu Fran- 
cisco, Cal., and a club of five subscribers. 

C. E. Webber, East Portland, Oregon. 

D. A. Griffitts, Capital Business College, Austin, 

J. R. Goodler. International Business College. 
I'nt Huron. Mich, 

II. H. Kellogg, Anoka, Minn. 

J J. Ilagcn, Newburg, Minn. 

T. H. McCool, Spencerian Writing Academy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

E L. Click, Saranac, Mich. 

W. L. Parka, La Sallo. IU. 

A. N. Palmer, editor of the Wfgtem Penman, 
Cedar Rapids, Iowa. 

J. S. Cooley, Niantlc, Conn. He says: "Your 
paper Is doing a world of good tu our ecboola 

L. M. Holmes. Eastern, Ind., Normal School and 
Commercial College, Portland, Ind. 

A. S. Randolph, penman, Curmi, III. 

C. R. McCnllongh, Belleville (Ont.), Business Col 
lege and club, hesays: "I cannot speak too highly 
of the JouRHAi, and It^ aid to me in tho work of 
teaohing penmanship." 

F. J. Smith, Eastern Michlgaa Normal Schoo 
and Commeroial College. 

I Normal School, 

A. A. Lowe, Lyon, JAa,fs. 
W. E. Harris, Knoiville. 1 
J. N. Inxkeep, Southern E 
Winfleld. Kanfl. 
P. B. Shlnn, Logansport, Iiid. 
M. J. Harty, St. LouIb, Mo. 

W. A. Newhonse, LIgonler, Iiid. ** I oaimot flnd 
words to express my appreciation of the Jourxai. 
Hiid especially the June numtier, Thedrawing les. 
Bon by Lymau Spencer was alone worth twice the 
ooBt of a year's sab^oriptlon. Continue tu ventilate 
the Oaskell Compendtum fraud. I have one of 
them; it la a miserable pretension to great writ- 

P. T. Benton, Mattcson, Uiuh.. he says : " Let me 
say ' Amen ' to your criticisms of the Gaskell Com- 
peodlum. While 1 believe it liaa some merits, yet 
wia»i/iUm It is the biggest kind of a fmud I ever 

J. P. Howard, 

A. J. Taylor, Taylor's BoalneBe ColleRe, Hoches- 
t«r. N. Y. 

A. D. Skeels, late of Romeo, Mich., now at Ihe 
Chatham (Ontario) Business College, a letter and a 
handsomely designed testimonial suoh as he awards 
to meritoi-iouB pupils. 

II. F. Vogei, a letter and a pen drawing of 
chenibB, &c. 

Mary A. Philip, Waukesha, Wis., a letter and 
card designs. 

J. F. Hales, Campbell, Texas, a letter and several 
copy slips. 

L, L- Tucker, of the New Jersey Bustne«8 College, 
Kewark, N. J., a letter and a photo-eogravud copy 
of a handsomely engrossed set of resolutions. 

. Patton, EUuira (N. T.) School of Commerce 

J. W. Harknesa, Providence, R. I, 
G. M. Pauli Principal l'ro\1dence Writing Parlora, 
Suco, Oregon, 
O. T. Cragin, Manchester. N. H. 
C. L. Meur, Drownsvtile, Tenn, 

E, W. Young, Michigan City. Ind. 
B. P. Pickens, MooresvDIe, Tenn. 

F. Toland, Uarkato, Minn., and a ulub of Ave 

DuBuquE. Iowa, July 9, 1886. 
Pnof. Am£s : Extended observation has con- 
vinced me, aud I think all will admit the plausi- 
bility of the convlotiou, that there are few produc- 
tions in the literary oi-art world that are utterly 
devi>id of merit. I further think Itself evident, 
that in criticising an educational work. It Is but 
just aud fair, to take as much pulns to discover all 
good, as well as all faulty characteristics, and to 
emphasize it« merits with as muuh fervency as we 
bestow upon tlie task of condemning Its lack of 

A criticism that does not praise more than de- 
nounce, cannot be other than the product of a pre- 
judiced mind, and we cannot learn to regard an 
individual favorably who thus reviews a published 

In the present heated discussion of Oa«ke1t s 
Compendium it seems that both factions ha^e at 
least partially forgotten ordinary rules of polite 
ness and in most oases the arguments produced 
both for and against it have consisted more of 

good, aud the memory of Oaskell will remain green 
In the miuds uf the thousands of young people who 
have been benefited by his instruction, as long as 

Very respeotruUy yours, 

# Will Q. Showaltbb. 

Wc give the foregoing commmiication 
complete as it comes to us, evidently from 
tbe warmest kind of a friend of the Com- 
pendium. But when he says that " As a 
systematic and welt arranged guute to inMrurt- 
(ton, it is certainly farfrom being commend- 
able," he virtually places upon it the seal of 
condemnation. Also, when he says, "I 
do not account for its popularity so much 
on the ground of any special merit it may 
possess as the wonderful genius and skill 
with which it has been advertised," he hits 
ft big nail square on the head. Respecting 
Mr. Showaltcr's strictures upon our manner 
of criticising the compendium, we wish to 
affirm that we have written no line in envy 
or malice ; upon the other hand, our many 
years of friendly, personal acquaintance 
with Mr. Gaskell led us to long forbear 
pronouncing what we felt to be a just criti- 
cism upon the compendium, and it was not 
until, through the Gazette, he denounced 
copy books and all present methods, declar- 
ing that the compendium was the only good 
substitute that we drew, in the Journal, 
a comparison between the unsystematic 
copies of the compendium and those in other 

IPiii^^s mmMmSi 

T/i€ ab&ve cut was p/iotoeitgraied Jiam pen and tnk ropy ixeeuted at the office oj (Ae Jolrnal and t« here gim 
example of Artistic Penmanahip applied to Business Purposes 

C. L. Eby, Eureka, Cal. "My file of the JotraNAi, 
is complete since January, 1881. No words of mine 
can portray my appreciation of Its value. I thank 
you most cordially for your devoted attention to 
the Interest of its readers." 

M. B. Moore, card writer, Morgan, Ky.. a letter 
and several good card specimens. 

A. D. Small, a letter and a finely finished swan. 
The latter would have appeared In the Journal 
had sufficiently black ink been used to admit of 

J. R, Mofarren, of Oaineaville, Texas, a pen 
drawing 23x28 entitled "The Cow Boy," It is a 
very elaborate piece representing a great amount 
of work and considerable genius. TLe piece has 

T. H. Creger. Whitewater, Wis., a letter and 

E. E. Salisbury, Phcenix. R. 1., a letter and aset 
of capitals. 

F. G. Wlieeler, Phcenix, It. I., a letter and cards. 

I. Ilalulgh,K. C, a letter and cards, 
he says, " I ctmgratulate you on your successful 
showing up of the Oaskell Compendium. I heartily 
endorse every word you have said, 

L. Madarasz, a letter and cards which are simply 

C. W. Jones,Wichlta, Kans., a letter, several card 
specimens, a nourished bird and a club, 

G. Bixler, Principal of Pen Art Hall, Wooster, 
Ohio, a letter, set of capitals and several card 
apcolmeus In good style. 

W. J. Kinsley, Shenandoah (Iowa) Commercial 

L. M. Etwell. Rural Dale, Ohio, 

E. L. Wiley. St. Clalrsvllle, Ohio, 

H. B. Worcester, Garden City Biistuess College, 
San Jose, Cal., and a ■.lub. 
Miss M. E. Swayzc, Muskegon, Mlcb. 

F. P, Frost. Springfield. Mass. 

G. E. Gilbert, Stockhaven, Pu. 
Chas. A. Buhcox, San Francisco, Cal. 

F. F. Judd, Business University. Chicago. lU. 
P. S. Heath, Epsom, N, U. 
Kouua B. Adams, Ilclona, Mont. 

harsh and viudiotive assertions, than of calm and 
un ex cited reasoning. 

We had not Intended entering the arena at alt 
but as an Interested reader of all penmanship liter- 
ature, cannot help oflfeiing a word upon the sub- 
ject under consideration. 

We have often been asked the i|uestion, "How 
do you like Gaskell's Compendium!"" aud It Is a 
question that is rather difficult to answer. We 
suppose that every one's views in regard to Its 
merits are based upon their own experience con- 
nected with it. Formyseif, I can look back several 
years, and memorj- paints some pleasant hours of 
toil spent In striving to master the flourished copies 
given on those familiar slips, determined to become 
a bright example, and looking forward to the time 
when country boys would gaze, admire and won- 
der at my autographs, old and new, as they 
adorned some advertising sheet. 1 worked faith- 
fully and unceasingly, taking the slips in their reg- 
ular order, and by the time I reached slip nine, had 
succeeded in obtaining a fair auou 
aud could flourish my letters magnificently. 

But 1 never proceeded further. Not being a nat- 
ural artist, the Hon proved too much for my first 
lesson In flourishing, so after some spasmodic at- 
tempts. I gave up in despair, 

I do not think that the Cpmpendlum merits as 
much praise as It has received, neltiier do I think 
that it deserves as much condemnation as Is now 
being bestowed up,m It by some of our prof esslonal 
teachers. As a systematic and weU arranged 
guide to Instruction, it Is certainly far from being 
all commendable, yet it has a great deal of 
killed poumen cau testify 
.1 al^out It that in- 

irtlie iotr 

:rs ,..f t 

e% er we see an aposcli' i if the illustrious dead— the 
lamented author and editor, penman and geotle- 
man-George A. Gaskell. we see a writer possessed 
of wonderful executive power, aud a command of 
the muscular movement which Is usually charac- 
teristic of that class of penmen. 

I do not account for its popularity as much on 
the ground of any special merit It may possess, 
however, as the wonderful genius and skill with 
which it has been advertised, and I further believe 
that if Ames' Guide or the Spencerian Standard 
Practical, should have half the sale the Compen- 
dium has had, much more good would result there- 

Willie it cannot compare in any respect with the 
perfected Spencerian publications, I do not feel 
like condemning it too severely. It has done great 

systems. This we did while Gaskell was 
living, and under the full sense of duty to 
the thousands of teachers and learners who 
patronize the Jourmai,, and who would 
naturally and properiy look to it for at least 
an opinion respecting a so-called "substi- 
tute " for the systems of copies they had 
hitherto used. Again we forbore criticism, 
when the compendium changed to the hands 
of the present owners, until it was boomed 
in a manner to out-Gaskell Gaskell, being 
announced "as without an equal or second." 
We are free to admit that it has been the 
extraordinary and preposterous chiims made, 
fortified in the most ingenious and telling 
manner, that has greatly quickened and 
strengthened our sense of duty to call public 
attention to what, considering its true 
merits and the claims set forth, was nothing 
short of a public imposition. 

Mjrabile DIctu !! 

Michael tells us in bis Advocate for July, 
that ■•Penmanship should be taught the 
same everywhere," Then he proceeds with 
what be terms a series of lessons, and we 
suppose he has a class of children from six 
to eight years of age, for ' ■ it s/iould be taught 
the same everyioftere." His first lesson is upon 
the letter s. "Stepping to the board 
quickly" and writing a group of five he 
counts "one, two. three, four, five." then 
asks the class to count the same. Now ihey 
write counting at the same time. They 
write, or are supposed to write seeenty tetters 
in a minute the first minute, aud ninety let- 
ters in the second minute. Counting five 
letters a word, these children the second 
minute they write, are to write at the rate 
of eighteen words to the minute, orat a rate 
of speed greater than that of the majority of 
business men in their regular work, as a 
rule. Now, remember these are children 
who know nothing of the form of the letter. 

who have never had a lesson in position, 
movement or pea holding. The second 
minuie they arc to write ninety Utters or 
eighteen loords. This reminds me of the fel- 
low who said "he wo\dd not he punished 
for lying because he always told such hig 
ones that no one but a fool would believe 

Such talk as that nuiy take, in out of the 
way places. Undoubtedly the fellows from 
the hoop-pole region when they read that 
will think that Michael is " just lightnin," 
and they will do as many have done " who 
have received similar advertisements, situa- 
tions guaranteed " and the like, go and pay 
him fifty dollars and learn for themselves 
that "things are not what they seem." 

Surely Michael does not expect us to 
believe that he ever did any such thing as to 
have a child write ninety letters the second 
minvte. That is RAPID at beuinninu. 

The Almighty docs not make four year 
old horses in fifteen minutes but gives them 
time to grow. 

The horseman who would drive his prom- 
ising young horse at the top of his speed 
the first time he put him upon the track 
would be looked upon by experienced train- 
ers as a person of very poor judgment, to 
say the least. 

Muscle must be developed by degrees 
whether in horse or man. 

Michael will not claim for an instant that 
he prepares the copy for bis engraver in his 
rapid style, lie will not claim that he wrote 
the copy for his engraved letter dated April, 
1886, published in his copy book prospectus 
at the rate of from twenty to thirty words 
per minute, if at all. 

I am personally acquainted with Mr. 
Michael ; I have some of his writing ; have 
seen several of bis students try to wrile and 
know whereof I speak. 

Yours very tridy, 

W. V. Lyon. 


'i'tjo Pknman's Aut JoifRNAL Stands at the head 
of its chis^i.—Praflical Edueiitor. 

Those who think tiiat not much can be said about 
writing should subscribe for the Pbnman's Aht 
JouKN'AL and your eyes will be opened. Boys and 
girts If your writing Is poor by all means subscribe. 
^Progressive Ytmtli. 

The Penman's Art Journal outdid itself in Its 
issue for June. The article on Pen Drawing from 
the pen of Mr. Lyman P Spencer, is one of the most 
valuable and Interesting papers on that subject 
ever prepared. The Art Journal has done Its 
mauy readers a genuine service in securing and 
presenting this from the most distinguished pen 
artist living.— 7?wAMfor ComTnercial HevUw. 

Tbe Pknuan's Art Journal is the leading paper 
of its kind in the country. No teacher of penmac- 
sbip should be without it. It Is fall of good things 
for every oue interested in the study of penman- 
ship.— rejw'trt College Journal. 

Of the papers published mainly in the interest of 
writing and teachers of writing, the Pbnuan's 
Art Jodbnal, N. Y., stands conspicuously at the 
front. The amount and kind of thought and UlQB- 
tration upon every conceivable phase of penman- 
sliip and kindred topics, which any single number 
of the Art Journal contains could not have been 
Lad (or love or money twenty or twenty-five years 
ago. Upon the subjects of writing and methods of 
teaching writing the Art Journal is absolutely 
exhaustive. Mr. D. T. Ames, the editor and pro- 
prietor. Is not only a genius In newspaper publleh- 
iug. but has brought his enterprise up from a very 
small beginning to a degree of excellence and clr- 
culalUiu that few school Journals attain. Those 
who want to know everythhig that la going on la 
the world of ponmausblp cau find It in tho Prm- 
w.\n'8 Art 3ounH.\i..~CoUege Becord. 

From having carefully and delightedly looked 
through the Penman's Art Journal, pubtlahed by 
D. T. Ames, of New York City, while in the glow 
of our enthusiasm, we want to say an appreciative 
word for this Journal, We have been a reader of 
it since it was first established. It lias been tbe 
first and only purely penman's journal that has 
lived, and It has lived simply because it wiut In- 
nately Immortal. It has done more for the art in 
general llian all other agem-les In the United Statea 
combined. Tliere have been growing up duriugthe 
last twenty years a raceof penmen, and the JouH- 
NAi, lias been Ihelr cyclopedia. It Ims never been 
guilty of publishing a dry or uuinstructlve number. 
It is not merely the organ of Mr. T D. Ames, 
although it owes all to blin, but It Is the mouth- 
piece of all the best ponmeo of the day. Often a 
single praotioal, or artistic, or pedagogic, or rem- 
iDlstlo article In worth tbe entire subsoripUon. 
The June number is one of lt« best. To all ad- 
mirers of the art of pen drawing the first article by 
Lyman P. Speni'cr will prove Intenseiyinterestlng, 
— Tfu Erpontnt. 

The lesNon In penmanship lu the Pkniian's Art 
Journal, for June, by Lyman P. Sponcer, Is ex- 
ceedingly interesting. This valuable paper should 
be In the linnds of every young man wlio has any 
rove bis penmanship.— 

Sctux^ Vl*ilor. 


The Varieties and Processes of 

The process of stereotyping requires tLat 
11 mould sbould be Iftken from encli form of 
types, and tliiil a oast should be made from 
the mould sufficiently Inic and clear to print 
from. Hence there is a double process of 
casting for each page contained in a book — 
a striking proof of the large amount of 
trouble willingly incurred to gnin the object 
in view. The p^il'' 'if l> |>i K nrdged up 
securely in an iron <:im .uni ih.' surface 
carefully examiiud tn v, i ihii nn dirt or 
other imperfeclidii iiiicrtiic with the cor- 
rectness of the surface. 

The page thus secured is placed in a case 
called the "moulding frame," and if any 
wood cuts are to be introduced, the blocks 
are placed in the moulding frame wiih the 
type, for il is one of the indications of mod- 
ern skill in this department of art, that 
stereotype casts are taken from wood cuts 
as well as from type-s. A skeleton frame is 
placed over the page in the moulding frame 
to determine the thickness of the mould to 
be taken from it, and the types are rubbed 
over with a little oily composition to pie- 
vent adhesion. The mould is made of plas- 
ter of Paris, which is mixed with water to 
a liquid state, and poured over the page, it 
soon solidifies, and, on being removed, it 
presents an exact mould of the page, every 
letter of the types and every line of the wood 
engraving being copied in reverse with min- 
ute accuracy. 

The mould requires a careful process of 
baking to remove every indication of moist- 
ure from the plaster ; this baking is effected 
in ovens constructed for the purpose. When 
thoroughly dried the mould is ready to have 
the stereotype cast taken from it. 

The aist is made of mi,\ed metal of anti- 
mony and lead, like printing types them- 
selves, and the metal is melted in a copper 
containing ajjout a ton. In the casting pro- 
cess there is an iron vessel employed called 
the "casting box," which has at the bottom 
a movable plate of cast iron, ctdlcd the 
'■ floating plate." Upon this plate the mould 
is placed, face downwards, and the cover of 
the bos is placed over the mould ; there are 
holes in the corners of this cover to admit of 
the melted metal -, and the internal arrange- 
ments of the bo.'c are such as to allow the 
metal to come in contact with the surface of 
the plaster mould. The bo.\ is dipped into 
the cauldron of melted metal, and in a few 
seconds all the vacant spaces within it are 
filled. It is removed from Ihe cauldron, and 
when cold the superfluous metal is broken 
away with a mallet, so us to separate the 
stereotype cast from the plaster mould and 
from the floating plate. 

This cast is now an exact representative 
of the original page. The plaster mould was 
a reverse, giving in intaglio or cavity all the 
parts which were raised or in relief in the 
page, and vice versa, but the metal cast re- 
verses this again, so as to come back to the 
original form. The stereotype plate, before 
being printed from, undergoes a very care- 
ful examination. If any slight corrections 
or additions are required, parts of the plates 
are cut or filed away, and the other parts 
put in : if any of the letters have become 
filled up by the plaster or metal, they are 
opened and properly shaped by small sharp 
tools ; and if any of the fine lines of the 
wood cuts have been disfigured, they like- 
wise are restored to the proper state. Even 
after all this work, the pages of stereotype 
plates reqviire much adjusting before they 
can be printed from. Alihough cast with 
every care. Ihe buck of the plate issomewhat 
rough and uneven, and this want of accu- 
racy is removed by the action of a beautiful 
lathe, which lakes off a thin film from the 
back of the plate, and reduces it to an ex- 
actly equal thickness in every part. Il is 
then screwed down upon a carefully pre- 
pared wood block to make it exactly the 
same height as the priming types, with 
which it hits sometimes to be used in com- 
mon. The pages when arranged in order for 
printing may differ very slightly in tbiclt- 
uesp, or u minute difference may occur in 
different parts of the same plate, so that, 
although no part might jiclually escape the 
i.ik. souc portion might appear more faint 
thiui others, ami thus produce great dislig- 

urment in the printing. It often occupies a 
man several hours in " making ready " a 
form of stereotype plates for the press ; 
since he has to place bits of paper under the 
parts which are a little too low. and has to 
take impressions time after time to see how 
the adjustment is proceeding. 
(To be continued.) 

An Open Letter to a Home 

Dear .'^ir:—l have received your Icllcr of 
a recent date, and in reply to your inquiries, 
all of which I take to be sincere, 1 shall 
venture to offer a few words of advice. I 
do so, not as an instructor, or a superior, 
but as a brother, a former home student, 
who has safely passed some of the danger- 
ous places you are now struggling through. 

You admit that you are discouraged. You 
cannot see thatyou are making any advance- 
ment. Young man, il is a sad thing lo be 
discouraged. It robs you of everything, 
and produces you nothing. If you think 
you have cause to be discouraged, remove 
the cause, and do not yield to discourage- 
ment, until there is nothing to encourage you. 
If you cannot see that you are progressing, 
find out the reason of it. 

You evidently have a desire to excel ; 
otherwise you would not bea.home student. 
You also, no doubt have faith in the old 
adage, that intelligent practice makes per- 
fect. If you are industrious, you will prac- 
tice all you can, and if you are thoughtful, 
you will practice intelligently. You must 
combine study with practice. Never prac- 
tice a copy that does not require as much 
study as work. Do not fail to criticise your 
own work. Do it by comparing with per- 
fect copies, and comparing with the models 
in your mind. Your mental conception of 
good forms should always be in advance of 
your ability to execute them. When it be 
comes otherwise, you cease to improve. 
The mind must go in advance of the hand, 
and prepare the way, and unless it does this, 
the hand must stop before it reaches the 
goal it desired — asuperiorhandwriting. We 
are apt to attach too little importance to a 
scientific study of form. 

But while we would urge extensive study 
of form, we would not have you neglect 
thorough movement drill. Try to keep your 
ability to produce good forms as near your 
conception of them as is possible. As to 
the movement to be used, it is of course un- 
necessary to speak, as all now agree that the 
muscular is the best, and only true business 

Be very careful also that you are using the 
best materials and implements obtainable. 
A student should never use poor materials 
for practice. From your admission referred 
to at the beginning. I take it that you are 
not a subscriber to any of our penman's pa- 
pers, and I hasten to urge you to become so 
at once. If there is any agency that will 
drive discouragement from your midnight 
desk, it is a live penman's paper. 

I would urge you, in conclusion, to avoid 
careless practice. Remember a careless 
stroke with the pen, is a step backward, and 
that a careful stroke is a step in advance. 
The chief things to avoid are carelessness 
and discouragement. The chief things to 
cultivate are intelligence and perseverance. 
Be earnest, inquiring, studious and dilligent, 
and as sure as results follow causes, you 
will succeed in mastering the beautiful art. 

With my best wishes for your good, 
I remain, yours very truly, 

W. D. Showaltek. 

Dubuque, Iowa, June 5, 1886. 

Superior Pens. 

Ji/st reccivift—a new lot of " Ames* Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with extra care. Every effort has been 
made to secure a better pen than any now 
in the market, and we believe we have suc- 
ceeded. Sample quarter gross sent for 25 
cenis, regular price, 30 cents. Try them. 

Return if not Satisfactory. 
Remember, that if you order cither our 
" New Compendium of Practical and Artis- 
tic Penmanship," or the "Guide to Self- 
Instruction," and they are not satisfactory, 
you may return them, and we will refund 

Educational Notes. 

Brief educational items si 

<r this Department i 

J.KT. Office of the 

Broadway, New York. 

; of tliG Pekmai 

A copy of an arithmetic, of which only 
one other copy is known, brought $200 at u 
sale in London the other day. 

The rules of William and Mary College in 
1772 forbade the students to drink anything 
except "cider, beer, toddy, and spirits and 

Mr. Georg Henscbel has been appointed 
first professor of vocal art at the lioyal Col- 
lege of Music, Loudon. He takes the place 
of Jenny Lind Goldschmjdt, who resigned. 

Professor Turner of Edinburg, anatomist, 
receives $22,000 salary. This is supposed 
to be the highest sal;ir\ p.iiil :iiiv ic;ii her in 
the world. It has bivn -hiinT iIkii ss.fioo 
paid President Iloldin ■■\ iijr i ;iiiti.ruia 

IV//,;^, .S/-.W^. 

Educational Fancies. 

[In every Inetance where the source of auy item 
used In this departmeut Is known, ttie proper credit 
Is given. A Ulte eoartesy from others will oe appre- 

shunners ? — Loinell Citizen. 

Six hundred American girls are studying 
music in Milan. American girls are always 
considerate. It isn't every girl who would 
go so far from home to banga piano. — Yo7i- 
kera Statesman. 

Too much study is saidto affect the mind. 
A teacher says he knows a number of case.s 
where it would affect it very favorably, too. 

She l.asi-MiiM.i ,::,,.. . . .-. '"'" ^^ 

Willie her in:i w ■! ii ; niiikes cheese. 

■n, Mountainffi: 

The griiiiiii;' - 'i . .(In delivered a 
soul inspiriiij In motto, "An 

honest man i . ik of God. "is 

nowwondeiiii- li■'^^ lir.< mi -rt home from the 
college town willioiit piiying his washing 

lu Boston they say "The sanctity of the 
lawn should be preserved ;" in New York 
the same motto is rendered. " Keep off the 

" What is the average length of whales ?" 
asked a teacher of a class of boys. 

"About five minutes," responded the 
"tuff" of the class. Poor fellow ! he had 
gone through a "whaling" voyage that 
morning with his father for skipper.— iJan«- 
ville Breeze. 

" Grept men often rise from small begin- 
nings," says a writer. They often rise on 
small endings also— e. g. , the point of a pin. 
— Burlington Free Press. 

This explains why the bent pin is so pop- 
ular among school boys— they are desirous 
of seeing their fellow students get up in the 

A favorite son of the writing master who 
advocates wholeurm movement instead of 
forearm in making capital letters was re- 
cently observed patiently waiting to see the 
large hind wheels of a wagon overtake and 
pass the small ones. 

Under a rercnt decision of the postid i 
thorities dudes are now carried as third ci 
mail ma.iicT.—Philadelj,Kia Uerald. 

Eiit |ilcnty of cucumbers, green fruit and 
wulcruujlons and you would soon cease suf- 
fering with the beat— at least in this world. 
— Philadelphia Herald. 

Dr. Mary Walker is a living illustration 

When you see a pretty girl in a stunning 
bathing costume sitting between two briefly 
atlircd yoimg men on the beach you may 
id you have found a siind- 

witch, — hrwell Citizen. 

'■ It does a man good to go down among 
the children occasionally," said the man 
when be .slipped and fell in the kindergarten. 
Philadelphia Call. 

Go brtnK my veto, bring it Qiilok 
With peiisloiiB I am borod ; 

ril teach our soldlere that liii 
In tulghtlcr than the sword. 

soldlere that %\\c p^n 


WanMnalon Critic 

Ti-amp— "Will you please give me ten 
:ent8. sir ? I'm on my way home to die." 

(lentlcman — (handing him the money — 
' 1 don't mind giving you ten cents for so 
vorthy a purpose as that, but your brealli 
mells terribly of whiskey." 

Tramp—" I know it docs, sir. Whiskey's 

Back Numbers. 

Every mail brings inquiries respect: 
back numbers. The following we can sei 
and no others : All numbers for 187», 
cept January, May and November; 
numbers for 1880. except July, " 

June; all for 1883. but JanuoA-y ; all for 
1884; all for 1885. All the 75 numbers, back 
of 1886, will be mailed for $6, or any of the 

nbers at 10 c 

Can You Make a Better Invest- 

than to pay $1 for the Joittinal one year, and 
the "Guide to Self- Instruction in Plain and 
Artistic Penmanship" free as a premium ? 

The Guide contains sixty-four large pages 
of instruction, and copies for plain writing, 
flourishing, and lettering, and is alone sold 
for 75 cents {in paper covers), and |1, hand- 
somely bound. 

The Wriling-Ruler has become a standard 
article with those who profess to have a suit- 
able outfit for practical writing. It is to the 
writer what the chart and compass is to the 
mariner. The Writing-Ruler is a reliable 
penmanship chart and compass, sent by the 
JoijiiNAL on receipt of 30 cents. 


Don't Get Excited. 


rack, pill tuhhmn, and pnper weight combined in 

adapated for otfico, libran 

stamps. Patented. 

bent post paid fur prli;( 
Agents wanted. 
;. W. I'OPE. 20 WcstSt.N 




.Hire about six weelis for its 
comnletlon. when taken in counecLlon with other 

A notable feature Is the large number of Busi- 
ness Forms— nearly all the Notes, Drafts, CheckB. 
Certificates of Deposit, Receipts, etc., that occur 

> fflv. 

fuU. with t 

lety of 

which to make Siatenioi 

Examples in In 

_ _. _ _ , _' testing th 

dent'a ability to perform the computations t 

: and Fartlal Payments for testing then 

iorded transactions. 

PeicentaKcti on Me 

vatualile examples for ascertaining Averages and 

*■- "' -■■— and oiherlYade Ac- 

io Scale for putting 
m 1 rauo rroiiis, ur iukiuk oh Trude Dlscouote. 

Negotiable Paper presented In a manner not 
heretofore given. Pajinent Eudoraements and 
rraoNfer Endoraemenia alternating on the back of 

... tivs . . „ 
a work will Interest teacher oa well as students. 
Price of single copy $ 




Send money by E 


r itegifitored Letter. 




Author of Nelson's Mercantile AHtliinetlc and 

IielBOu'8 BookkeeplnK, Part I ; and Prealdent 

of the Nelson Business Collene Company 

of OnclDDatl and !jpiiDgfleld, Ohio. ■ 

From Prt». 0. W. Brown.qf f/u J<Kk»onviU«, IV., 

" Without qualiUcation your work Is the most 
,.. ...I i,i__. ^,( accountauship 

Utan ButineM Cot- 
o anyvrork hitherto pub- 

■■ ' ^PBNCEn." 

•ffe, Kansat: 

qualifl ■' 
exhaustive of the « 

1 Uaa biMii;!: 

d bookkeeper of thirty years' experi- 
enoe ana Dave always opposed the use of the text 
books heretofore employed in commei-olal colleges, 
but this one of yours is the beat I have ever seen, 
and should Ldeolde to adnut any other in place of 
my own (manuscript) 1 shall certainly use yours. 

From Iht Bryant, Stratlon A Sadler CotlfQe, SaiH- 
" It contain* a fund of valuable Information 
dolnR you great credit, and no doubt will move a 
decided success, • • • Theflasliystyk 

you great injustice. The inside 

iplnlon, doi 

B with y 
jTom Prof. L. F- Slubbt 

1, but i 

. II. 

dozen Nelson's New Book- 

subject of accounts that has yet been published 

The principles laid down and ihe expla 

given cover an amount of matter sufficient 

a thorough knowledge of the sci 

and yet are so simple and cleai 

understood by i 

feature which I 

tioD Is the dl^ca 

bave encumbered 

" This n 

"It Is so complete 
t v^uabie t 

solution and masteriiit; uf aiij Jifficult proijosilioi 
n business."— ,fflny«ir*r. Cincttuiati. 

f thirty years' experence in 

. . the ■ 

I, with all the weak 

_epetitloDS and all a , __ .. 

Inated— oneof the most important contrtbutii 

teaching and studyinK the laws and methods of 
business, with all the weak points and ali uanec 
essary repetitions and all antiquated forms elim- 
' ' e of the most Important contributions 
i literature in recent years,"— ^fwifn^ 
I\)sC, Cincinnati. 

"One of the most exhaustive works on book 
keeping we have examined, Tboae who wish the 
latest and most complete reference book 
'lould get a copy of Nelson' "' 

keeping."-7'Ae'Co««?c Itfi 
From tlu E/ectrlc Cifu CoUegf, Bv 


i without i 

finest work on 
fortune to exa 

the subject it has been my good 
nine. J, W. Brijse." 

From Moore's 

lanta, Qa 

"Your new b 

From BammtV 

Southern Btisinesi Vniversitjj, At- 

ookkeeping iaaboutall thatcan be 

\ accounts, commercial "form and 

B. P. MooRB, Pres." 
BuslnesB ColU^e., Akron, Ohio: 

adopted it, I have to say that bv its 

ent« make more thorough, rapid am , 

progress, with less help from the teacher than 

when I 

y lis use mystud- 

-ough. rapid and satisfactory 

ii any of the different jooks 

From tlie General Bookkeeper (if the Qerman National 
Bank, Cincinnati. Ohio ; 
" I find Id the voluminous work before me s vast 
amount of information relating to banking, cor- 
porate company business, merchandising and 
manufacturing, that 1 could not otheiwise hope to 
obtain in a life time. The article on corporate 
J business 

e book Is sold a 

e bookkeeper. 


schools andoollegee being furnished 


322 Cbeatnut St.. St. L.oul3, II 

We are now prepared to furnish a convenient 
and durable binder for the JornxAi,. 

It is constructed to serve both as a file and binder. 
Sent post-paid, on receipt of Jl.BO. 

O-lf 805 Broadway, N^w Y<irk. 

For experts and careful Writera. Samples for trial on application. Asii for Card No. I. 
IVISON. BLAKEMA.N, TAYLOR & CO., 753 & 755 Broadway, New \ 



50,000 Copies. sohi in hss than four y. 
by fhv best Schools in nil of tin- /H-imi/nif ri 
andteiritory of thv I'nifttl Sfnfis. 

Some of the Causes wtilch have Led to Its Universal Commendation and General Introduction. 


hip, K 

_.__. d to 8C 
ly the school 

pupil. It fasci 

only the sc 

sing it. It increases the patronage of the school bv tn i! in- i h. -(n.i'. 
It Is fold at a very lew price. It is accompanied with siiualili> riLm 
solid work for the pupil tlian any other book of twice the numhkir of 
( Introductive Edition, lOO Pages, $1.25. 
PRICES -i Bookkeeping Edition, 100 Pages, $2. 

( Complete Bookkeeping Edition, 208 Pages, $2.51 

A copy of eilher edition mailed 10 teachers at mie-halt the price named above. Addres.'- 

specimen pages and circulars giving doacription, testimonials and wliolesale prices of Itonkkeeil 

Seventy J^easona in Spelling, Business Praclice, and Blank Books, 

r-1 WILLIAMS & ROGERS, Rochester, N. Y 

"One of the most practical and most usefal texi-L:':)kB ever placed in the hai 
of students." ' ■ — 














Exercises in Capital Letters, 
Exercises in Abbreviations, 
Exercises in Forming Sentences, 

Exercises in Spelling, 

Exercises in English, 

Exercises inWritingTelegraph Messages 

Exercises in Writing Advertisements, 

Exercises in Writing Business Papers, 

Exercises in Writing Circulars, 

The Form and Structure of Letters, 

Sample Letter Headings, 

Sample Envelope Addresses, 

Sample Social Letters, 

Numerous Sample Business Letters, 

Numerous Full page Engraved Specimens 

Numerous Hints and Helps, 

Many Valuable Suggestions, 

L Bu 

Photo-Engraved Samples of Bus: 
Letters from New York Bus; 

It ia Uarxily necessary to say that the need for a thoroughly practical textbook on this very 
important subject baa been felt by thousands of teachers. It la only a few weeks since the first 
-book waa made. Notwithstanding this faot, letters of Inquiry and 


Special dlscounta to schools and the trade when ordered In quantities. Orders by mall prrimntly 
tenrled to. Address. 

THE SUPPLEMENT CO., Buffalo, N. Y., 

1^ or, CONNOR ODEA, Toronto, Canada. 

The Best Assistant in Office Work. 


and Bookkeepers. Monthly. Single copies, 10 
cents; 12 numbers. $1. Address Tbb Office, Co., 
905 Broadway, New York. P, 0. Box 1663, (J-tf 


I'rlnctpala and Aiwislanis: al»t; several for Art, 
Muslu, &o. Applioation-form and Infornmllon 

Mention this paper. (5-13) Cbicaoo, 111, 

a®" SO -®a 

Lessons by Mail 

a®" ^1.50.-®a 

Continued inquir>' with rejmrd to Inbtbuctioka 
BY Maii. has induced the underslirned to arrange 
for self and home learners, and for amateurs or 
those preparing to teach penmanship; 

(DA Course of 50 Lessons in Writing, 

<A11 copies fresh from the pen.) 

(2) A Course of 50 Lessons in 

(All copies fresh from the pen.) 
n Course In Writing consists of 

titude of elegantly itriffm i 

e standard small a 


embraolnfr all 

of Muscular Combliintinii i of 

Wholearm Combination Em !' ml 

Co ntbt nations. Fancy Iiiiii;i! ■ r. . 

together with the name of Hm- [ . r-. t, ; !i i-nit- 
the Lesson In a variety of ariisrio ciimtiitiittiunB. 

^~AI1 of these copies are direut from my own 
pen, not ensrraved. 

Accomnanlne each CO- Lesson Course In plain and 
fancy writing, are Illustrated Phinted Instruc- 
tions, with cuts showing the exact position of 
arm, hand and pen and position at desk. Also 
explicit directions with regard to movements; and 
a chart showing the exact movemenla, the princi- 
ples, proportions, slant, upoctne, classification and 
analysis of all the standard letters and hgures. 

The entire fiO-LsBBON Series or Wkittbn CorrBS, 
with instructions, sent In one portfolio package, 
post-piild, on receipt of SLSO. 

The M)-I.essun Course In Flourishing consista of 
ses or Principles, and a superb collection 
t elegant Quill, Scroll and Bird Designs 

Also printea Instructloi 


The entire SO-Lbsson Series or Exkcises j 


I Instructions, j 

i portfolio 

pnokage, post-paid, on receipt of SI, 

The arrangement of these courses II 

long experience In UaeMng penmanship, and it Is 
confidently believed that In acouraov, elegance, 
variety, and sparkling artistic beauty, the copies 
and specimens embraced in these two courses are 
eqtialUii by any other penuma doing a mall 

I Is baaed c 


Three beautiful speolm 

/ iMlha 

ns— one each of Flour- 
of Capitals — the thn* 

;. K. ISAACS, 

penman, N. I. Normal School, 


D. T.A 

time past 
thu viirio 
applied H 

nnd Drattsmau, 

~ "C. E. SlCKEl^. 

w ToKK. Sept fl, ISM, 



Biifeiy; jml 

be usud b 

V every druftsm: 

M. J."uolI)8M1th' *'■■ 
tj'sBuaiaess L'oiveraity. 



The only Instru- 
ment that will 
make an exact 
Copy of a picture, 
either Smaller or 
Larger, than the 


A Child 12 years of 

Copy, BinaUor or larger 
ihan Itie original e/ a 
Pkture, PhotoRraph, 
Map. or deMgn of any 
desiilptlon by follow- 

ed with full directions 
f r e t a } address 
for «1 f n e of 


Old I 

QWIFT S HAND BOOK of 100 val at le 
*-* Beclpea u a d for oi) c ts r free 
BLRdiuK iu« Si for tU a i aper for uo >e r 

ttubsorlptioH't eceived for al P riod cats 

Catalogues e c free 
1 I WELLS W SWIFT Ma orv 1 c 



IsTO'W" K.EJ^ID'^. 





With Two Supplementary Books. 



stematize and teach writing in accordance with tlie usages of the best 
Tvriters in the business world. 

lishing features of ** Spencers' New Standard Writing." It effects a saving 
from 15 to 25 per cent, in tlie labor of writing and a corresponding 
ving of time in learning to write. 

A Sample Set, containing all numbers, sent for examination on receipt 
; $1.00. 

Full Descriptive Circular sent, on request, to any address. 

Ivison, Blakeman, Taylor, & Co. 

753 and 755 Broadway, New York. + 





For Sale by all Stationers and BookseUers. 

The Esterbrook Steel Pen Co., 


26 John Street, New York. 

SHORTHAND Lf '™f ' ^^i^' J? 

B ortst at isproo red ail pupils wh ncornpe^nt 
Ph uoKraphytloroUfchly eamel ojenfl the best 
lied for y unit peope especaW for educated 
y un« adies S nd for clr lar WO OHAf FEE 
Oawego N T ^g.^; 


2 1 St Annual Session begins 
September 1. 

New Masonic Building. 

Course of Study, 



Send for Catalogue with full partioulurs to 

A. J. RIDER, Principal. 

8-12 Maaonio Temple, Trenton, N. J. 


The finest flourishing ever sent out by any pen- 
man will not equal the marvelous specimens I can 
send you, 3 for flO cent^. Executed by W, B. Den- 
nis, who in this line has no equal. To be had only 
by addressing L. Madarasz, Box 2nfi, New York 

To the Readers of the Penman's Art Journal : 

T/ie tinderHf/nfd, toho has/oUowtd thepro/esrtonqf 
card writing /or tfi4 past seven years, and ha* yet to 
Uam of thsjirst lnslaru:e wherein Ms work has faUsd 
to give entire satisfaction, takes pUamrs In caUinff 
your attention to th« complete lliit of written visittjig 
cards, which are offered at rates eon^ltnt with the 
quality <^ cards and penmanship. Orders promptly 
filled. All pott paid. 

H?~ With every 4 packages ordered at one time 
an extra paokage of Ollt Bevel Edge Cards will be 
sent free, with any name written on. With a little 
effort you can easily Induce several of your friends 
to order with you. 

Number of Cards In each package : 16 36 

Style A.— P/ain IfJlHe, good quality t0,38 80.75 

" "B.—Wedding Bristol, v^TY best 40 .77 

'■ Q.—QUt Edge, assorted 44 M 

" D.— Bevel out Edge, the Gaeat 60 M 

" B.-BeveU of Creajn and Whites ... .52 1.00 

■' Q.—SUk and Satin Bevels 65 1,05 

" U.—Eight-ply Bevels, assorted 57 MO 

" 1.-.E:H?«, the latest styles 60 MB 

Address X(n««— extra 16 .30 

If you order cards you should have a card case 
to keep them clean and neat, 


No. \— Russia Leather, 4 pocketa $0,33 

No.3— " 4 " 35 

No. ^—Morocco, best quality 50 

No. 6— Calf, extra good 80 

t^o.^— Alligator Skin, very fine 1.60 

No. 9~ " very best 2.00 


Assorted designs—birds, scrolls, qnllls, etc., ex- 
ecuted with taste and ukill. To stadents who wish 
good models of Flourishing to practice from, tliese 
wtil be found to be " the thing." Price, 85 cents 
per package of 1.3, 


An unsurpassed specimen of bold business wr 
ing in the shape of a letter, and any question 
answered, on the finest quality of unruled paper, 


If you wish your name written In assorted styles 
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Elegant specimens of off-hand fiourishlng, aueh 
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Adapted for use with nr without Text Book, 

1 the oulv 


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■ A thousand years as a dtiy. No arithmcti< 
teaches it. A short, simple, praolioul method by 
E, C. ATKINSON, Principal of Sacramento Busi 
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i luK 

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Ehrases, senterices.commert.ial correspondence nnti 
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of four small books, comprising U. S, History. 

question books 

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TIC," Including nearly 9 


'3 and solutions. Besides treating thoroughly 
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tions undereach subject, the solutions 
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ablingthe student to refresh his mind on a 

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I'lllLISflEI) IN TiriiKK PARTS: 
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A Complete Key for Teachers Now Ready. 

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The entire lot containing my lieH work for frfi 
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n-lf ' G. RIXLEIt. Wooater. O. 



VREKA RECITATIONS. Seven numbers. 

min)lj,r- >.„. l>.„ny 


A '^;;f:-:v. ;;{:'; 

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nensesTralulii:; s, i ( m ■.,.>^ i ,,i:i,,n.l, , 

Btenoeraphic bu-ui. ■ ..lii. i(i..ii. ui !■.■ ..i.t,ii,„..J 
Send lor circuliir - ii 

A teacher of largo a 
teachiuK BusirieE 
Acliml BuslneRS Denai 

8-1 P. O. 8MALLEY. Freedom, PorUgeCo.. Ohio 


Instltutloii. II 
rienoe. Best i 


experience. Address 

\V. P. GKEGOHY, Easton) T 


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Xj A. T E S T . BEST. 

g ADLER's Commercial A rithmetic. 

4000 PROBLEMS. 400 PAGES. 


will be Delighted 
what he needs; 

Brief J 

id clear in its detinitious and explauations, simple and labor- 
saving in its metliods of solution, and strictly utilitarian in its large 
collection of problems, it will be found a reliable exponent of the best 
Business College metliods of instruction. 

It is unusually complete in every essential of business arithmetic, 
containing au ample supply of just the class of problems which commercial 
students will be required to solve, and of the simple, business methods of 
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business men or women. 

By its exclusion of impractical problems, its mauy simplifications of 
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business arithmetic in the brief time usually allotted to a commerciul 
college course. 

A SPECIAL EDITION is published for Business Colleges, 
entitled THE COiMMKRClAL AUITIIMETIC, the names of the authors 
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paid. Cards and Letter Ueads i 
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The American Penman will be a large 8-page 
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For Penmen and Bookkeepers. 

Penmanship, by I'rof. E. i< IsA.VCS, und I'iain 
Penm,'inshlp, by S. D. ruRUKS. UouliiceeniuK 

... J 1,..,: j^^ arlicles by Leading 

per Year, with a choice 
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Entered at the Post Office of New York, 
NY., as Second.Class Mail Matter. 


Vol. X.— No. 10. 

Ian qf CcngrefS. Washington, D. C. 

General— Signatures 
I Particular. 

The Bpecific definition of the word '" sig- 
nature " which suits the purpose of this 
article is thus given by Webster ; " The 
name of nny person, written with his own 
liand, employed to signify that the writing 
which precedes accords with his wishes or 

This word is frequently but erroneously 
considered as synonymous with " 'autograph. " 
There is however this difference, that a 
signature is an autograph, but an autograph 
is not necessarily a signature. 

In Ibe consideration of any subject it is 
desirable to know something of its history, 
and this is eminently true of signatures, in 
the treatment of which we will be obliged 
to pursue the same course of investigation 
as in the history of autographs or other 
writing, and what we may say of the history 
of signatures will include that of writing in 

But we will And that neither sacred nor 
profane authors give anything like a com- 
plete or satisfactory account of the origin of 

Perhaps the great dearth of information 
upon its early history may be due to the 
ravages of the Phccnician temples and 
Egyptian colleges by the Persian General 
Ochus, to Cajsar's troops who burned the 
library of Ptolemy Philadelphus, the great- 
eat of antiquity, to the destruction of the 
Pythagorean schools in Italy, of heathen 
peoples in the reign of Constantine, the 
ravages of the barbarians of the North, or in 
some of the many warlike expeditions for 
glory, or in the name of a more sacred 

Certain it is that the world at present pos- 
sesses little positive information upon this 

It is not probable that alphabetic writing 
was the first method of communicating in- 
telligence through the sense of sight, but to 
this we will for the present confine our at- 
tention as the basis of the signature proper. 
Pliny asserts the use of letters to have been 

The cabalistic doctors of the Jews main- 
tain that alphabetical writing wa.s one of the 
ten things which God created on the even 
iug of the Sabbath. 

Plato in his Phxdrus makes the god 
Theuth or Mercury the inventor of letters. 
But Plato also infoims us that " Some, 
when they could not unravel a difficulty, 
brought down a god as in a machine to cut 
the knot." 

The learned Bishop of Gloucester says : 
" The ancients gave nothing to the gods of 
whose originals they had any records, but 
wliere the memory of the invention was lost 
* » » « » the gods seized the properly 
by that kind of right which gives strays to 
the lord of the manor." Among the nations 
claiming the invention of alphabetic writing 
may be mentioned the Pha'niciane, the 
Egyptians. Chaldeans, Syrians, East Indians 
and Arabians, but the preponderance of evi- 
dence seems to be in favor of the Phu-ui- 
cians. The tirst mention of writing in the 
Scriptures is in Exodus xvii., 14; "And 
the Lord said unto Moses, write this for a 
memorial in a book and rehearse it in the 
ears of Joshua," etc. 

r rrr^i^<<^<r^<fr« 

There is nothing to indicate that writing 
was at that time a novelty. 

In Exodus xxviii., 21, we read: "And 
the stones shall be with the names of the 
children of Israel, twelve, according to 
their names, like the engravings of a signet, 
every one with his name shall they be, ac- 
cording to the twelve tribes." 

In Deuteronomy arc several references to 

In the foundation of the Temple of the 
Moon at Ilur are square bricks bearing the 
name of Urukb, who reigned 2093 B.C., or 
in the time of Abraham's father. 

Letters were known in Phcenicia about a 
century and a half after the flood. 

The foregoing examples give evidence of 
the great antiquity of writing, but yet we 
fail to discover with certainty the time when, 
the place where and the person by whom 
writing was invented. 

Neither are we to suppose thot alphabetic 
writing was first used, or that signatures 
were the first examples of such writing, but 
it is probable that no great length of time 
would elapse between the invention and its 
use for such purpose. 

Let us now for a moment consider the 
materials used in the infancy of writing, as 
well as in its progress toward its maturity. 

The writing of the ancient Hebrews and 
the Egyptian hieroglyphics were cut in 
stone with bronze chisels, The arrow- 
headed inscriptions of the Babylonians, 
Medes, Persians and Assyrian?, when carved 
ill rocks, were cut with bronze chisels. The 
same characlers on bricks may have been 
made when the material was in a plastic 

Stone, lead, brass, ivory and wood were 
all writing materials, and required pens with 
sharp and hard points. 

'In later times, leather was used by the 
Jews; linen, silk, skins of serpents and 
fishes by the Greeks and parchment by the 

Papyrus was in eariy use by the Egyp- 
tians, and eventually found its way amoLg 
the European nations, where it continued in 
general use until about the end of the 
seventh century, and was then superseded by 
parchment and vellum, except that for a 
lime it was used for correspondence. 

Its use continued by the Popes until the 
twelfth century. 

Parchment is said to have been used by 
Emmenes, King of Pergamos. two and u 
half centuries before the (Miristian era. 

From the beginning of the eighth century 
until a comparatively recent period, parch- 
ment and vellum were most highly es- 
teemed, and ofttimes difllcult to obtain in 
sufficient quantities by the nations of Europe 
as well as portions of the East. 

The natives of India, at the present day. 
write on the palm leaf with a stylus re- 
sembling a long darning needle. In writing 
they use the forefinger of the left hand as a 
wriiing desk, around which they fold the 
leaf upon which they write. 

The Arab uses a similar instrument, with 
which he iuficribcs his signature on tho 
shoulder blade of a sheep. 

Of pens we may enumenite in the order 
of their use the chisel, the reed, the quill, 
the gold and the steel pen. 

The mode of using the chisel was but lit- 
tle like that of the modern pen. The sty- 
lus was a dangerous instnimcnt, not un- 
worthy of its progeny the Italian stiletto. 


i l>y order of the Kmptror Jiilino tliat 
refugee bishop who had set up 
ft school at Home, was marlyred by bis 
scholars wilb the stylus, nud Cajsar, in full 
senate, seized and pierced the arms of Cns- 
sius with his stylus. 

Tbe monks of tbe Middle Ages employed 
both reed and quill pens, as they had need 
for broad or narrow lines. 

Tbe calamus, or reed pen, is still used in 
its native place. Egypt, but better reeds are 
found on tbe Persian Gulf, where they are 
gathered in the month of March and im- 
mersed in fermenting manure for a period 
of six months. This coats them with the 
yellow or black varnish for whicb they are 

The first mention of a (juill pen is by St 
Isidore, of Seville, who lived about tbe mid- 
die of the seventh century. It gradually 
came to be the principal instrument of 
writing, and its use continued to be general 
until superseded by the sleel pen about a 
half century since. 

Tbe first metal pen, properly so-called, 
mentioned in bislory, was tbe gold pen of 
the famous writing master, Teter Bales, of 
Queen Elizabeth's time. 

The first steel pen was manufactured in 
1803, since which time constant improve- 
ments have been made until nowiisuseis 

In China a hair pencil is used wilb India 

The diamond-pointed pen, although 
usually ranked as a modern combination, 
seems to have been known away beyond the 
memory of the oldest inhabitani, for tlie 
prophet Jeremiah uses the expression. 
" written with a pen of iron and with the 
point of a diamond." 

Of ink, a poet has said: 

" Hard lliat Ills name it slimild not Fave. 
Who first poured forth the sable wave," 

The most ancient ink, Sepia, has been 
found in the solid rock where it had re- 
mained for a hundred thousand years and 
yet possessing all the qualities of the color- 
ing matter of the cuttle-fish of to-day. 

The Spartans used Sepia for making in- 
scriptions on sarcophagi. 

Tbe ink of the ancients was usually a pre- 
paration of lampblack and a gum. Dios- 
corides gives the proportions. 3 of soot to 1 
of gum. This was formed into cakes or 
rolls and tempered with water when it was 
to be used. 

In the excavations at Herculaneum an 
inkstand was unearthed which contained an 
ink perfectly preserved. 

The Roman emperors used a very expen- 
sive red ink in writing signatures, and its 
use was prohibited to all others except that 
their sons if of adult age could use it-, other- 
wise they must have recourse to greeu ink. 

The ancient Romans frequently com- 
plained that their ink did not flow freely, 
and they sometimes gave vent to expressions 
closely bordering on profanity, in conse- 

Charlemagne signed his charters and ordi- 
nances by "dipping the thumbof his dexter 
glove into a fluid resembling Day & Martin's 
Superior Blacking, and dabbing it boldly 
on to the royal sheepskin." 

The old rule of thumb, without the glove 
was deservedly popular as a signature, and, 
although not specially ornamental yet an 
impression made from the thumb with its 
varied lines would at all times be more diffi- 
cult to duplicate than any signature executed 
with pen and ink. In fact it could be done 
only by the original thumb. 

The sign of tbe cross, used by persons 
who could not write, is said to have origin- 
ated during the Crusades, and was originally 
made with the blood of the signer. It was 
subsequently used wilb the signature to 
further attest to its sacredness. 

Among tbe many kings and emperors 
who could not write a signature it is said 
that Theodoric, king of the Ostrogoths, 
was so illiternte and stupid that during the 
ten years of his reign, he was not able to 
write four letters. The letters were cut 
for him in a plate of gold and the plate 
being laid on paper, lie then traced out the 
letters with a quill. 

The Emperor Justin used a piece of wood 
with letters cut for tbe same purpose, but 
in addition to this aid he was compelled to 
employ a secretary to guide bis hand. 

Signatures were written with but little 

regard to orthographical uniformity, a sort 
of go as-you-please style, and this coniinued 
at least to the time of Queen Elizabeth. 

We have thus hastily glanced at the sev- 
eral branches of our subject and have been 
compelled by limited space to omit much 
that would tend to make the subject sym- 
metrical and, as in the subject matter, so in 
tbe illustrations we limit oui-selvcs to two 
names showing alphabetical forms, as used 
at two periods remote from each other — the 
first that of Darius, one of tbe Persian kings 
who reigned between four and five hundred 
years before our era, and the second the sig- 
nalure of king " Henry of Navarre." The 
latter is given as among the later signatures, 
the lelters of which are disjoined. This sig- 
nature proved a successful one, as consider- 
able sums of money were borrowed upon it, 
but when the time came for payment, the 
man like the letters of the signature, "failed 
to connect." 

In No. 3 we reproduce a connected, flow- 
ing and somewhat elaborate signature char- 
acteristic of the writing of that age, from 
Bickbara's " Universal Penman," published 
in 1743, for the purpose of contrasting it 
with the very simple disccnnected signature 
of " Ilcnry of Navarre," and also for com- 
parison with those of to-day. 

We also present /(7^*(>/(t7c« of those of John 
Hancock, Stephen Girard, and John Jacob 
Astor, tbe first of these as a good example of 
a vigorous, determined, undoubting and per- 
fectly legible hand ; the others as showing 
varieties of the paraph or flourish prevailing 
in the past century but which is rarely seen 
at the present day. 

Tbe essential element of all signatures as 
far as penmanship goes is legibility, and the 
four following, numbered 7, 8, 9, 10, are 
examples of its utter absence. There are, 
however, a few people having the happy 
faculty of being able to solve the most puz- 
zling examples of crude, awkward or indis- 
tinct cbirograpby. There are also a (fortu- 
nately) limited number of persons who easily 
decipher the indecipherable. To Ihree of 
this latter clafs the aforementioned four sig- 
natures were shown, and they were "read 
like print," although the result was a num- 
ber of renderings corresponding to tbe num- 
ber of readers ; and we here take pleasure in 
Slating that the author of the supposed sig- 
natures, when writing them, did not intend 
them to represent the names of any individ- 
uals, either past, present or prospective. 

The signature of F. E. Spinner might be 
appropriately classed with this group, as 
illegible, although it resulted from years of 
labor in perfecting it and was intended to bo 
proof against all the machinations of the 
emissaries of the "evil one" who might 
attempt to forge it, but there is scarcely a 
penman in tbe country who has not suc- 
ceeded in making very accurate copies of it. 

Nos. 12, 13, 14. 15, 16, are designs for sig- 
natures executed by tbe writer of this article, 
some of which are too much like the famous 
Mark Checkup style to be wholly practical 
in business. 

The remaining signatures, except the last, 
will be recognized as those of " Knights of 
the Quill" more or less celebrated (gen- 
erally more), throughout the civilized worid, 
all of which are inimitable. 

Of the last signature we have only to say 
or sing, — " as the case may be," — 
The scrawl of Mark Chetkup, 
Should all of us take up. 

And follow la teaohlntf at school; 
Our bright pupils amazed. 
By such llnoe would be dazed. 
And perehaace call the teacher a f . 

nanship Definitions. 

Inasmuch as a large number of the Jour- 
nal readers are teachers of penmanship, I 
take the responsibility of presenting a few 
penmanship definitions. These delinitions 
are perhaps not Infallible, nor exhaustive, 
but it is possible that they may be of some 
value to tbe younger members of the frater- 
nity who may unexpectedly have some brain- 
bewildering question propounded to them, 
and with which they might be able to grapple 
to betlei; advantage after having read and 
considered these definitions and remarks. 

1. Penmanship (h the art of expresning idem 

hy means of characters executed with pen 

Senmi-ks. — Tbe term penmanship is also 
applied to the assemblage of characters thus 

Docs the definition include flourishing and 
pen drawing? In flourishing a bird or draw- 
ing a chair, do we express ideas? What 
about blackboard work, is it penmanship? 
Let us have some reports on this definition. 

2. WniTiMG is the art of expressing ideas by 

means of script characters execuU-d with 
pen, pencil, or crayon, or with t/ieir sub- 
Bemarks. — If a romantic lover writes the 
name of his fair one on the sands of the 
seashore with his finger, or in the beautiful 
snow with a stick, his finger and the stick 
respectively may be considered as substi- 
tutes for pen, pencil or crayon. 

How does this definition stand in relation 
to shorthand ? 

3. Plain PENMANsnir is writing adapted to 

the ordinary a^vrs of life. 
Remarks. — This definition does not neces- 
sarily mean that Horace Greeley's writing 
should come under the head of ornamental 

4. Artistic, or Ornamental Penmansiiit 

isthat in irliick ornamentation andbeaiity, 
as well as legibility/, are essentials. 

5. Movement is the action oftJie arm, hand, 

and fingers in executing fonns which the 
mind dictates. 

6. Muscui.AR Mo^'EMENT M tite cmitbined 

and simultaneous action of the ai^m, hand 
and fingers while vyriting, tke arm rest 
being stationary, and the hand rest 
Iiema/rks.—\t is certainly a fact that no 
practical, rapid writing can be executed 
with ease and facility with eilher a so called 
purely forearm, or purely finger movement. 
It is also a fact that much of the quarreling 
about movements is caused by a misuuder- 
standing or a misconstruction of the term, 
" muscular movemenl." I don't think it is 
best to leach that the muscular movement is 
simply the action of the arm with the fingers 
kept quiet or rigid, as this invariably leads 
to a stiff and distressingly awkward move- 
ment. It may be well enough in the initia- 
tory exercises to order tbe pupil to keep his 
fingers quiet and produce the forms by 
means of the rolling action of the arm only, 
in order to break up bis excessive finger 
movement. But after the pupil understands 
thoroughly, and has acquired this rolling 
arm motion, it is better for him to know 
that an auxilliary action of tbe fingers is per- 
missible ; but he should also bemadeto un- 
derstand distinctly that he must keep up a 
continuous arm motion, and that the hand 

must slide continually on the corner of the 

nails of the third and fourth Angers. 

7. WnoLRAHM Movement is the eoinbined 

and simultaneoux action of the urm, hand, 

and fingers while writing, t/ie arm being 

raised so that there is no arm rest. 

Itemarks. — Tbe only difference between 

muscular and wholearm is that in wholearm 

writing the arm is raised. 
Let us hear fromthosewhoknow whether 

wholearm should always precede muscular 

as an essential aid in developing the latter 

8 F[N.;i u ATit\ iMiN'T is the iTidependent ac- 
ti.n. :'i //'. //' '/if' and the first and second 
liii' ,r:>ii, irn'iing. both the arm rest 
.iNii h.tu'i r,nf 'in'ng stationary. 

9. A Line is the path of a moving point. 
Hemarks. — Inasmuch as all writing is 

made up of lines, it seems proper that tbe 
pupil should know what a line is. The 
above definition, while used in malbemalics, 
is especially applicable in penmanship, inas- 
much as the pen producing tbe lines in 
writing is a " pointed" instrument, and the 
words " moving point " suggest the impor- 
tance of movement. 

10. A Stuaiqiit Line is one that doei not 
change its direction at any point. 

11. A Curved Line w one that changes its 
direction at eeery point. 

12. A RianT Curve w one haning its convex 
side either toward the right or downwa/rd. 

13. A Left Curve is one having its convex 
side either toward tfte left or upward. 

14. A CoMFOUKD Curve is t7ie vnion of the 
right and left curves i?i a wave line. 

Remarks. — To say a "compound curve" 
is somewhat indefinite, as it does not desig- 
nate whicb lines comes first. To make it 
more definite, tbe terms. "Right-and-left," 
or "Left-and-right," may be used. 

15. A HoRizoNTAi, Straight Line is one 
that is parallel with the base line. 

Remarks. — We cannot very well say that 
a horizontal line in writing is one that is 
level, or parallel with the horizon, because 
it is not true. Tbe base line must serve as 
a standard for determining tbe position of 
the other lines. 

16. A HoiiizoNTAL Curve is one whose €3>- 
tremitirs may be connected by a horieontal 
straight line. 

17. A Vertical Sthaight Line is one at 
right angles to the base line. 

18. A YEmiCAh CvRVE is one whose extrem- 
ities maybe connected by a vertical straight 

19. An Oblk^ue Line is one that i 
vertical nor horizontal. 

{To be continued.) 


Esthetics of Penmanship. 

There is much shallow criticism in this 
world, and it is not surprising that some 
part of it has been directed against Ihe orna- 
mental in penmanship. 

Many men seem to think that utility is 
the only quality deserving of recognition. 
Such men would probably prefer a drum- 
head cabbage to a jacqueminot rose, or a 
patch of potatoes to a bed of pansies as 
ornaments for their front yard. Tbey are 
ever ready to cry out against the artistic 
beauties which ibc skilled pen artist may 
produce. Beauty is just as really a qualily 
in penmanship as utility, and deserves equal 
recognition ; and while men are constituted 
as they now are. beauty hos a pecuniary 
value. Pecuniary considerations are by no 
means tbe highest, but they are the only 
ones that appeal to some men. 

The man never has and never wilUive 
who is not in some measure susceptible to 
the power of beauty. Even those who criti- 
cise the ornamental in penmanship are not 
exceptions to this rule, despite their assever- 

ana cornict^- i; i Mryone prac- 
tically recuLiiu . I).. I:: m( beauty and 
practically <i.i, ,;. ;. . ,,,i^ a pecuniary 
value. TIjL'iL u-. iu> ic.i...<ii why the beautie's 
ii pen artist imparts to a sheet of engrossing 
should form an exception, and in point of 
fact they do not. 

People of cultivated ta.ites rightly recog- 
nize this quality in its rc({uirements, and 
carping critics simply exbihit their own 
ignorance and folly. 

Tully, N. Y. 


Compendiums and Copy-Books. 

Mr. Klnin.lB T.Mh « hut He Ki.ou^ 
Them ntul What Hi- Thinks.. 

Editor of tTie Journal :— I Lave read with 
coDsiderablc interest the comments made 
both forand against Gasketl's Compendium. 
Iluving hcen to an extent a "Compendium 
boy" myself, prolmbiy my experience will 
be of interest to most of the readers of the 
Journal. Like Mr. Vogel, I had a taste 
for fine penmanship and ten years ago, at 
fourteen years of age, I was probably as 
poor a writer as the majority, as speqimeus 
enclosed will show. When Gaskell's Com- 
pendium fell into my Iiands, using Mr. 
Vogel's words, "1 was siniply fascinated 
with the endless variety of work placed be- 
fore me," and I immediately went " hard at 
it " to become as fine a writer as the auto- 
graphs I had seen in the Pemnan'H Oasette. 
After practicing for some time, I acquired 
a regular Mark Checkup style in its general 
make up, as some of the enclosed writing, 
executed at the lime, will show. Unfor- 
tunately (or rather fortunately) I loaned it 
to a friend, and have never seen it since. 
This ended my experience with Gaskell's 

But now what I wish to say in favor of 
Gaskell's Compendium is that it gave me 
a freedom of movement (probably a little 
too free) which otherwise I might not have 
obtained. Now my opinion is that Gaskell's 
Compendium is only good so far as move- 
ment is concerned ; the crude and endlessly 
varied capitals have the appearance of being 
executed rapidly, hence every one practic- 
ing from the Compendium will endeavor to 
do it rapidly, and at the expense of form ; 
for surely there is no form or rather system 
about it. 

While writing the M. C. style, I placed 
myself under Prof. Flickinger, also sub- 
scribed for the .liJUHNAL, and two years 
afterwards my writing underwent a favor- 
able change which you will notice also by 
the writing enclosed. Since then I have 
improved, till my wriliug is as you see it 
now, though I candidly believe my writing 
would be far different, had I not, to the 
best of my ability, obliterated the style 
acquired from the Compendium. 

Now, lastly, have not the copy-books for 
years past been at fault, with their fault- 
lessly exact copies, between ruled linen f The 
learner invariably endeavoring to imitate 
copy, must necessarily use a cramped finger 
movement, and iu nine cases out of ten 
comes to the conclusion that good writers 
are born and not made. This is simply 
because he was not taught a free movement 
from the first, which when acquired, and 
seeing how easily it was executed, he Omi 
should combine the movement with correct 
forms, or in other words, movement first 
and form combined afterwards. 

I was exceedingly pleased while at the 
Business Educators' Convention in examin- 
ing "Spencer Brothers' New Copy-Books." 
They are everything one could desire, the 
writing being a free and graceful running 
hand combined with perfect letters, giving 
it the appearance of being executed rapidly, 
and therefore the very best books on |)en- 
manship for the learner I have ever seen. 
When I was attending school, the writing 
had the appearance of being drawn, hence 
most scholars left school with an awkward, 
stiff, school-boy hand, which we now so 
often see on every side. 

I am not a teacher by profession though I 
do give private lessons. My experience has 
been that most of those who come under 
my iiistni. linn invariably write a cramped 
nii-ii iiiovi iii.m, ,ind I have seen the most 
Il.itiriiii- itshIi- in most every case where I 
hm. -i\,ii iiii Li] plenty of movement ex- 
erciiis liyhl rroiii the first, discarding for 
awhile the forms and formations of letters ■ 
and it is rarely that pupils do not become 
Interested. To use their own words, they 
" did not know it was so easy, as they had 
never been taught to begin that way. " 

In the foregoing I have endeavored to 
convey to the reader that Gaskell's Com- 
pendium is movemcm without form, while 

The Power of Acquiring:. 

The power of acquiring quickly and well 
is a distinctive trail of the American people. 
It seems to be our natural inheritance. From 
the hour when an American child begins to 
talk, straight on through the entire educa- 
tional process, the power of acquisition 
manifests itself in a remarkable degree. In- 
deed, so rapid are the unfoldings, the de- 
velopment of a child's mind with us, that 
we are outgrowing the old methods of 
education. The child seems to grasp intui- 
tively much that was formerly arrived at 
by slow, mechanical processes. For in- 
stance, American children nowadays learn 
to read by the " word method," — taking in 
a whole word at a glance, instead of analyz- 
ing it into ils separate letters. In fact, the 
English alphabet in this country to-day, as 
a basis for instruction, is almost as much a 
collection of "dead letters" iis the Greek 

avail themselves of it, over past ages and 
other peoples. 

One can hardly fail to remark how rapid- 
ly young men in this country mature ; how 
readily and naturally they assume places of 
trust and responsibility. To what can this 
be due, if not to the extraordinary power of 
acquisition, which is becoming a marked 
characteristic of the American people t Our 
youth are quick to apprehend, quick to 
learn, quick to make practical application 
of what they acquire. 

This is particularly and noticeably true, 
I think, of young penmen. Is there any 
class which can show so many beardless 
young men— boys, one would almost call 
them — holding places of high responsibility 
and importance in the leading business 
houses of the land ? I had the pleasure 
recently of glancing over a gallery of por- 
traits of young men who had graduated 
from one of our leading business colleges, 
had obtained responsible and trustworthy 
positions all over the country, and gladly 
embraced the opportunity of testifying to 
the good which they bad received from 

An Illinois View 

Of r<int|ieiuUiims. Copy Hooka, "Rapid 
Wrltliig," CraiikH, Ktc. 

Ediiorofthe Journal: — It has been my 
good fortune to have been a subscriber to 
this valuable assistant and teachers' guide 
for the past two years, and I must say that 
it would be hard to find a publication that 
performs its mission so admirably and well 
as does the Journal. 

There has been a great deal said upon the 
Compendium question of late, and while 
Gaskell's Compendium has been the means 
of helping a great many in learning the art, 
yel I never could see anything very desir- 
able or practical in it. especially as every 
one is awa're there are better compendiums 
to be had for the same money. One would 
suppose, from statements made by some 
that there is nothing in its line equal to 
Gaskell's. I hope they will get their eves 

' biased mind.' 

The copy books have also been attacked 
in many ways, and. I think, in many cases 
unscrupulously and unjustly. Copy books 
have their mission and in such they should 
be considered. While it is better, when 
possible, to have written copies for learners, 
j-et when they are not to be had. what is to 

. NUMBER *'i>^'^. J;0^-i%;^ DK0Xd\v^ 

'^i/uf/^e^iry/ yy/ // 1 c/i/d^Jifi/ny 

c?/:J r/-it /^/ 


/ / 


O^ ^.. 

y ,-ryy^--" 







20^ &drQ6.^ysjby gor- Walton, ^tr^ct * 



in the pmf.-vion, I: 
perience, may be h 
though my opinion is 
Brothers' Copy Booki 

id should be adopted a: 

•tter able to decide, 

that the Ne%v Spencer 

long felt 



r schools. 

C. H. Ki3 

The same tendency is manifesting itself 
moreextensivelyin what is called the "new" 
or " Quincy method" of teaching, the 
Froebel or kindergarten method, etc.; the 
principle underlying all these systems being 
simply to let the natural workings of the 
child's mind take the lead, while the teacher 
follows with pertinent example and in- 

This power of acquisition, at once natural 
and cultivated, is the secret of the extra- 
ordinary advance of the American people 
in every department of modem science, art. 
learning and practical achievement. Young 
as we are as a people, we are rapidly taking 
the lead in every direction in which human 
effort is expended. And it is well that our 
young men especially— those who are com- 
ing up to lake the places of the leaders of 
to-day— should understand the advantage 
which they have, or may have if they only 

their alma maUyr. The faces were, iu the 
main, remarkably youthful, in some cases 
boyish ; but they all had that bright, inde- 
pendent, aggressive look which characterizes 
young America everywhere. It was evident 
that they had cultivated their natural 
powers of acquisition to the best advantage; 
naturally gifted, they had made the most of 
themselves, and won a position from which 
all the prizes of life lie within their grasp. 

If all others who possess Itie same God- 
given power should follow their example, 
there would bt- no failures, no bitter dis- 
appointments, in the struggle of life. But 
to make the most of one's self requires 
energy, devotion, sacrifice. The prizes are 
not for those who snatch at them, but for 
those who strive for ibem. A man may 
have the highest power for acquiring, and 
yet not acquire. It all depends upon our- 

1 the 

he great 

vihu seems (<i run down 
is nut his own work ; and 
got out copy hooks of his 

they have been 

one horse blow 

everything that 

now I see he ha; 

own make up, which will 'cast a "black 

shadow " on everything yet devised. I 

wonder bow he intends to prove bis great, 

great statemcuis. and what will be his cry 

next Probably it will be that he is the 

only penman now alive. I sav, just dues to 

such selfsuflicicncy and crankyism. 

Some are trying to make us believe that a 
child can be taught to write from the start 
at the astouishing rate of twenty words per 
minute. What kind of scrawls would they 
be in three months? How many "penmen 
are there who will sanction such a "false 
outlay " of wind V Give us facts or give 
us nothing. Make statements that are 
bounds of reason, and keep on 

the right side of 

E. G. BAunows. 

Mcndota, 111. Bueinens College. 

past wbi 

p-jcled to " sit find aiug Ibemselves away lo 
evcrliisiiiig Miss." The work to be done is 
urfTCDt. imd (ieioauds energy. The old medi- 
tjilivf eni of scclusioB bas passed, and a iiew 
em of aclion is upon us. It is useless to spec- 
ulate as to the comparative values of the dif- 
ferent epochs through which the world has 
passed, whether this is a worse or better age 
than the past, and whether it would not be 
well to fight the prevailing spirit of the times. 
A torrent of thought and action is rushing 
past US; whence it came, or whither it is 
going, is not our question. We must act 
just now, in accordance with the current. 
All mournings and lamentations are fruit- 
less. ' ' Get up and go to work !" ' 'Go and 
do something !" " What can you do ?" 
These are the sentences we hear^on all sides. 
Tli(j wise man heeds them. The fools pass 
on and arc punished. — Teadier'a Institute, 
jV. r. 

Wave the Dancjer Signal !— No, no, 
success is not reckoned by the millions a 
man has acquired. One may have become 
rich whose career has seemed a poor, mis- 
erable failure Rank ! and riches ! These 
are the two rails along which it is supposed 
by some, every train is now to run. I tell 
you there are more wrecks on the railroad 
construcled in that way, than upon any 
railroad ever built in this broad land.— iJ/-. 
John Hall 

Drawing as a Training Exercise. — 
Popular opinion appears to consider draw- 
ing purely as an accomplishment. This is a 
popular fallacy. Tlie earliest eflforts of a 
child with a pencil are attempts to represent 
things. There is scarcely a person in Topeka 
but has more use for ability to draw than 
for ability to repeat the rules of syntax,* to 
solve i)robleuis in tlie " rule of three," or to 
describe tbe vegetation of the table laud of 
Thibet. Yet school time is willingly given 
to the latter and denied to the former. — D. 
C. Tillotaon, 7'opeka, Knnti. 

The Bright Fiuii op Human Impulse. 
— Enthusiasm is a Are that glows in every 
successful man. In fact, it is one of the 
strongest factors of success. A man with- 
out enthusiasm is an engine without steam. 
Your train won't move unless the water is 
boiling. Carry a full head of steam, young 
friends. Time and experience will tone 
down any excess. Don't bank the fires in 
your furnace. Don't try to be a conserva 
live old man while you are young. Kaiher 
keep your furnace hot till old a>;e, and imi- 
tate that grand old man, who approaching 
the eighties, rides at the front of the hottest 
battle in Great Britain during this genera- 
tion, challenging the gaze of the world, and 
shaking the Empire of Iler Majesty with the 
force of his enthusiasm. Enthusiasm is the 
driving force of character. There are ener- 
gies slumbering in you that may prove 
mighty if once kindled by enthusiasm. En- 
thusiasm makes strong men ; wakes up 
latent powers ; arouses unsuspected re- 
sources of ability ; sustains prolonged en- 
(Ivavors ; and renders possible the achieve- 
ment of purposes demanding unwearied 
energies. It generates the invincible im- 
pulses that hurl manhood on noble achieve- 
ments. Men of enthusiasm have been the 
life of church and state, science and pbilos- 
opUy. art and music, business and reform. 
No man accomplishes much without it ; all 
achieve more with M.—Itec. J. 0. Peck to 
Graduates of Peirce liitainem College, Phila. 

Learning as You Go.— It will not hurt 
you, boys and girls, to learn a little accurate 
geography by looking up these places be- 
fore going on with the story; and if I were 
your schoolmaster instead of your story 
teller, I should stop here to advise vou al- 
ways to look on the map for every town, 
river, lake, mountain, or other geographical 
thing mentioned in any book or paper you 
read. I would advise you, too, if I were 

schoolmaster, lo add up all the figures 
iven in books ami newspapers, to see if the 
/ritcrs bave made any mistakes ; and it is 
good plan, loo. to go at once to the dic- 
(lonanj wbon you meet a word you do not 
quite comprehend, or the encyclopiedia or 
history, or whatever else is bandy, whenever 
you read about anything you would tike to 
know more about. — Edward Eggleston. 

Tots Hits the Bull's Eye.— Education 
should include he whole man — nead, heart 
and body; upiightness of character and 
figure, breadth of scholarship and shoulder. 
—Ocorge Washington Hess, Baker University. 

A Teacher's First Requ site. The 
men who often profess to teach may be able 
to show bow to add and subtract, to read 
and to write; but, oh ' tliey fail to editct the 
living stamen, to insert the moral and refin- 
ing pabulum. 1 am convinced that no one 
hut a gentlfntan or lady is fit to teach school. 
No man who is not a gentleman — yea, after 
Lord Chesterfield — is fit to be a teacher. He 
must know more than to teach arithmetic, 
or geography, or the classics, or the sciences, 
or logic or morality; a rough Christian will 
not do. He must be a gentleman ifl Instincts, 
in manners, in ideas, in his intercourse. — 
Wm. Cattett in N. C. Teacher. 

Womanly Women.— We detest the man- 
nish girl, who regrets the fact that she was 
born a girl; who often wishes that she were 
a man; who breaks loose ns early as possible 
from womanly lines of life ; who dresses as 
much like a man as she dares ; who sneers 
at domesticity, at womanhood, and wife- 
hood, and motherhood. She tries to look 
and talk and carry herself like a man, has 
a touch of the fop in her tone, and is, as she 
deserves to be, a laughing stock for both 
girls and boys. Away with such uunatunil 
and pitiable specimens of the sex ! Give us 
girls who are glad and proud to be girls ; 
who remember what woman has done in 
literature, in art, in science, in the church, 
and above all as mothers in the home, and 
who esteem themselves hoiiored of heaven 
in that they are girls, and not boys. For 
such womanly girls we have high hope, and 
for the society and families in which such 
girls live we have words of hearty congratu- 
lation. They are a blessing now in early 
girlhood, with their joyous, loving, and art- 
less ways, wise speeches and dawning beauty, 
and they will be a greater blessing in the 
later years when age has crowned them, and 
when lovers, and then husbands, and Ihen 
children gather about them for counsel and 
comfort. Blessed are womanly women ! 
And thrice blessed are their fathers,brothers, 
husbands, sons \—Dr. J. H. Vincent. 

Results in School Work.— A stick that 
lies sizzling among its associates in the tire 
gives no light or heat. It is like a person 
who is constantly complaining about others. 
Light and heat come from vigorous burning. 
Good teaching comes from activity and good 
preparation added to native gifts. A good 
stick of wood, thoroughly dried, burns well 
with no snapping. Good native talent, well 
prepared by training and experience, gives 
excellent results in school work.— TV. Y. 
School Journal. 

The Glory of America. — America is 
the only country which spends more money 
upon education than on war or the prepara- 
tion for war. Great Britain does not spend 
one-third as much. France not one-ninth, 
or Russia one-twenty-ninth on education as 
on tbe army. The free common-school sys- 
tem of (he land is, probably, after all, the 
greatest single power in the edifying pro- 
cess which is producing tbe new American 
race. Through the crucible of a good com- 
mon English education, furnished free by 
tbe State, pass the various racial elements- 
children of Irishmen. Germans, Italians. 
Spaniards and Swedes, side by side with the 
native American, all to be fused into one. in 
language, in thought, in feeling and in pa- 
triotism. The Irish boy loses his brogue, 
and the German child learns English. Tbe 
sympathies suited to the feudal systems of 
Europe, which they inherit from their 
fathers, pass off as dross, leaving behind the 
pure gold of a noble political creed : " All 
such, are elected free and equal." — From 
Andrew Carnegie's " Tnuir^hant D&tno- 

It will be tbe aim of this department to 
present matters of interest to learners and 
experts in phonography. Although tbe Mun- 
son system will be the standard recognized, 
in the lessons and generally, yet all systems 
of shorthand and of short processes will he 
given just consideration and treated with 
courtesy and liberality. 

A series of lessons on How to Study 
Phonography will he given in the regular 
issues — of which the installment in the 
present number is an indication. 

The department will have tbe sympathy 
and active aid of Mr. Munson, both in re- 
porting work from his pen and in hints and 
suggestions on all topics of interest to 
shorthand writers. 

Also oF Mr, .1. N. Kimball. Principal 
of Packiii'lV Sin II 11 1, 1 ml Sihool, and former 
editor <it / ' '"</ Iteporta: Mr. 

Kimbair^ ...■; ■ ,. !. ■ forms are the 
admiralii i i!i jn n n. ;il pbonographers. 

Proper spacefill he g'iven to shorthand 
news items, to answers to correspondents, 
and articles and suggestions from practical 
writers etc. 

In short, it will he the aim of the con- 
ductor to make this page, month by month, 
interesting and instructive to tbe readers of 
the Journal, and of value to the profession. 

The Study of Phonography. 

With a fair knowledge of English and an 
honest desire to learn, any person of ordi- 
nary ability should be able to . 
master phonography, and to n P 
attain sufficient speed therein 
to make good use of it in busi- \ j 
ness. It can be learned from 
books alone, but much time / 
may be saved and discourage- 
ment avoided by having a 

competent teacher. The les- ^ 

sons here given are intended 
to help those who are with- 
out a teacher. They do not ; j^ 
seek to supersede the text- 
book but merely to supple- , . 
ment it. The system used is 
Mvmson's, and the principles 
are those laid down in the •' ^ 
Munson text-book, which it would be well 
for the student to possess. 

length and curve, and of placing the vowels 
propcriy. You should have no thougbt of 
speed in writing, neither should you allow 
your pencil to stop midway in writing a 
word to consider how it is to be finished. 
Form a picture of the complete word in 
your mind before you begin to write it, then 
write without halting. Let all thinking be 
done between words. Do not make heavy 
lines light at first and retouch them; but 
shade with a single stroke, and write a 
shaded stroke just as quickly as a light 
one. If you cannot do this, after a little 
practice, your materials are not what they 
should be. A slovenly, careless style of 
writing at the beginning will lead to serious 
trouble in deciphering illegible phonography 
as you advance. 

1. In phonography each sound has a 
character to represent it. The consonant 
sounds are represented by straight and 
curved strokes, the long vowels by heavy 
dots and dashes, tbe short vowels by lieht 
dots and dashes, the diphthongs by two 
dashes joined. 

^^ ^ 

Aside from ihe test-book the only materi- 
als required are a pencil, or pen, and ink and 
paper. If a pencil is used, tbe paper should 
be neither too hard nor too smooth but with 
a surface tliat will sufficiently resist the 
point. For pencil writing, reporter's note- 
books containing nioety-si.\ pages, ten inches 
long and four inches wide, may be bought 
for from 60 to 75 cents a dozen. They are 
bound in brown paper, open at the ends 
and ruled in red. Red ruling is preferable 
to blue. A pad or loose sheets of paper 
may be u.sed instead of the book, but if 
desirable to preserve the work for reference 
the book is better. The pencil should be 
so soft that a shaded stroke can be made 
with as much ease and speed as a light one. 
A good gold pen with fountain attachment 
is better than a pencil, though most learners 
and many reporters use the pencil. A fine 
steel pen should never be used. It is well 
to practice with both jjcn and pencil. The 
ink should be dark, without sediment, and 

To ge*. the best results it is important to 
devote a certain time to the study each day 
It is far better to study or practice fifteen 
minutes a day than to employ three hours 
at one time and tlien lay aside the book for 
a week, The necessity for much careful 
reading cannot he too strongly urged. 
Many would-be learners have failed to 
master the art because they did not under- 
stand the value of reading. If the perfect 
forms become familiar before you attempt 
to write without a copy, you will not only 
make fewer blunders but be able to see your 
blunders and correct them. This is import- 
ant if you have no teacher to examine your 
work. Acquire a habit at the outset of 
making the consonant outlines exact, in 

4. Words to illustrate the sounds of tbe 
vowels and diphthongs : 

Long vowels. — Pa made me oil those 

87iort vowels.— Auu sat tt on Sum's foot. 
Diphtlionga.—My joys hojo teiB. 

5. Study the consonant stems, bearing in 
mind that these characters as well as the 
vowel signs represent sounds, not letters. 

6. While tbe consonant sounds have each 
an exact representative, the vowel scale is 
not perfect, though suflicieut for practical 

a. The third heavy dot represents the 
sound of e in me, and of ea in hear. 

b. The first light dot represents the 
sound of « in at. a in care, ai in fair. 

c. The second light dot represents the 
sound of c in met, e in her, i in sir. 

7. Consonant stems have three positions : 
(I) above the line, (2) on the line, (3) through 
or under the line. 


,..X.l^-,.^....™ ^...,^.. 

8. Vowels and diphthongs have tlu-e*^ 
places : (1) at the beginning, (2) middle, and 
(3) end of the c 

'VII /" - 

V^J <J> 

\ \ 'L 1 >r 

0. The position of the consonant stem 
determined by the place of the vowel ( 

- r 

.\^.-n:. .x_;r -.>\..^ ^../>. 

10. In words haviug two or more vowel 
sounds, the accented vowel governs the po- 
sition of the consonant stem. 

11. When you have become somewhat 
familiar with the consooant stems, vowels 
and diphthongs, and have learned to associ- 
ate them with the sounds they represent, 
traoslate Lesson I. The translation should 
be made in writing. If the reporter's note 
book is used, two columns of words may be 
written on each page. Beginning on first 
page, write on alternate pages, and when 
they are full, turn the book so as to bring 
the blank pages next you, and write throuch 
again in the same manner. Thus there will 
be no space wasted and no necessity for 
moving or folding the book at every change 
of page. Copy each phonographic charac- 
ter precisely as you find it as to size, shad- 
ing and position, and write the longhand 
equivalent after it. Write the sentences at 
the end of the lesson across the page on 
alternate lines with the translation below. 

12. Do not copy !i |.li.ino,<;ni|)bic outline 
until you know \Ut.ii iini.l ii ir|,n--ents, 
else you will belilo i ; , ..rrrctly. 

13. Always win. ■ ■ ■ i- lirst. 

14. Write hori/iniN -;. .,, ;.. li, Irft to 
right, T^and the i,li;u;-Ui . uui U;i 7; upward. 
(R is written at an nu-Ic of yu- from the line 
to distinguish it from CH), all the other 
stems downward. 



l...tJ..Z...)-A x..J:3. 






^ 'S -T 


A.. ■, An or And... The ......All . . 

O Oil or Owe ../-- A-we ..'.. 1 .... 


.^....,..i(r.., y.'^ ^^ 

ev-'-v-v ■ 

^.^.^. A ,..VC. :^^.^ 

Remarks on Mr. Munson's Court 

In my court notes furnished for this num- 
ber of the Journal, there are a few things 
that require explanation, and among ibem 
the new ticks for af, to and who-m, which 
are introduced. 

' ■ Of. '* — Written tPith a light tick sign in tJte 
first position, and ttandxng to the right. 

It has been found in practice that the gen- 
eral use of proximity for rt^is not. in all res- 
pects, desirable. If a writer pitfcrs to make 
bis word or phrase outliias ijiiiii.' close to- 
gether, proximity interferes, bcrause when 
it prevails everywhere, it cannot be used to 
indicate a particular word. And so in sci- 
entific, or very technical matter, requiring 
great exactness on the part of the stenog- 
rapher, the uncertainty of proximity for of 
is seriously felt. 

To obviate all these objections, and to 
provide a sign, that, at the option of the 

in the sentences " I do not want it." and " I 
do not want to." In sucb cases the tick 
should be used for to. It should also be 
used before horizontal and half length word 
outlines in preference to employing the 
" fourth position." It also enters with ad- 
vantage into certain compounded words, and 
insures a distinction between final to and 
final at. 

" Wno-M. — Written with a heavy tick, in 
the third position, haring the direction of Jay. 

Who, or whoiH may sometimes, with ad- 
vantage, be written with a third place heavy 
tick or dash, inclined like Jay. 

Fuller and more particular rules for the 
use of these tick signs will be given in future 


" Miller." -"FisK," Judge."— The sten- 
ographer, while taking notes, and e.'pecially 
in court, is frequently obliged, for want of 
time, to condense matter that must after- 
wards be extended in full in the transcript. 

Mr. Munson's Court Notes 



7. ^UUi_.. !_;..' 

.*. S'iA. .1.^ 

V. .\_ .._^_.> ...i^.^.J :..Cr"..' 


.v.^.r^. ..u, 


.Cfci LijOf..^.''WSftnMHil....>!^.....*^... 


>-v=^ - 





writer, may almiys be used for o/, Mr. E.N. 
Hobbins, an experienced and expert writer 
of our system, and one of the official stenog- 
raphers of the N. Y. Superior Court, has 
suggested the use of u light tick, in the first 
position, written either downward in the di- 
rection of Chay, or upward in the direction 
of Ree. After thorough trial, this a/ tick is 
found to work admirably. When standing 
alone it is written downward ; but wlien 
joined to other outlines, it may be written 
either upward or downward. It never con- 
fiicis with the sign for the pronoun /. 
Proximity for of is still' retained in the 
system, but its use is curtailed by the 
employment of the ticks. 

'^ 1o."~Writtfn with a tight tick, in Ute 
third position, having t/te direction of Pee. 

The tick sign for to is not so important an 
accession to the system as tlie of tick ; still 
it is sometimes very useful. The reasons 
for its adoptiou are these: While generally 
both it and to may with safely be written 
with the stem Tee, yet sometimes, epecially 
at the cud of a sentence, they do conflict, as 

This is exemplified in the shorthand notes 
here furnished, where simply " IVUller," 
" Fisk " and "Judge " are used, but which 
in the key are transcribed "Mr. Miller," 
"Mr. Fisk" and "The Court." The out- 
line for "Judge" is used in taking notes, 
because it is more quickly written, and is 
more disiinclivc than the forms for the 
words, "The Court." In the transcript it 
is rendered "The Court" when the judge 
simply makes a remark to counsel. When 
he asks two or more questioiis of the wit- 
ness, it is written out " By the Court : " on 
a line by itself. But when only one ques- 
tion is so asked by him. it is rendered " Q. 
(by the Court)." 

For the past four or five years all of my 
transcripts of notes have been prepared on 
the Hemiugton Type Writer, and in the 
next issue I will give full directions on this 
important subject. 

James E. Munson. 

The Journal would be glad to exchange 
with shorthand periodicals of every system. 


Vanderbtlt Spnder. Esq.. 

Theodore K. MiUer. Eaq.. 
Fbr D^endant4 : 

Jamesi M, Fisk, Esq.. 

Clark Bell, Esq., (if Omw 
Mr. Miller— Before opening the o: 
of the death of Salmi Morse. 

lives of Salmi I 

)rlnglDK In the representa- 
1 also object to recelvloR 

y/fd, ami f^eeption taken. 
I marked PlairUig^t exAUftt 

order of prooeedlng may be 

s irrelevant. It 

To Shorthand Writers and 
One feature of this department will be 
the promotion of friendly intercourse be- 
tween shorthand writers, and the gathering 
and disseminating of information relative 
to the art. No effort will be spared to 
make this feature, in the widest sense, effec- 
tive and valuable ; and to this end queries 
and communications are solicited. All such 
communications and all correspondence 
with Ihe phonographic department should be 
addressed to Mrs L. II. Packard. 122 East 
73d Street, New York. 

Mr. A. N. Miner, of the Phonographie 
World, is making himself famous iu solicit- 
ing — and receiving — contributions for a 
Pitman Testimonial from the sbortbaoders 
of America, to grace the celebration of the 
IwiacPitman Anniversary, which will occur 
in Igy", He is the very man to engineer 

Mr. Munsou's contributions to this number 
will be highly appreciated by phonographers 
everywhere." Whoever wishes to know 
what Munson thinks must take the P. A. J. 

The phonographic lesson in this number 
was cut short for want of space, but as the 
series will be continued, the point of break- 
ing from month to month will be of little con- 
sequence. There will be some reference 
however to symmetry in the separate install- 


From every quarter we I 
reports of the spread of shorthand, 
business colleges of the country are com 
into the line with wonderful regularity 

Mechanical devices for stenographic work 
multiply on every hand, but the pen and 
pencil systems beat the machines out of sight. 

Stenograph Bartholomew is making 
good progress in pubbing his little five keyed 
instrument, and he deserves all the success 
that can ever come to him. 

One of the most valuable shorthand peri- 
odicals in the world is Isaac Pitman's 
Pltonrtic Jt/urniil (weekly), published in 
Rath, England. It ought lo have a large 
circulatiou in this country. 

Mr. Munson's promise to give hints about 
transcribing ph<mographic notes on the 
type-writer will be received with pleasure. 

A few copies of the bound volume of 
Packard's Shorthand licporter can be had 
by application to S. S. Packard, 805 Broad- 
way, New York. 

The Editor's Leisure Hour 




HANDSOME memorial of 
the hite Col. Richard M. 
Hoe has just been executed at 
Ibf .looRNAL olUce for the em- 
ployees of the great printing ma- 
Icriul house of B. Hoe & Co., of which 
the deceased was for many years the 
head. The name " Hoe," in connection 
with the art preservative, is familiar to 
all intelligent people. Col. Richard M. 
Hoc. while he did not himself invent nearly 
all of the hundreds of valuable improve- 
ments in printing machinery that are cover- 
ed by the Hoe patents, deserves the credit of 
having done more to bring the printing 
press to its present marvelous degree of me- 
chanical perfection than anyone else. Col. 
Hoe was born in 1813. His father hud been a 
manufacturer of printing motcrial and had 
become rich in the business. The son grew 
up in the machine shops and very early dis- 
played that cxtaordinary mechanical tact 
whicn has served himself and the world 
beside such good purpose. One of the first 
machines in which young Hoe took an in- 
terest was the old Washington hand-press — 
an institution quite as familiar to every 
typo as the fruit tree escapade of the irre- 
proachable individual whose name it hears. 
Thousands of country newspapers of to-day 
use the Washington band-press, which does 
not differ substantially from the first of its 
kind, made in 1829. The writer of this 
paragraph has the moat vivid recollections 
of manipulating the "frisket" and impres- 
sion lever of a machine of this character, 
which had probably seen continuous service 
for twenty-five years, and is just as likely 
to be in good running order twenty-five 
years hence. While the old Washington 
press met the reiiuircnieuts of Ibe most ad- 
vanced newspapers in the early days, the 
rapid development and juogress of journal- 
ism soon demanded something belter. Va- 
rious machines were put on the market, 
and did the work for a time, but they were 
all superseded by an invention of the Hoes, 
a two-cylinder press. This was fitted with 
u steam attachment, invented by Napier in 
1830, and was the marvel of its day. People 
said that the n£ plus ultra of printing ma- 
chines had been reached. But it hadn't. 
The great daily papers continued to grow, 
and kept the busy inventors puzzling their 
brains to devise machinery which could be 
operated fast enough to keep apace with 
this expansion. The great problem was to 
invent some method of attaching the type- 
forms to the cylinder of the press, so that 
not the slightest motion would be lost. This 
Col. Hoe succeeded in doing in 184C. There 
are Hoe presses at work to-day capable of 
printing, cutting, pasting, folding and 
counting nearly or quite 20,000 complete 
newspapers of eight pages in one hour. 

Ton Tliousaild IVords on a Vuninl, 

Apropos Mr. Peirce's account in the last 
month's JointNAL of Dr. Scott's achieve- 
ments in the line of minute writing, the 
Janesmtle (Wis.) AVn comes to us with the 
statement that F. II. Criger. a young local 
card writer, has succeeded in putting 10,357 
words on one side of a postal card, with pen 
and ink. This is indeed, if true, a marvel- 
ous work. The enthusiastic Sun man says: 
'■ We acknowledge him the most wonderful 
fine writer that in thirty years experience in 
the theory and practice of the art has ever 
ctmic to our notice." 

Ttii- World's Largest Prlvalo Eiil«T|H'lsf. 

If the question were asked, " What is the 
largest private business in the world, de- 
pending upon a single individual ?" we 
dare say most of the Jol-hnal readers, old 
and young, would have difficulty in answer- 
ing. Any bright school child could tell you 
the names of the highest mouutnin, the 
longest river, the largent island etc., but 
when it comes to the grand results of human 
industry, how sadly ignorant most of us 
are I Herr Alfred Krupp, the maker of the 
great guns which hear his name, owns and 
directs a business employing more people 
and spending more money probably than 
any other commercial enterprise that is de- 
pendent on one individual. According to 

the census of five years ago, the number of 
hands employed by Mr. Krupp was 19.005. 
the number of their families 45,770, making 
65,881 persons supported by his works. Mr. 
Krupp owns 547 iron mines in Germany, 
He owns four sea steamers, and there are 
connected with his Essen works 43 miles of 
railway, employing 28 locomotives and 883 
cars. 69 horses with 191 wagons, and 40 
miles of telegraph wires, with 35 stations 
and 55 Morse apparatuses. The establish- 
ment possesses a grand chemical laboratory, 
a photographic and lithographic atelier, a 
printing office with three steam and six 
hand presses, and a bookbinding room. 
The establishment jeven runs a hotel in 

The nearest approach to this on this side 
of the water, probably, is the Pullman 
Palace Car Works, which employ enough 
laborers to make the very lively little city 
of Pullman. 111. 

KfiConI Making in the Days of Olil. 

If the student of writing does not find a 
great deal of well put information in Mr. 
Kelley's opening article in this mimber, it 
will be the student of writing's own fault. 
There is something decidedly fascinating 
in holding up to the people of other times 
the lamp of their own civilization, and 
studying them in the light which comes 
to us, subdued by the flight of time and 
mellowed by the haze of distance. Long 
ages before the invention of pen and 
paper, writing materials of one sort or 
another were in use. The oldest Egyptian 
monuments are graven with representations 

Caliphs both of the East aud the West, the 
former in Bagdad, aud the latter in Anda- 
lusia, where there were eighty great publrc 
libraries, besides that vast one at Cordova. 
We also hear of private libraries, such as that 
of a physician who declined an invitation 
from the Sultan of Bokhara, because the 
carriage of his books would have required 
400 camels. 

1 Jtn 

Edward Z. CJ, Judson. better known us 
" Ned Buntline," who died a few weeks 
since, was just such a wild, harum-scarum 
character as he used to write about in his 
poisonous yellowback stories for boys. 
"Old Ned Buntline," indeed, had a most 
extraordinary career, and not one of the im- 
possible red-handed pirates or Indian- 
slaughtering scouts that he loved to create 
had half so many harrowing adventures in 
print as their author saw in real life. Bunt- 
line ran away from home at eleven, shipping 
as a cabin hoy, and a year later had become 
an apprentice on a man of war. At thirteen 
President Van Buren commissioned him a 
midshipman for bravely rescuing the crew 
of a bout run down in New York harbor. 
He began business on this line by challeng- 
ing to duels thirteen fellow midshipmen 
who had refused to mess with him because 
he had been before the roast. He fought 
seven of them, inflicting wounds on four 
that marked them for life, himself escaping 
without a scratch. His first literary effort 
was a sketch printed iu the Knickerbocker 
Magazine when he was fifteen years old. 
This attracted some notice, but it was years 

of the papyrus plant, the leaves of which sup- 
plied the paper of that period. The writing 
was done with a split reed called ka»h, red 
or black ink prepared from an animal car- 
bon being used. Papyrus when newly pre- 
pared was of a white or brownish while 
color aud very pliaut, the completed manu- 
script being rolled. Smooth stones or tiles 
were also used for writing in early ages. It 
was upon these Ihat the Prophet Ezekial 
wrote his account of the city of Jerusalem. 
Numerous specimens of these materials are 
preserved to the present time. The Arabs, 
before the time of Mahomet, used to carve 
their annals on the shoulder-blades of sheep. 
These were punctured and strung together 
for preservation. As civilization advanced 
in some degree, the skin of the sheep was 
substituted for the bone, and the manufac- 
ture of parchment became one of the fine 
arts. Some of these vellums were white, 
others tinted with yellow, others still were 
dyed a rich purple, with golden borders 
and quaint parti-colored decorations, and 
inscribed with golden ink. These precious 
manuscripts were aunointed with oil of 
cedar to protect them from the ravogcs of 
moths. We hear of one in which the name 
of Mahomet is adorned with garlands of 
tulips and carnations, painted in livid colors. 
Still more precious was the silky paper of 
the Persians, powdered with gold and silver 
dust, whereon were painted rare illumina- 
tions, while the book was perfumed with 
atuir of roses or essence of sandalwood. Of 
the demand for writing materials, one may 
form some faint uotion from the vast manu- 
script libraries of which records have been 
preserved, as having been collected by the 

after before he adopted writing as a profes- 
sion. Buntline was known far and wide as 
a fearless, reckless scout and spy during the 
civil war. A mob nt Nashville, Tenu.. got 
hold of him on one occasion and strung him 
to a tree, leaving him for dead. It is said 
that he carried more wounds on his body 
than any living American— wounds from 
knife, sword, shot, shell and hangman's 
rope. He was a prolific writer of blood- 
and-thunder stones, and came to have a 
yearly income of $20,000 from his pen. In 
one year it amounted to $60,000. He is 
said to have written a story of 500 pages 
once in sixty hours, shutting himself up in 
a room and scarcely eating or sleeping dur- 
ing the time. For this he received $2,000. 
which was his usual charge for a story of 
twelve installments, Buntliue's friends in- 
sist that he was one of the ' ' best fellows iu 
the world," but it is tolerably certain that 
few persons who have come into the world 
in modern times have been the direct cause 
of so much that is harmful and vicious. 

Liquids in the Mails. 
The Postmaster-General has, in compli- 
ance wiih petitions signed by large numbers 
of business men in numerous cities, amend- 
ed the postal laws and regulations so as tu 
permit the transmission through the mails, 
within the United States and Territories, 
of liquids not liable to explosion or spon- 
taneous combustion or ignition by shock or 
jar. and not inflammable, soft soap, paste 
or confections, ointiMcnts, salves and arti- 
cles of similar consistency, under certain 
conditions insuring safety to other mail mat- 
ter in transmission. 

'Correct Position." 


NAL:— I am a 
travelling penman. 
The most difficult 
part of my pro- 
fession is to get 

rect position. I 
reali/i ihc impoitaucc of good position. 
I ubuallj take up from a half to three- 
quarters of an houi each lesson in im- 
pressing on the minds of my pupils the 
importance of sitting correctly. I usually 
wind up, or rather run down, by requesting 
the class to take an " easy, natural position" 
and prepare for work; and I find the pupils 
all very willing to follow my instructions, 
but there seems to be a slight difference of 
opinion between the teacher and pupils as 
to what an "easy, natural position" is. 
For as soon as this request has been made, 
nine-tenths of the class proceed to get them- 
selves into a position something like the one 
represented in Fig. 1 of the accompanying 
cut. The original of this cut was sketched 
directly from life, or more properly speak- 
ing, from nature. 

I have read a good deal in the papers of 
late about "writer's cramp." I do not 
know exactly what writer's cramp is. but 
thought that might be what was the matter 
with my pupils. I suppose there arc a good 
many teachers of writing who sometimes 
have pupils troubled with the same disease. 
Talking to them seems to have no effect. 

Is it not a stranire thing, Mr. Editor, that 
iu Ibis inventive age, when men are invent- 
ing penholders to compel pupils to hold the 
pen correctly, and pen-rests to compel them 
to use the correct movement, that no one 
has got on to a plan to compel students to 
sit in the correct position ? Surely the man 
who would invent some wind-saving ma- 
chine that would save hundreds of yards of 
teacher's talk annually, would be a great 
public benefactor, and the professional pen- 
man would rise up and call him blessed. 

Mr. Editor, lam that benefactor ! I have 
invented a simple contrivance which sup- 
plies a "long felt want." It is so simple 
that every teacher of writing will wonder 
why he never thought of it before. My 
first impulse was to have it patented, but if 
I had done so, I feared I might acquire 
along with the wealth that would have 
forced itself upon me, the envy and jealousy 
of Isaacs, Craudle, Peirce. Palmer, Webb, 
and other wealthy members of the profes- 
sion. So instead of accumulating wealth 
by getting the thing patented. I have de- 
cided to give to the professional teacher of 
penmanship the benefit of my inventive 
mind, by sending to the Jouknal a care- 
fully made pen drawing of the machine in 
operation. Seefg. 2. 

It is useless to give anything more than 
the picture, for after seeing that, any one 
who could not make one, would be unable 
to construct anything more complicated 
than a wood pile. 

Now, Mr. Editor, if any of the readers 
of the Journal feel grateful to me to the 
amount of fifty cents or a dollar apiece for 
the information I have given them, they 
can just send the amount to you. and I will 
give you half for your trouble. I can trust 
you to do the straight thing. Address, 

Prop. J. WnorpEH Writemore. 
' C'kalkup. Tenn. 

The King Club. 

E. K. Isaacs, at the head of the c 
cial department of the Northern Indiana 
Normal School. Valparaiso, Ind., hears off 
the honors this month with a club of forty- 
six. The Queen Club numbers thirty and 
wassdnt by C. H. Ilinchcy, teacher of pen- 
manship in the Santa Rosa (Cal.) Commercial 
College. J. E, Rickelts, director of the com- 
mercial department of the Wesleyan Acad- 
emy, Wilbraham, Mass., sends a club of 
eighteen. We note with satisfaction that the 
teachers who arc most active in placing the 
Journal in the hands of their pupils are 
teachers who have the reputation of getting 
the best results from their instruction. 


QJIrit |?l¥©uft5v» Cmamfle^ a,^ ©VtsOTuhc^rj' -u^f^i, p^s^t^^ 

^ Hon. Joseph Pulitzer. 

k-i- pa,b. Vo vfTc Sl^^c-^.tft- X-^p.^gft^e san^o f 

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III Copy cxeciitetl nt tlit; Ottltro of the P«iiiuau 
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Size of the Original 32x28 Inches. 

Practical Writing Lessons. 

Tlie gentlemen whose names are appended 
liuvc signified their intention of illustrating 
their methods of teaching writing, in the 
columns of the Jouiinai,. The professional 
standing of these teachers is n sufficient 
guaranty that what they have to say will be 
worth heeding by both pupils and fellow 
teachers. Here is the list : 

F. F. Judd, Chicago Business University; 
H. W. Flickinger. Philadelphia, Pa. ; 
Thos. J. Stewart, Trenton, N. ,1.; W. R. 
Glen, Phila-.Pa.; 11. A. Spencer, New York; 
H.J. Hagec. New York; L.L. Tucker, New- 
ark, N.J.; C:. Bayless, Dubuque, Iowa; W. 
11. Patrick, Baltimore, Md.; E. Burnett, Bal- 

timore, 5Id.; H. T. Loomrs, Spencerian 
Business College. Detroit, Mich. ; Uriah 
McKee, Oberlin (Ohio) College ; G. A. 
Hough, of Fort Scott (Kan. )Normal College. 
The Journal would be glad to hear at 
once from such of the above gentlemen an 
have not fixed a date for their lesson, with 
a view to appointing a time which may be 
mutually agreeable. 

Superior Pens. 

"We have received a new lot of "Ames* Pen- 
men's Favorite Pens," made from new dies 
and with ex